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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 21039 matches for " Krishan Kumar "
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The Use of Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm Based Approach to Create Ensemble of ANN for Intrusion Detection  [PDF]
Gulshan Kumar, Krishan Kumar
International Journal of Intelligence Science (IJIS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijis.2012.224016
Abstract: Due to our increased dependence on Internet and growing number of intrusion incidents, building effective intrusion detection systems are essential for protecting Internet resources and yet it is a great challenge. In literature, many researchers utilized Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) in supervised learning based intrusion detection successfully. Here, ANN maps the network traffic into predefined classes i.e. normal or specific attack type based upon training from label dataset. However, for ANN-based IDS, detection rate (DR) and false positive rate (FPR) are still needed to be improved. In this study, we propose an ensemble approach, called MANNE, for ANN-based IDS that evolves ANNs by Multi Objective Genetic algorithm to solve the problem. It helps IDS to achieve high DR, less FPR and in turn high intrusion detection capability. The procedure of MANNE is as follows: firstly, a Pareto front consisting of a set of non-dominated ANN solutions is created using MOGA, which formulates the base classifiers. Subsequently, based upon this pool of non-dominated ANN solutions as base classifiers, another Pareto front consisting of a set of non-dominated ensembles is created which exhibits classification tradeoffs. Finally, prediction aggregation is done to get final ensemble prediction from predictions of base classifiers. Experimental results on the KDD CUP 1999 dataset show that our proposed ensemble approach, MANNE, outperforms ANN trained by Back Propagation and its ensembles using bagging & boosting methods in terms of defined performance metrics. We also compared our approach with other well-known methods such as decision tree and its ensembles using bagging & boosting methods.
El pensamiento utópico y la práctica comunitaria: Roben Owen y las comunidades owenianas
Krishan Kumar
Política y Sociedad , 1992, DOI: -
Abstract: Sin resumen
The Use of Artificial-Intelligence-Based Ensembles for Intrusion Detection: A Review
Gulshan Kumar,Krishan Kumar
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/850160
Abstract: In supervised learning-based classification, ensembles have been successfully employed to different application domains. In the literature, many researchers have proposed different ensembles by considering different combination methods, training datasets, base classifiers, and many other factors. Artificial-intelligence-(AI-) based techniques play prominent role in development of ensemble for intrusion detection (ID) and have many benefits over other techniques. However, there is no comprehensive review of ensembles in general and AI-based ensembles for ID to examine and understand their current research status to solve the ID problem. Here, an updated review of ensembles and their taxonomies has been presented in general. The paper also presents the updated review of various AI-based ensembles for ID (in particular) during last decade. The related studies of AI-based ensembles are compared by set of evaluation metrics driven from (1) architecture & approach followed; (2) different methods utilized in different phases of ensemble learning; (3) other measures used to evaluate classification performance of the ensembles. The paper also provides the future directions of the research in this area. The paper will help the better understanding of different directions in which research of ensembles has been done in general and specifically: field of intrusion detection systems (IDSs). 1. Introduction The threat of Internet attacks is quite real and frequent so this has increased a need for securing information on any network on the Internet. The objective of information security includes confidentiality, authentication, integrity, availability, and nonrepudiation [1]. The set of activities that violates security objectives is called intrusion. Thus secure information requires the phases that provide (1) protection: automatic protection from intrusions; (2) detection: automatic detection of intrusions; (3) reaction: automatic reaction or alarm when system is intruded; (4) recovery: repair or recovery of loss caused due to intrusion [2]. Out of these phases, the perfect detection of an intrusion is the most important. As only after correct detection of intrusion, correct reaction and recovery phase of information security can be implemented. In the literature, many IDSs have been developed implementing various techniques from different disciplines like statistical techniques, AI techniques, and so forth. Some IDSs have been developed based on single-classification technique while other IDSs (called hybrid/ensemble IDS) implement more-than-one-classfication
Live in Relationship: An Indian Approach
Krishan Kumar Kajal
Golden Research Thoughts , 2012, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: The present paper explained the relationship of unmarried major persons of heterogeneous sex. Does it amount to an offence? There are various Supreme Court cases to explain that live in relationship is a gist of the right to life and personal liberty. Live in relationship is to be compared to marriage if the spouses to live together for long period. But the spouses are free to live separately without any legal hassles like divorce. Rights, responsibilities and obligations of the parties is definite for built safe and secure society. The present paper also explained that the rights of wife as maintenance and alimony, legitimacy of the children and property rights under Hindu law as well as protection provides under Domestic Violence Act, 2005.
Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: A detailed Survey of QoS Routing Protocols
Sanjeev Gangwar,Krishan Kumar
International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems , 2011,
Abstract: This paper shows a detailed overview of QoS routing metrics, resources, and factors which are affectingperformance of QoS routing protocols. The relative strength, weakness, and applicability of existing QoSrouting protocols are also studied and compared. QoS routing protocols are classified according to theQoS metrics
Macrocyclic complexes: synthesis and characterization
DHARMPAL SINGH,KRISHAN KUMAR
Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society , 2010,
Abstract: A novel series of complexes of the type [M(C28H24N4)X]X2, where M = Cr(III), Fe(III) or Mn(III), X = Cl , NO3 , CH3COO and (C28H24N4) corresponds to the tetradentate macrocyclic ligand, were synthesized in methanolic media by the template condensation of 1,8-diaminonaphthalene and 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl) in the presence of trivalent metal salts. The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, conductance and magnetic measurements, and UV/Vis and IR spectroscopy. Based on these studies, a five-coordinate square pyramidal geometry for all the prepared complexes is proposed. All the synthesized macrocyclic complexes were tested for their in vitro antifungal activity against some fungal strains viz. Aspergillus niger and A. fumigatus. The results obtained were compared with the standard antifungal drug fluconazole.
Assessment of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Surface Sediments of River Yamuna in Delhi, India  [PDF]
Puneeta Pandey, P.S. Khillare, Krishan Kumar
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.25059
Abstract: The present study reports the concentration levels and distribution patterns of the organochlorine pesticide residues in the surface sediments of river Yamuna in the Indian capital state, Delhi. Analytical measurements were carried out for twenty organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the Pre-monsoon, Monsoon and Post-monsoon seasons, at six different sampling locations along the 22 km stretch of the river Yamuna in Delhi. The results revealed contamination of the surface sediments with several persistent organochlorine pesticides. Endrin aldehyde, Endosulfan sulfate and DDT showed the highest percentage composition of OCP at all the sampling sites in all the three seasons. The total organochlorine pesticides level ranged from 157.71 - 307.66 ng/g in Pre-monsoon to 195.86 - 577.74 ng/g in Monsoon and 306.9 - 844.45 ng/g in the Post-monsoon season. This not only demonstrates the pollution of the river with pesticide residues, but also the necessity of a continuous long-term monitoring of the affected environment.
Effect of Application of Vermicompost and Conventional Compost Derived from Different Residues on Pea Crop Production and Soil Faunal Diversity in Agricultural System in Garhwal Himalayas India  [PDF]
Tunira Bhadauria, Pradeep Kumar, Rakesh Maikhuri, Krishan Gopal Saxena
Natural Science (NS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2014.66042
Abstract:

Sedentary crop-livestock mixed farming is the predominant agricultural land use in Central Himalaya upland and largely rainfed; agrochemicals are not used at all. Farmers focus on increasing yields with poor soil fertility management practices resulted in sharp decline in production of pea crop in the study site. Therefore in present study options are being looked into devising some conservation strategies that increase yields of pea while reducing harm to soil biodiversity at a local scale here. The present study explores the efficiency of P. excavatus as endemic earthworm species for vermicomposting, the potential utilization of Conventional oak based farmyard manure (FM-O); Conventional pine based farmyard manure(FM-P); Earthworm fed ? Cow dung + oak leaves based vermicompost (VC-O); Earthworm fed ? Cow dung + pine leaves based vermicompost (VC-P); freshly fallen leaf litter (LM) on pea crop productivity and soil faunal diversity in agricultural system, and if the changed soil faunal biodiversity scenario in any way affected the crop production. The higher uptake of nitrogen, higher germination percentage enhanced seedling growth, early emergence flower, increase number of pods, seed, husk , and root biomass was significantly higher in plants which received VC-O followed by VC-P as manure input treatments. The change in the diversity of soil micro arthropods in relation to quality change in organic residues input in experimental plots and expressed as the Simpsons diversity index showed that the diversity of soil fauna is related to improvements in soil conditions resulting from nutrient manipulations through vermicompost and conventional compost treatments. This response of soil biota to increased production most likely represents an increase in the availability of resources through addition of vermicompost when compared to other compost treatments. Alternatively, an increase in predators and therefore predation, could, increase the diversity of its prey, thereby decreasing dominant competitors and reducing the possibility of competitive exclusion, but this needs further studies. Chronosequence study during cropping season indicated that the composition and abundance of soil fauna in agricultural fields changed considerably with time under cultivation. This technology has now been adopted by the farmers in the area once again for growing the pea crop.

Aboveground Woody Biomass, Carbon Stocks Potential in Selected Tropical Forest Patches of Tripura, Northeast India  [PDF]
Koushik Majumdar, Bal Krishan Choudhary, Badal Kumar Datta
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2016.610057
Abstract: To estimate woody plant biomass stocks in different patches of forest ecosystems, total 20, 500 × 10 m (0.5 ha) sized line transects were laid in a protected area of Tripura, Northeast India. Overall, 9160 individuals were measured at ≥10 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) in 10 ha sampled area. Estimation of biomass suggested that highest coefficient for allometric relationships between density and biomass in 10 dbh classes was observed in bamboo brakes (R2 = 0.90) than lowest for semi evergreen patch (R2 = 0.48). The stock of carbon (C) was differ significantly along the forest patches (F = 7.01, df = 3.19; p < 0.01). Most of biomass stock (69.38%) was accumulated in lower dbh class (<30 cm) and only 23% of biomass was estimated at higher dbh classes (> 70 cm). Range of biomass stock (37.85 - 85.58 Mg ha-1) was low, compared to other tropical forest ecosystems in India, which implies that the proper management is required to monitor regional ecosystem C pool.
Impact Analysis of Genetically Modified (Bt) Cotton Genotypes on Economically Important Natural Enemies under Field Conditions  [PDF]
Dalip Kumar, Surender Singh Yadav, Vivek Kumar Saini, Krishan Kumar Dahiya
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2016.42008
Abstract: Field studies were conducted at Hisar during Kharif, 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 under natural and unsprayed condition. RCH 134 Bt, HS 6 (non Bt), H 1117 and Ganganagar Ageti (non Bt) were selected for the studies. The experiment was laid down in Randomized Block Design replicated thrice having plant spacing 67.5 × 60 cm. Among the bollworms, Erias spp. exhibited positive correlation with rainfall, minimum temperature and relative humidity morning hours significantly at 5 percent level whereas Helicoverpa and Pectinophora displayed positive relations only with evening hours relative humidity significantly while Spodoptera were significantly positive correlated with relative humidity of morning and evening hours. Bollworm complex was negatively correlated with all the weather parameters employed to study although being non-significant in case of rainfall, maximum and minimum of temperature, morning and evening hours of relative humidity. Among the sucking pests, leafhoppers, whitefly, thrips and aphids population showed significantly negative correlation with weather parameters. The comparison of natural bio-agents in cotton hybrids under study revealed that overall mean population of natural enemies were higher in Bt cotton hybrid as compared to non-Bt. These results confirm that use of genetically modified (Bt) cotton in lieu of conventional genotypes could positively impact non-target and beneficial insect species by preserving their host populations.
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