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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 208507 matches for " Kragh L "
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Effect of a clown’s presence at botulinum toxin injections in children: a randomized, prospective study
Hansen LK, Kibaek M, Martinussen T, Kragh L, Hejl M
Journal of Pain Research , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S23199
Abstract: t of a clown’s presence at botulinum toxin injections in children: a randomized, prospective study Original Research (3523) Total Article Views Authors: Hansen LK, Kibaek M, Martinussen T, Kragh L, Hejl M Published Date September 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 297 - 300 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S23199 Lars Kjaersgaard Hansen1, Maria Kibaek1, Torben Martinussen2, Lene Kragh3, Mogens Hejl1 1Department of Paediatrics, Hans Christian Andersen Children's Hospital, Odense University Hospital, Odense; 2Roskilde Hospital, Roskilde; 3Department of Statistics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Background: The effect of the presence of a hospital clown during pediatric procedures has rarely been evaluated. In a pediatric ward, botulinum toxin injection is a painful procedure and a stressful experience for the child. We undertook a study of the effect of the presence of a hospital clown on children treated with botulinum toxin in an outpatient setting. Methods: In total, 60 children, the majority of whom had spastic cerebral palsy, were subjected to a total of 121 botulinum toxin treatment sessions. Thirty-two children were being treated for the first time. During a 2-year period, we enrolled 121 treatment sessions prospectively, and the children were randomized to either the presence of a female clown during treatment or to no presence of a clown. The duration of the child's crying during the procedure was used as an indicator of the effect of the presence of a clown. Results: The effect of the clown was significantly related to patient gender. Girls were found to have a significantly shorter period of crying when the clown was present. For children younger than 8 years, the effect on boys was negative. Children treated for the first time did not appear to benefit from the presence of the clown, and showed no difference in effect between genders. Conclusion: No effect of the clown was documented for children being treated for the first time. At repeat treatments, we saw a positive effect of the female clown in relation to girls, and a negative effect on boys younger than 8 years of age.
Effect of a clown’s presence at botulinum toxin injections in children: a randomized, prospective study
Hansen LK,Kibaek M,Martinussen T,Kragh L
Journal of Pain Research , 2011,
Abstract: Lars Kjaersgaard Hansen1, Maria Kibaek1, Torben Martinussen2, Lene Kragh3, Mogens Hejl11Department of Paediatrics, Hans Christian Andersen Children's Hospital, Odense University Hospital, Odense; 2Roskilde Hospital, Roskilde; 3Department of Statistics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, DenmarkBackground: The effect of the presence of a hospital clown during pediatric procedures has rarely been evaluated. In a pediatric ward, botulinum toxin injection is a painful procedure and a stressful experience for the child. We undertook a study of the effect of the presence of a hospital clown on children treated with botulinum toxin in an outpatient setting.Methods: In total, 60 children, the majority of whom had spastic cerebral palsy, were subjected to a total of 121 botulinum toxin treatment sessions. Thirty-two children were being treated for the first time. During a 2-year period, we enrolled 121 treatment sessions prospectively, and the children were randomized to either the presence of a female clown during treatment or to no presence of a clown. The duration of the child's crying during the procedure was used as an indicator of the effect of the presence of a clown.Results: The effect of the clown was significantly related to patient gender. Girls were found to have a significantly shorter period of crying when the clown was present. For children younger than 8 years, the effect on boys was negative. Children treated for the first time did not appear to benefit from the presence of the clown, and showed no difference in effect between genders.Conclusion: No effect of the clown was documented for children being treated for the first time. At repeat treatments, we saw a positive effect of the female clown in relation to girls, and a negative effect on boys younger than 8 years of age.Keywords: clown, injections, pain, botulinum toxin
Bed mmelse med udgangspunkt i deltageransvar - anvendelse af en reviewfase som en del af bed mmelse og videndeling i forbindelse
Poul Kragh
Tidsskriftet for Universiteternes Efter- og Videreuddannelse , 2006,
Abstract: F rste gang publiceret i UNEV nr. 9: Evaluering og feedback i netst ttet uddannelse, sept. 2006, red. Simon Heilesen. ISSN 1603-5518. Artiklen tager udgangspunkt i et par forl b af et forvaltningskursus p RUC. Kurset er i de sidste to r s ledes blevet tilrettelagt og gennemf rt med forskellige e-l ringselementer. RUC's webbaserede kursusafviklingsplatform, eCampus, har v ret rammen om afvikling og kommunikation igennem kurset. Denne platform er tillige anvendt til at afholde flere kursussessioner som asynkron, skriftlig fjernundervisning og i nogle kursusgange tillige suppleret med synkrone lyd/billede elementer. Med det afs t har der i kraft af et nske om tydelighed i de faglige krav og med v gt p deltageransvar og videndeling, v ret designet og afpr vet en speciel essay- og reviewprocedure som en del af bed mmelsestilgangen. Udgangspunktet for best else af kurset har s ledes v ret: Skriv et essay p gruppebasis, freml g p kurset, lav mindst to peer reviews af andre essays som enkeltdeltager - og f i vrigt feedback p samme fra essayisterne. Vi har testet denne bed mmelsesprocedure og fundet resultaterne gode.
Science and Ideology: The Case of Cosmology in the Soviet Union, 1947–1963
Kragh, Helge
Acta Baltica Historiae et Philosophiae Scientiarum , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11590/abhps.2013.1.02
Abstract: Ideological considerations have always influenced science, butrarely as directly and massively as in the Soviet Union during the early Cold War period, when cosmology was among the sciences that became politicized. This field of science developed very differently in the Communist countries than in the West, in large measure because of political pressure. Certain cosmological models, in particular of the big bang type, were declared pseudo-scientific and idealistic because they implied a cosmic creation, a concept which was taken to be religious. The result of the ideological pressure was not an independent Soviet cosmology, but that astronomers and physicists abandoned cosmological research in the Western sense. Onlyin the 1960s did this situation change, and cosmology in the Soviet Union began to flourish. The paper reviews the relationship between cosmology and political ideology in the Soviet Union from about 1947 to 1963, and it briefly relates this case to the later one in the People’s Republic of China.
The Universe, the Cold War, and Dialectical Materialism
Helge Kragh
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: Ideological considerations have always influenced science, but rarely as directly and massively as in the Soviet Union during the early Cold War period. Cosmology was among the sciences that became heavily politicized and forced to conform to the doctrines of Marxism-Leninism. This field of science developed entirely differently in the Communist countries than in the West, in large measure because of political pressure. Certain cosmological models, in particular of the big bang type, were declared pseudo-scientific and idealistic because they implied a cosmic creation, a concept which was taken to be religious. The result of the ideological pressure was not an independent Soviet cosmology, but that astronomers and physicists abandoned cosmological research in the Western sense. Only in the 1960s did this situation change, and cosmology in the Soviet Union began to flourish. The paper examines the relationship between science and political ideology in the case of the Soviet Union from about 1947 to 1963, and it also relates this case to the later one in the People's Republic of China.
Geometry and Astronomy: Pre-Einstein Speculations of Non-Euclidean Space
Helge Kragh
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: The recognition that physical space (or space-time) is curved is a product of the general theory of relativity, such as dramatically shown by the 1919 solar eclipse measurements. However, the mathematical possibility of non-Euclidean geometries was recognized by Gauss more than a century earlier, and during the nineteenth century mathematicians developed the pioneering ideas of Gauss, Lobachevsky, Bolyai and Riemann into an elaborate branch of generalized geometry. Did the unimaginative physicists and astronomers ignore the new geometries? Were they considered to be of mathematical interest only until Einstein entered the scene? This paper examines in detail the attempts in the period from about 1830 to 1910 to establish links between non-Euclidean geometry and the physical and astronomical sciences, including attempts to find observational evidence for curved space. Although there were but few contributors to "non-Euclidean astronomy," there were more than usually supposed. The paper looks in particular on a work of 1872 in which the Leipzig physicist K. F. Zoellner argued that the universe is closed in accordance with Riemann's geometry.
Visions of Revolutions: Microphysics and Cosmophysics in the 1930s
Helge Kragh
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: By 1930, at a time when the new physics based on relativity and quantum theory had reached a state of consolidation, problems of a foundational kind began to abound. Physicists began to speak of a new "crisis" and envisage a forthcoming "revolution" of a scale similar to the one in the mid-1920s. The perceived crisis was an issue not only in microphysics but also in cosmology, where it resulted in ambitious cosmophysical theories that transcended the ordinary methods of physics. The uncertain cognitive situation was, in some circles, associated to the uncertain political and moral situation. Did the problems of foundational physics demand a revolution in thinking that somehow paralleled the political revolutions of the time? I argue that although such ideas were indeed discussed in the 1930s, they were more rhetoric than reality. With the benefit of hindsight one can see that the perceived crisis was only temporary and not significantly related to social or ideological developments in the decade.
Preludes to dark energy: Zero-point energy and vacuum speculations
Helge Kragh
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: Although dark energy is a modern concept, some elements in it can be traced back to the early part of the twentieth century. This paper examines the origin of the idea of zero-point energy and in particular how it appeared in a cosmological context in a hypothesis proposed by Walther Nernst in 1916. The hypothesis of a zero-point vacuum energy attracted some attention in the 1920s, but without attempts to relate it to the cosmological constant that was discussed by Georges Lema\^itre in particular. Only in the late 1960s was it recognized that there is a connection between the cosmological constant and the quantum vacuum. As seen in retrospect, many of the steps that eventually led to the insight of a kind of dark energy occurred isolated and uncoordinated.
The many faces of the Bohr atom
Helge Kragh
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: The atomic model that Niels Bohr suggested in 1913 celebrated its greatest victories in connection with one-electron atoms. Among them were the isotopic spectral effect and what became known as Rydberg atoms, insights that were fully recognized only many years later. He considered the original ring model a first step towards an understanding of atomic structure, and during the following years he developed it into more ambitious models that, he hoped, would also describe many-electron atoms. His theory of the periodic system marked the culmination of the orbital atom within the framework of the old quantum theory. However, the theory would soon be replaced by more symbolic models that heralded the coming of the quantum-mechanical atom.
Historical Aspects of Post-1850 Cosmology
Helge Kragh
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1063/1.4902842
Abstract: Cosmology as an exact physical science is of new date, but it has long roots in the past. This essay is concerned with four important themes in the history of cosmological thought which, if taken together, offer a fairly comprehensive account of some of the key developments that have led to the modern understanding of the universe. Apart from the first section, dealing with early views of curved space, it focuses on mainstream cosmology from the expanding universe about 1930 to the emergence of the standard big bang model in the 1960s. This development includes theories we would not today consider "mainstream," such as the steady state model of the universe. The last section outlines what might be called the prehistory of the concept of dark energy, that is, ideas that were discussed before dark energy was actually inferred from supernovae observations in the late 1990s.
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