Abstract:
In this paper, we present a theoretical codebook design method for VQ-based fast face recognition algorithm to im-prove recognition accuracy. Based on the systematic analysis and classification of code patterns, firstly we theoretically create a systematically organized codebook. Combined with another codebook created by Kohonen’s Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) method, an optimized codebook consisted of 2×2 codevectors for facial images is generated. Experimental results show face recognition using such a codebook is more efficient than the codebook consisted of 4×4 codevector used in conventional algorithm. The highest average recognition rate of 98.6% is obtained for 40 persons’ 400 images of publicly available face database of AT&T Laboratories Cambridge containing variations in lighting, posing, and expressions. A table look-up (TLU) method is also proposed for the speed up of the recognition processing. By applying this method in the quantization step, the total recognition processing time achieves only 28 msec, enabling real-time face recognition.

Abstract:
DNA sequence search is a fundamental topic in bioinformatics. The Smith-Waterman algorithmachieved highest accuracy among various sequence alignment tools, but it usually spends much computationaltime to search on large DNA sequence database. On the contrary, BLAST and FASTA have improved the searchspeed by using heuristic approaches, by there is a possibility of missing an alignment or giving inaccurate output.This paper presents an efficient hierarchical method to improve the search speed while the accurate is being keptconstant. For a given query sequence, firstly, a fast histogram based method is used to scan the sequences in thedatabase. A large number of DNA sequences with low similarity will be excluded for latter searching. The Smith-Waterman algorithm is then applied to each remainder sequences. Experimental results show the proposedmethod combining histogram information and Smith-Waterman algorithm is a more efficient algorithm for DNAsequence search

Abstract:
DNA sequence search is a very important topic in bioinformatics algorithm development. However, this task usually spends much computational time to search on large DNA sequence database. In this paper, we propose an efficient hierarchical DNA sequence search algorithm to improve the search speed while the accuracy is being kept constant. For a given query DNA sequence, firstly, a fast local search algorithm using histogram features is used as a filtering mechanism before scanning the sequences in the database. An overlapping processing is newly added to improve the robustness of the algorithm. A large number of DNA sequences with low similarity will be excluded for latter searching. The Smith-Waterman algorithm is then applied to each remainder sequences. Experimental results using GenBank sequence data show the proposed algorithm combining histogram information and Smith-Waterman algorithm is more efficient for DNA sequence search.

Abstract:
The diagonal argument is a very famous proof, which has influenced many areas of mathematics. However, this paper shows that the diagonal argument cannot be applied to the sequence of potentially infinite number of potentially infinite binary fractions. First, the original form of Cantor’s diagonal argument is introduced. Second, it is demonstrated that any natural number is finite, by a simple mathematical induction. Third, the concept of potential infinity, created by Aristotle, is presented. Typically, the natural numbers are considered potentially infinite. However, although any natural number is finite, there is also no limit to how large a natural number can be. Fourth, the concept of the potentially infinite decimal is introduced. Fifth, it is easily proven that the diagonal argument cannot be applied to the sequence of all n-bit binary fractions in the interval [0,1). Finally, the diagonal argument is shown to be inapplicable to the sequence of the potentially infinite number of potentially infinite binary fractions, which contains all n-bit binary fractions in the interval [0,1) for any n.

Abstract:
The derivative is a basic concept of differential calculus. However, if we calculate the derivative as change in distance over change in time, the result at any instant is 0/0, which seems meaningless. Hence, Newton and Leibniz used the limit to determine the derivative. Their method is valid in practice, but it is not easy to intuitively accept. Thus, this article describes the novel method of differential calculus based on the double contradiction, which is easier to accept intuitively. Next, the geometrical meaning of the double contradiction is considered as follows. A tangent at a point on a convex curve is iterated. Then, the slope of the tangent at the point is sandwiched by two kinds of lines. The first kind of line crosses the curve at the original point and a point to the right of it. The second kind of line crosses the curve at the original point and a point to the left of it. Then, the double contradiction can be applied, and the slope of the tangent is determined as a single value. Finally, the meaning of this method for the foundation of mathematics is considered. We reflect on Dehaene’s notion that the foundation of mathematics is based on the intuitions, which evolve independently. Hence, there may be gaps between intuitions. In fact, the Ancient Greeks identified inconsistency between arithmetic and geometry. However, Eudoxus developed the theory of proportion, which is equivalent to the Dedekind Cut. This allows the iteration of an irrational number by rational numbers as precisely as desired. Simultaneously, we can define the irrational number by the double contradiction, although its existence is not guaranteed. Further, an area of a curved figure is iterated and defined by rectilinear figures using the double contradiction.

Abstract:
What is number? This question is difficult to answer. Because the number is one of the most basic concepts, it is difficult to define the natural number with other concepts. Still, this problem is worth trying to answer. Now, everything is digitized and processed on computer. The importance of the number is increasing day by day. Now is time to consider what number is. Throughout the history of humankind, the ancient Greeks considered this question most profoundly. In particular, Plato defined the natural number one. The natural number one is equal, invariable and indivisible. These properties are intuitively acceptable. However, we have never seen or touched the natural number one itself. How can we know it? Socrates said that we know it before birth. This claim is called anamnesis. In this paper, we use a method, in which Socrates’ anamnesis is studied by the contemporary science. From a modern viewpoint, we could take Socrates’ anamnesis to mean that the natural number one is written in our genes. This article considers whether there is a biological entity corresponding to the natural number one. As a result, we find that a life itself is the prototype of the natural number one, and then properties of life make a critical base of DNA similar to the natural number one through natural selection. A life is an integrated and indivisible system, which resists the law of entropy. Furthermore, the basic properties of life enable natural selection, which conserves genetic information despite the law of entropy. The source of the power, which enables life to resist the law of entropy, is the genetic information. In conclusion, a life is a prototype of the natural number one. Furthermore, a life recognizes nature using natural numbers and resists the law of entropy using natural numbers.

The calcifying odontogenic
cyst was first reported by Gorlin et al. in 1962. At that time, it was classified as a cyst
related to the odontogenic apparatus, although it was later renamed as a
calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor by the WHO calcification in 2005 due to
its histological complexity, morphological diversity and aggressive
proliferation [2]. Here, we describe a case of a calcifying cystic odontogenic
tumor in a 4- year-old boy. The lesion was surgically removed, and the
histopathological examination revealed it to be a cystic tumor with ghost
cells, a stellate reticulum and small amount of dentinoid tissue in the cystic
wall.

Abstract:
A 69-year-old man with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) was on amblatory oxygen inhalation therapy (3 L/min) and scheduled for percutaneous transluminal pulmonary angioplasty (PTPA). The patient's New York Heart Association functional status was class III with recent worsening of dyspnea and apparent leg edema. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed right ventricular enlargement with mean pulmonary artery pressure of 42 mmHg. After PTPA, he was complicated with postoperative reperfusion pulmonary edema, and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) was applied immediately. Hypoxemia was successfully treated with 15 days of NPPV. Although mean pulmonary artery pressure was unchanged, his brain natriuretic peptide level decreased from preoperative 390.3 to postoperative 44.3 pg/dL. In addition, total pulmonary resistance decreased from preoperative 18 to postoperative 9.6 wood unit·m2. The patient was discharged on day 25 with SpO2 of 95% on 5 L/min of oxygen inhalation. Because pulmonary edema is a postsurgical life-threatening complication following PTPA, application of NPPV should be considered.