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Room-Temperature Humidity Sensing Using Graphene Oxide Thin Films  [PDF]
Gautam Naik, Sridhar Krishnaswamy
Graphene (Graphene) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/graphene.2016.51001
Abstract: In this article, we report on a room-temperature humidity sensing device using graphene oxide (GO) thin films synthesized by chemical exfoliation. Changes in the device conductivity are measured for varying relative humidity in the experimental chamber. Experiments are carried out for relative humidity varying from 30% to 95%. We observe a difference in the results obtained for low relative humidity (<50%) and high relative humidity (>50%), and propose a sensing mechanism to explain this difference. Although the sensor exhibits some hysteresis at high relative humidities, a method to “reset” the sensor is also proposed. The sensing device has high sensitivity and fast response time.
Photoreduction and Thermal Properties of Graphene-Based Flexible Films  [PDF]
Gautam Naik, Sridhar Krishnaswamy
Graphene (Graphene) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/graphene.2017.62003
Abstract: In the present study, we report on an efficient method for large-area photoreduction of graphene oxide flexible films. The laser-based reduction can be carried out in situ and can be tuned to attain the properties required. A systematic study has been conducted to evaluate the variation of the degree of reduction with the actual reduction temperature, which is measured using an infrared thermal camera. Local reduction temperature is varied up to 350°C, and the degree of reduction is measured using the C/O ratio. The C/O ratio is increased from 2:1 for graphene oxide to 10:1 for reduced graphene oxide. This high degree of reduction is observed at low temperatures, and also in a short period of time. Thermal conductivity properties calculated using the temperature distribution shows the in-plane thermal conductivities of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide are a few orders of magnitude lower than single layer graphene. This can be attributed to oxygen-defect scattering, and also due to the heat conduction through the thickness of the sample by way of contact between adjacent flakes. This photoreduction method provides a way for roll-to-roll scalable production of graphene-based flexible films.
Group Inverse of 2 × 2 Block Matrices over Minkowski Space M  [PDF]
Dandapany Krishnaswamy, Tasaduq Hussain Khan
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory (ALAMT) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/alamt.2016.63009
Abstract: Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of the group inverse of the block matrix \"\" in Minkowski Space are studied, where \"\" are both square and \"\". The representation of this group inverse and some related additive results are also given.
Partial Ordering of Range Symmetric Matrices and M-Projectors with Respect to Minkowski Adjoint in Minkowski Space  [PDF]
D. Krishnaswamy, Mohd Saleem Lone
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory (ALAMT) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/alamt.2016.64013
Abstract: In this paper, we obtain some new characterizations of the range symmetric matrices in the Minkowski Space M by using the Block representation of the matrices. These characterizations are used to establish some results on the partial ordering of the range symmetric matrices with respect to the Minkowski adjoint. Further, we establish some results regarding the partial ordering of m-projectors with respect to the Minkowski adjoint and manipulate them to characterize some sets of range symmetric elements in the Minkowski Space M. All the results obtained in this paper are an extension to the Minkowski space of those given by A. Hernandez, et al. in [The star partial order and the eigenprojection at 0 on EP matrices, Applied Mathematics and Computation, 218: 10669-10678, 2012].
Pyrazinamide-Induced Exfoliative Dermatitis in a Patient on Hemodialysis: A Rare Complication
Krishnaswamy Jaisuresh
Case Reports in Nephrology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/387293
Abstract: A 60-year-old male patient on maintenance hemodialysis was started on antituberculosis therapy with isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide for pulmonary tuberculosis. After 4 weeks of therapy, he developed pruritic lesions in the extremities followed by exfoliation. The lesions progressively spread over the entire body. Lesions resolved after withdrawal of antituberculosis medications and administration of oral corticosteroids and antihistamines. After 2 weeks antituberculosis drugs were rechallenged one at a time. Administration of oral pyrazinamide resulted in reappearance of symptoms (pruritis and erythema) within 48 hours. Pyrazinamide was substituted with ofloxacin while other three drugs were restarted without any side effects. The case illustrates a rare but potentially dangerous complication of pyrazinamide therapy. 1. Background Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR) are often encountered with first-line antituberculosis therapy (ATT). Exfoliative dermatitis is a dangerous form of CADR which needs immediate withdrawl of all the four drugs. In a hemodialysis patient with active pulmonary tuberculosis, early withdrawl followed by prompt rechallenging to identify the causative agent and then to achieve cure of pulmonary tuberculosis is an interesting therapeutic challenge. 2. Case History and Hospital Course A 60-year male with three-week history of low-grade fever, weight loss, and sputum positive tuberculosis was started on thrice weekly antituberculosis therapy with isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. He was on maintenance hemodialysis thrice a week (duration 5 hours) since 8 years and his routine medications included antihypertensives (amlodipine 10?mg per day, metoprolol 50?mg per day), erythropoietin, iron, folic acid, and phosphate-binding agents (calcium acetate). There was no change in prescription since last 6 months. ATT was administered in dosage of 150?mg of isoniazid, 450?mg of rifampicin, 400?mg of ethambutol, and 1000?mg of pyrazinamide. All drugs were given thrice a week, 24 hours prior to next dialysis. At the start of ATT his liver function tests (total bilirubin 0.6?mg/dL (0.1–1.3?mg/dL), direct bilirubin 0.4?mg/dL (0–0.5?mg/dL), total protein 5.9?g/dL (6–8.4?g/dL), albumin 3.8?g/dL (3.5–5.5?g/dL), SGOT 16?IU/l (5–40?IU/L), SGPT 18?IU/l (5–40?IU/L), alkaline phosphatase 24?U/L (35–150?U/L), LDH 120?IU/L (85–450?IU/L), uric acid 6?mg/dL (3.9–8.9?mg/dL), calcium 9.4?mg/dL (9–11?mg/dL), and inorganic phosphorus 4.3?mg/dL (2.5–4.5?mg/dL) were within normal limits. HBsAg, HIV, and anti-HCV antibody ELISA
Recent Electroweak Results from the Tevatron
Krishnaswamy Gounder
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: Recent electroweak results from the CDF and D0 Collaborations at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider are presented. After a brief description of the \D0 measurements of W/Z production cross sections, W width, W mass and W \to \tau \nu decays, the CDF result on W(pT) distribution is outlined. The comprehensive search for anomalous gauge couplings by \D0 in 1992-96 data is presented along with a detailed description of the WW/WZ \to \mu\nu jj channel.
AWiMA: An architecture for Adhoc Wireless Mobile internet Access
Dilip Krishnaswamy
Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract: This paper suggests a system architecture for wireless widearea- networking access using adhoc networking between a mobile Client node without direct connectivity to a wirelesswide- area-network and a mobile Service Provider node with connectivity to a wireless-wide-area-network. It provides a means for securely providing such adhoc wireless networking services using a Server for tunneling and routing, registration and authentication. The architecture also provides support for handoff of a Client node from one Service Provider to another with persistence of a tunnel between the Client and the Server enabling a soft-handoff. Different wireless protocols may be used for adhoc networking, with filtered interconnection of authenticated Clients implemented at a Service Provider node. The architecture is applicable across different wide-areanetwork protocols, and provides simultaneous support for multiple wide-area-network protocols.
Binol Based Chirality Conversion Reagents for Underivatized Amino Acids  [PDF]
Krishnaswamy Velmurugan, Lijun Tang, Raju Nandhakumar
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2014.41006
Abstract: Four binol based pyrrole carboxamide chiral receptors has been synthesized and effectively used as a Chirality Conversion Reagent (CCR) for underivatized amino acids. Three points of interactions take place for the conversion process. They are the reversible imine formation, the internal resonance assisted Hydrogen Bonding (RAHB) and the additional hydrogen bonds between the amino acids and the heterocylic moiety of the pendant groups. The conversion efficiency of all the receptors was found to be comparable with those of the receptors reported earlier.

The Hoover's Sign of Pulmonary Disease: Molecular Basis and Clinical Relevance
Chambless R Johnston, Narayanaswamy Krishnaswamy, Guha Krishnaswamy
Clinical and Molecular Allergy , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1476-7961-6-8
Abstract: In the 1920's, Hoover described a sign that could be considered a marker of severe airway obstruction. While readily recognizable at the bedside, it may also as easily be missed on physical examination. Hoover's sign refers to the inspiratory retraction of the lower intercostal spaces. It results from alteration in dynamics of diaphragmatic contraction due to hyperinflation, resulting in traction on the rib margins by the flattened diaphragm. The sign is reported to have a sensitivity of 58% and specificity of 86% for detection of airway obstruction. Seen in up to 70% of patients with severe obstruction, this sign is often associated with body mass index, degree of dyspnea and frequency of exacerbations. Often overlooked, Hoover's sign may provide valuable prognostic information. When present, the sign can be used, along with arterial blood gasses, pulmonary function and other measures summarized in Table 1, as a marker for severity of airway obstruction, as seen in emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma.Better clinical and bedside prognosticators of airway obstruction would be helpful as asthma and COPD are becoming increasingly prevalent in the population [1]. COPD is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States behind coronary artery disease, malignancy, and cerebrovascular disease. In 2000, an estimated 10 million US adults reported physician-diagnosed COPD. Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), however, estimate that among 11 million US adults with evidence of low lung function, < 40% reported a diagnosis of COPD or asthma, suggesting that COPD is under-diagnosed. Acute exacerbations of COPD can result in ventilator failure, and patients with severe COPD or asthma are more prone to developing this complication. A clinical, quickly identified manifestation of respiratory failure is the Hoover's sign, which does not require expensive tests or waiting for radiological or biochemical
A simulation model of Escherichia coli osmoregulatory switch using E-CELL system
KV Srividhya, Sankaran Krishnaswamy
BMC Microbiology , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-4-44
Abstract: A quantitative model of the osmoregulatory switch operative in Escherichia coli was constructed by integrating the enzyme rate equations using E-CELL system. Using the substance reactor logic of the E-CELL system, a total of 28 reactions were defined from the injection of osmolyte till the regulated expression of porins by employing the experimental kinetic constants as reported in literature. In the case of low osmolarity, steady state production of OmpF and repression of OmpC was significant. In this model we show that the steady state – production of OmpF is dramatically reduced in the high osmolarity medium. The rate of OmpC production increased after sucrose addition, which is comparable with literature results. The relative porin production seems to be unaltered with changes in cell volume changes, ATP, EnvZ and OmpR at low and high osmolarity conditions. But the reach of saturation was rapid at high and low osmolarity with altered levels of the above components.The E-CELL system allows us to perform virtual experiments on the bacterial osmoregulation model. This model does not take into account interaction with other networks in the cell. It suggests that the regulation of OmpF and OmpC is a direct consequence of the level of OmpRP in the cell and is dependent on the way in which OmpRP interacts with ompF and ompC regulatory regions. The preliminary simulation experiment indicates that both reaching steady state expression and saturation is delayed in the case of OmpC compared to OmpF. Experimental analysis will help improve the model. The model captures the basic features of the generally accepted view of EnvZ-OmpR signaling and is a reasonable starting point for building sophisticated models and explaining quantitative features of the system.Among prokaryotes, a remarkable number of cellular functions are controlled by two component regulatory systems [1]. Dedicated circuits transduce and interpret specific signals such as pH, temperature, osmolarity, light
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