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Parallel DNA Synthesis : Two PCR product from one DNA template
Bhardwaj Vikash,Sharma Kulbhushan
Quantitative Biology , 2013,
Abstract: Conventionally in a PCR reaction, Primers binds to DNA template in an antiparallel manner and template DNA is amplified as it is. Here we describe an approach in which First primer binds in a complementary parallel orientation leading to synthesis in parallel direction. Further reaction happened in usual way leading to synthesis of final DNA product having opposite polarity then the template used. We first time proved that synthesis of DNA can happen in a parallel orientation. We first time have shown that from a single DNA template, Two different related PCR products can be synthesized.
Rosiglitazone synergizes anticancer activity of cisplatin and reduces its nephrotoxicity in 7, 12-dimethyl benz{a}anthracene (DMBA) induced breast cancer rats
Kulbhushan Tikoo, Parveen Kumar, Jeena Gupta
BMC Cancer , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-9-107
Abstract: Mammary tumours were induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by feeding orally with dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA) (60 mg/kg). Cisplatin induced nephropathy was assessed by measurements of blood urea nitrogen, albumin and creatinine levels. Posttranslational modifications of histone H3, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase p38 expression and PPAR-γ expression were examined by western blotting.Our data shows involvement of TNF-α in preventing cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity by rosiglitazone. Rosiglitazone pre-treatment to cisplatin increases the expression of p38, PPAR-γ in mammary tumours and shows maximum tumour reduction. Furthermore, cisplatin induced changes in histone acetylation, phosphorylation and methylation of histone H3 in mammary tumours was ameliorated by pre-treatment of rosiglitazone. Suggesting, PPAR-γ directly or indirectly alters aberrant gene expression in mammary tumours by changing histone modifications.To best of our knowledge this is the first report which shows that pre-treatment of rosiglitazone synergizes the anticancer activity of cisplatin and minimizes cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in DMBA induced breast cancer.Breast cancer is a complex disease that results from a multi-stage process involving the deregulation of a number of different signalling cascades. About 212,930 new cases of breast cancer were diagnosed every year, of which 40,840 were related to deaths in the United States alone [1]. This continuing magnitude of the breast cancer problem with respect to incidence, morbidity and mortality requires further studies involving novel approach to prevent this disease [2]. Cisplatin, cis- [PtCl2(NHs)2], is a widely used anticancer drug, proved to be beneficial in the treatment of wide variety of solid tumours (head and neck, lung, bladder, colorectal and breast cancer) in various combination chemotherapy regimens [3]. Higher doses of cisplatin are considered to be more efficacious for cancer chemotherapy; however these therapies
Perception-based Methods to Evaluate Conservation Impact in Forests Managed Through Popular Participation
Jens F. Lund,Kulbhushan Balooni,Lila Puri
Ecology and Society , 2010,
Abstract: We reviewed construct validity in perception-based methods assessing status and/or trend of forest condition as applied in 19 empirical studies that evaluated the conservation impact of popular participation in forest management. Perception-based methods focus on eliciting peoples’ assessment of the status and/or trend in forest condition or indicators of forest condition through interviews, surveys, or participatory rural appraisal techniques. We found that individual studies generally did not attend to the issue of construct validity in relation to each particular approach to perception-based assessment of status and/or trend in forest condition. Furthermore, the studies provided very little documentation of the construct validity of the perception-based methods as applied to assessments of forest condition in the specific context of popular participation in forest management. This scarcity of evidence implies that any support for the construct validity of these methods must be found outside the literature in which it was applied. A quick review of the literature on local assessments, monitoring, and local ecological knowledge supports the construct validity of such approaches as applied in various contexts; however, we argue that this support cannot be directly transferred to the context of popular participation in forest management. Accordingly, we conclude that there is a need for research to refine and validate perception-based methods as applied in the specific context of popular participation in forest management.
Change We can Believe in? Reviewing Studies on the Conservation Impact of Popular Participation in Forest Management
Lund Jens,Balooni Kulbhushan,Casse Thorkil
Conservation & Society , 2009,
Abstract: This article presents a review of methods in 60 empirical studies on forest conservation impact of popular participation in forest management. The review illustrates a high degree of variance in methods among the studies, and shows that a majority of the studies could benefit from a stronger focus on one or more of the following three areas: (i) the empirical verification and characterisation of popular participation as it exists on the ground, (ii) the indicators of impact and the method used to assess them, and (iii) the disentanglement of the effect of popular participation from other developments in the study area that may impact on forest condition. The variation in methods inhibits comparisons and meta-analyses, as well as questions the basis on which policy recommendations on popular participation in forest management are made. Based on the review, we provide recommendations for future evaluations of the conservation impact of popular participation in forest management.
Comparison of Parasternal Intercostal Block Using Ropivacaine or bupivacaine for Postoperative Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery  [PDF]
Kulbhushan Saini, Sandeep Chauhan, Usha Kiran, Akshay Kumar Bisoi, Minati Choudhury, Suruchi Hasija
World Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery (WJCS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjcs.2015.56009
Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of 0.5% ropivacaine and 0.25% bupivacaine for parasternal intercostal block for postoperative analgesia in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Design: A randomized, controlled, prospective, double blind study. Setting: A tertiary care teaching hospital. Participants: One Hundred children scheduled for cardiac surgery through a median sternotomy were divided into 3 groups of at least 33 children each, receiving either ropivacaine, bupivacaine or saline (control). Interventions: A bilateral parasternal block performed either with 0.5% ropivacaine or 0.25% bupiacaine or 0.9% saline with 5 doses of 0.5 mL on each side in the 2nd to 6th parasternal intercostal spaces 1 to 1.5 cm lateral to the sternal edge, before sternal wound closure. Measurements and Main Results: The time to extubation was significantly less in children administered the parasternal blocks with ropivacaine or bupivacaine compared to the saline (control) group. The pain scores were lower and comparable in the ropivacaine and bupivacaine groups compared to the saline group. The cumulative fentanyl dose requirement over a 24-hour period was higher in the saline group than the ropivacaine (p < 0.001) and bupivacaine group. No side effects were observed in any of the children. Conclusions: Parasternal blocks either with ropivacaine or bupivacaine appear to be a simple, safe, and useful technique for supplementation of postoperative analgesia in children undergoing cardiac surgery with a median sternotomy.
The Role of Cover Crops towards Sustainable Soil Health and Agriculture—A Review Paper  [PDF]
Parmodh Sharma, Atinderpal Singh, Charanjit Singh Kahlon, Amandeep Singh Brar, Kulbhushan K. Grover, Mahendra Dia, Robert L. Steiner
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.99140
Abstract: Cover crops are the plants which are grown to improve soil fertility, prevent soil erosion, enrichment and protection of soil, and enhance nutrient and water availability, and quality of soil. Cover crops provide several benefits to soils used for agriculture production. Cover crops are helpful in increasing and sustaining microbial biodiversity in soils. We summarized the effect of several cover crops in soil properties such as soil moisture content, soil microbial activities, soil carbon sequestration, nitrate leaching, soil water, and soil health. Selection of cover crops usually depends on the primary benefits which are provided by cover crops. Other factors may also include weather conditions, time of sowing, either legume or non-legume and timing and method of killing of a cover crop. In recent times, cover crops are also used for mitigating climate change, suppressing weeds in crops and increasing exchangeable nutrients such as Mg2+ and K+. Cover crops are also found to be economical in long-term experiment studies. Although some limitations always come with several benefits. Cover crops have some problems including the method of killing, host for pathogens, regeneration, and not immediate benefits of using them. Despite the few limitations, cover crops improve the overall health of the soil and provide a sustainable environment for the main crops.
Preferential inhibition of xanthine oxidase by 2-amino-6-hydroxy-8-mercaptopurine and 2-amino-6-purine thiol
Sukirti Kalra, Gopabandhu Jena, Kulbhushan Tikoo, Anup Mukhopadhyay
BMC Biochemistry , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2091-8-8
Abstract: Here, we have characterized two such unique inhibitors namely, 2-amino-6-hydroxy-8-mercaptopurine (AHMP) and 2-amino-6-purinethiol (APT) on the basis of IC50 values, residual activity in bi-substrate simulative reaction and the kinetic parameters like Km, Ki, kcat. The IC50 values of AHMP for xanthine and 6MP as substrate are 17.71 ± 0.29 μM and 0.54 ± 0.01 μM, respectively and the IC50 values of APT for xanthine and 6MP as substrates are 16.38 ± 0.21 μM and 2.57 ± 0.08 μM, respectively. The Ki values of XOD using AHMP as inhibitor with xanthine and 6MP as substrate are 5.78 ± 0.48 μM and 0.96 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. The Ki values of XOD using APT as inhibitor with xanthine and 6MP as substrate are 6.61 ± 0.28 μM and 1.30 ± 0.09 μM. The corresponding Km values of XOD using xanthine and 6MP as substrate are 2.65 ± 0.02 μM and 6.01 ± 0.03 μM, respectively. The results suggest that the efficiency of substrate binding to XOD and its subsequent catalytic hydroxylation is much superior for xanthine in comparison to 6MP. In addition, the efficiency of the inhibitor binding to XOD is much more superior when 6MP is the substrate instead of xanthine. We further undertook the toxicological evaluation of these inhibitors in a single dose acute toxicity study in mice and our preliminary experimental results suggested that the inhibitors were equally non-toxic in the tested doses.We conclude that administration of either APT or AHMP along with the major anti-leukemic drug 6MP might serve as a good combination cancer chemotherapy regimen.6MP, an analog of hypoxanthine was first among the thiopurine series found to be useful as an anticancer drug to treat ALL, the most common malignancy affecting children and other leukemias [1,2]. 6MP is taken up by the cell and is transformed into an active metabolite 6-thio-inosine monophosphate, an inhibitor of DNA synthesis, by the target enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) using phosphoribosyl-pyrophosphate (PRPP) a
Lichen Planus-a Clinico-histopathological
Garg Vijay,Nangia Anitha,Logani KulBhushan,Sharma Ravi
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2000,
Abstract: The clinico-histopathological features of 75 patients of lichen planus were studied. The male to female ratio was 1:13. The largest number of patients (30.6%) fell into the 31-40 year age group. Two patients had systemic hypertension. There was no history of lichen planus in the family. All patients presented with severe itching within 1-2 months of onset. Papular lesions were seen in 72% and papules with plaques were seen 16%. Lower limbs were involved in 38% of cases. Mucosal involvement was seen in 24% in addition to skin involvement ; nail involvement hypertrophicus (17.3%). Lichen planopilaris and oral lichen planus were uncommon. Clinico-histopathological discrepancies were observed in 7 patients. Civatte bodies were seen in only 37% of cases.
Curse or blessing? Local elites in Joint Forest Management in India’s Shiwaliks
Kulbhushan Balooni,Jens Friis Lund,Chetan Kumar,Makoto Inoue
International Journal of the Commons , 2010,
Abstract: This article suggests that local elites play an instrumental role – either with positive or negative consequences – in shaping struggles for power over processes and outcomes of participatory forest management interventions, when implemented in communities characterized by social hierarchies. We show how the contrasting outcomes of joint forest management in two case study villages cannot be attributed to institutional reform, but appear to be caused largely by differences in the role assumed by local elites. The evidence indicates that institutional reform itself does not guarantee changes in the actual management of natural resources. Rather, vested interests at the local level and among State actors may continue to shape events while working within or beyond the new institutional landscape. On the basis of the results of our case studies, the article poses the hypothesis that a network theory of social capital could be a useful way of analyzing such diverse outcomes of similar institutional reforms implemented in relatively similar communities. We conclude by arguing that attempts at institutional reform at the level of the community in hierarchical societies should proceed with modest expectations, and an eye for the incentives facing local elites and the implementing and facilitating State actors.
Digumbar Gokhale Mail,Ujwala Khisti,Kulbhushan Bastawde Mail
BioResources , 2011,
Abstract: Aspergillus niger NCIM 1207 produced significantly high levels of β-glucosidase and β-xylosidase activities in submerged fermentation. Cellulose induced only β-glucosidase, while xylan induced both β-glucosidase and β-xylosidase activities. Both the enzymes of this strain were found to undergo catabolite repression in the presence of high concentrations of glucose and glycerol. The sudden drop in pH of the fermentation medium below 3.5 caused the inactivation of enzymes when the fungus was grown in glycerol-containing media at lower temperatures. The growth of the organism at 36 oC led to an increase in pH of the fermentation above 6.0 that affected β-xylosidase activity significantly. Highest levels of β-glucosidase ((19 IU mL-1 or 633 IU g-1 of substrate) and β-xylosidase (18.7 IU/mL-1 or 620 IU g-1 of substrate) activities were detected when A. niger was grown at 30 oC for first five days followed by further incubation at 36 oC. Such a process of growing the organism at lower temperatures (growth phase) followed by producing the enzymes at higher temperatures (production phase) in case of fungal systems has not been reported so far. The zymogram staining of the β-glucosidase demonstrated that A. niger produced only single species of β-glucosidase. We feel that A. niger NCIM 1207 is a potential candidate to produce both β-glucosidase and β-xylosidase in high amounts that can be used to supplement commercial cellulase preparations.
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