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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 168085 matches for " Knut E Hovda "
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Fatal poisonings in Oslo: a one-year observational study
Mari A Bjornaas, Brita Teige, Knut E Hovda, Oivind Ekeberg, Fridtjof Heyerdahl, Dag Jacobsen
BMC Emergency Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-227x-10-13
Abstract: Fatal and non-fatal acute poisonings in subjects aged ≥16 years in Oslo (428 198 inhabitants) were included consecutively in an observational multi-centre study including the ambulance services, the Oslo Emergency Ward (outpatient clinic), and hospitals, as well as medico-legal autopsies from 1st April 2003 to 31st March 2004. Characteristics of fatal poisonings were examined, and a comparison of toxic agents was made between fatal and non-fatal acute poisoning.In Oslo, during the one-year period studied, 103 subjects aged ≥16 years died of acute poisoning. The annual mortality rate was 24 per 100 000. The male-female ratio was 2:1, and the mean age was 44 years (range 19-86 years). In 92 cases (89%), death occurred outside hospital. The main toxic agents were opiates or opioids (65% of cases), followed by ethanol (9%), tricyclic anti-depressants (TCAs) (4%), benzodiazepines (4%), and zopiclone (4%). Seventy-one (69%) were evaluated as accidental deaths and 32 (31%) as suicides. In 70% of all cases, and in 34% of suicides, the deceased was classified as drug or alcohol dependent. When compared with the 2981 non-fatal acute poisonings registered during the study period, the case fatality rate was 3% (95% C.I., 0.03-0.04). Methanol, TCAs, and antihistamines had the highest case fatality rates; 33% (95% C.I., 0.008-0.91), 14% (95% C.I., 0.04-0.33), and 10% (95% C.I., 0.02-0.27), respectively.Three per cent of all acute poisonings were fatal, and nine out of ten deaths by acute poisonings occurred outside hospital. Two-thirds were evaluated as accidental deaths. Although case fatality rates were highest for methanol, TCAs, and antihistamines, most deaths were caused by opiates or opioids.Deaths by acute poisoning are mainly suicides or consequences of substance use disorders. The majority of deaths attributed to substance use disorder are considered accidental, i.e. death was not the intended outcome [1]. However, a post-mortem determination of the intention behind a fa
Outpatient treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo: poisoning pattern, factors associated with hospitalization, and mortality
Cathrine Lund, Odd M Vallersnes, Dag Jacobsen, Oivind Ekeberg, Knut E Hovda
Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1757-7241-20-1
Abstract: All acute poisonings in adults (> or = 16 years) treated at the EMA during one year (April 2008 to April 2009) were included consecutively in an observational study design. The treating physicians completed a standardized form comprising information needed to address the study's aims. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with hospitalization.There were 2348 contacts for 1856 individuals; 1157 (62%) were male, and the median age was 34 years. The most frequent main toxic agents were ethanol (43%), opioids (22%) and CO or fire smoke (10%). The physicians classified 73% as accidental overdoses with substances of abuse taken for recreational purposes, 15% as other accidents (self-inflicted or other) and 11% as suicide attempts. Most (91%) patients were treated with observation only. The median observation time until discharge was 3.8 hours. No patient developed sequelae or died at the EMA. Seventeen per cent were hospitalized. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, respiratory depression, paracetamol, reduced consciousness and suicidal intention were factors associated with hospitalization. Forty-eight per cent were discharged without referral to follow-up. The one-month mortality was 0.6%. Of the nine deaths, five were by new accidental overdose with substances of abuse.More than twice as many patients were treated at the EMA compared with all hospitals in Oslo. Despite more than a doubling of the annual number of poisoned patients treated at the EMA since 2003, there was no mortality or sequelae, indicating that the current practice is safe. Thus, most low- to intermediate-acuity poisonings can be treated safely without the need to access hospital resources. Although the short-term mortality was low, more follow-up of patients with substance abuse should be encouraged.Efficiency and cost control are both universal political health goals. In Norway, one approach is to treat patients at the lowest health care level possible without i
Suicidal intention, psychosocial factors and referral to further treatment: A one-year cross-sectional study of self-poisoning
Mari A Bjornaas, Knut E Hovda, Fridtjof Heyerdahl, Karina Skog, Per Drottning, Anders Opdahl, Dag Jacobsen, Oivind Ekeberg
BMC Psychiatry , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-10-58
Abstract: A cross-sectional multicenter study of all 908 admissions to hospital because of self-poisoning in Oslo during one year was completed. Fifty-four percent were females, and the median age was 36 years. The patients were grouped according to evaluated intention: suicide attempts (moderate to high suicide intent), appeals (low suicide intent) and substance-use related poisonings. Multinomial regression analyses compared patients based on their evaluated intention; suicide attempts were used as the reference.Of all self-poisoning incidents, 37% were suicide attempts, 26% were appeals and 38% were related to substance use. Fifty-five percent of the patients reported previous suicide attempts, 58% reported previous or current psychiatric treatment and 32% reported daily substance use. Overall, patients treated for self-poisoning showed a lack of social integration. Only 33% were employed, 34% were married or cohabiting and 53% were living alone. Those in the suicide attempt and appeal groups had more previous suicide attempts and reported more psychiatric treatment than those with poisoning related to substance use. One third of all patients with substance use-related poisoning reported previous suicide attempts, and one third of suicide attempt patients reported daily substance use. Gender distribution was the only statistically significant difference between the appeal patients and suicide attempt patients. Almost one in every five patients was discharged without any plans for follow-up: 36% of patients with substance use-related poisoning and 5% of suicide attempt patients. Thirty-eight percent of all suicide attempt patients were admitted to a psychiatric ward. Only 10% of patients with substance use-related poisoning were referred to substance abuse treatment.All patients had several risk factors for suicidal behavior. There were only minor differences between suicide attempt patients and appeal patients. If the self-poisoning was evaluated as related to substance us
Pre-hospital treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo
Fridtjof Heyerdahl, Knut E Hovda, Mari A Bjornaas, Anne K Nore, Jose CP Figueiredo, Oivind Ekeberg, Dag Jacobsen
BMC Emergency Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-227x-8-15
Abstract: A one-year multi-centre study with prospective inclusion of all acutely poisoned patients ≥ 16 years of age treated in ambulances, an outpatient clinic, and hospitals in Oslo.A total of 3757 health service contacts from 2997 poisoning episodes were recorded: 1860 were treated in ambulances, of which 15 died and 750 (40%) were discharged without transfer; 956 were treated in outpatient clinic, of which 801 (84%) were discharged without transfer; and 941 episodes were treated in hospitals. Patients discharged alive after ambulance treatment were mainly poisoned by opiates (70%), were frequently comatose (35%), had respiratory depression (37%), and many received naloxone (49%). The majority of the patients discharged from the outpatient clinic were poisoned by ethanol (55%), fewer were comatose (10%), and they rarely had respiratory depression (4%). Among the hospitalized, pharmaceutical poisonings were most common (58%), 23% were comatose, and 7% had respiratory depression. Male patients comprised 69% of the pre-hospital discharges, but only 46% of the hospitalized patients. Except for one patient, who died of a new heroin overdose two days following discharge from an ambulance, there were no deaths during the first week after the poisonings in the 90% of the pre-hospital discharged patients with known identity.More than half of the poisoned patients treated in pre-hospital treatment settings were discharged without transfer to higher levels. These poisonings were more often caused by drug and alcohol abuse than in those who were hospitalized, and more than two-thirds were males. Almost half of those discharged from ambulances received an antidote. The pre-hospital treatment of these poisonings appears safe regarding short-term mortality.Poisoned patients are not treated in emergency departments and hospitals only [1-3]. In Scandinavia, poisonings related to drug abuse, especially heroin overdoses, are frequently discharged from the ambulance service without admission
Methanol poisoning and long term sequelae – a six years follow-up after a large methanol outbreak
Raido Paasma, Knut Erik Hovda, Dag Jacobsen
BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6904-9-5
Abstract: Surviving victims from the outbreak were contacted and invited to an interview and a clinical evaluation by an ophthalmologist and a physician. The patients that failed to respond were searched for in the Estonian Register of Population and through their General Practitioner.During the outbreak in 2001, 86/111 hospitalized patients survived: 66 without sequelae (Group I) and 20 with sequelae (Group II). Six years later, 26/86 were dead, 33/86 could not be tracked down, and so only 27/86 of these were followed up and examined: 22/66 of the patients in Group I, and 5/20 in Group II were found and examined. From Group I, 8/22 were identified with new neurological impairment and 8/22 with new visual disturbances after discharge. From Group II, visual disturbances (n = 4) and neurological impairment (n = 3) were still present in all patients. Among the 26 dead, 19 were from Group I, and seven were from Group II. Alcohol intoxication was the most frequent cause of death (7/26).All sequelae were still present six years after the initial poisoning suggesting that these were irreversible damages. On follow-up, apparently new neurological and visual complications were identified in 36% and 36%, respectively. 35% of the patients initially discharged with sequelae and 29% discharged without were dead six years later; 27% of them from alcohol intoxication.Methanol is metabolized by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in the liver, via formaldehyde to formic acid, the latter being responsible for the adverse effects seen in methanol poisoning. The toxicity evolves from a combination of the metabolic acidosis (H+ production) and an intrinsic toxicity from the formate anion itself [1,2]. Treatment consists of buffer such as sodium bicarbonate to correct metabolic acidosis and antidote to inhibit metabolism of methanol to its toxic metabolite, formic acid [3,4]. If necessary, haemodialysis is supplied to further correct the acidosis, and remove both methanol and formate [1,3,5-7]
Dark Matter Searches with H.E.S.S
Knut Mor?,for the H. E. S. S collaboration
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Cosmological measurements indicate that a large component of non-visible gravitating matter is present in the universe. A common hypothesis for its origin is a weakly interacting, massive particle. Annihilations or decays of such particles could produce gamma rays. The H.E.S.S. experiment is an imaging air Cherenkov telescope array located in Namibia which may detect very high energy gamma-rays between 300 GeV and 10 TeV. This talk will present an overview of two recent H.E.S.S. searches for dark matter in the very high energy region, one targeting dwarf galaxies, the other one a cored dark matter profile at the galactic center.
Hidden breakpoints in genome alignments
Birte Kehr,Knut Reinert,Aaron E. Darling
Quantitative Biology , 2012,
Abstract: During the course of evolution, an organism's genome can undergo changes that affect the large-scale structure of the genome. These changes include gene gain, loss, duplication, chromosome fusion, fission, and rearrangement. When gene gain and loss occurs in addition to other types of rearrangement, breakpoints of rearrangement can exist that are only detectable by comparison of three or more genomes. An arbitrarily large number of these "hidden" breakpoints can exist among genomes that exhibit no rearrangements in pairwise comparisons. We present an extension of the multichromosomal breakpoint median problem to genomes that have undergone gene gain and loss. We then demonstrate that the median distance among three genomes can be used to calculate a lower bound on the number of hidden breakpoints present. We provide an implementation of this calculation including the median distance, along with some practical improvements on the time complexity of the underlying algorithm. We apply our approach to measure the abundance of hidden breakpoints in simulated data sets under a wide range of evolutionary scenarios. We demonstrate that in simulations the hidden breakpoint counts depend strongly on relative rates of inversion and gene gain/loss. Finally we apply current multiple genome aligners to the simulated genomes, and show that all aligners introduce a high degree of error in hidden breakpoint counts, and that this error grows with evolutionary distance in the simulation. Our results suggest that hidden breakpoint error may be pervasive in genome alignments.
The preference for water nipples vs. water bowls in dairy goats
Knut E B?e, Rebecca Ehrlenbruch, Inger L Andersen
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-53-50
Abstract: In each of the two experiments (exp. 1, dry goats, exp. 2 lactating goats), 42 dairy goats were allotted into 6 groups of 7 goats. In period 1, the goats had access to a water nipple. In period 2, they had access to a water bowl and in period 3 (preference test) they had access to both a water nipple and a water bowl. Water usage and wastage was recorded and water intake (water usage - water wastage) was calculated for each group for the two last days of each period. In experiment 2, water samples from each dispenser were analyzed for heterotrophy germs at 22°C, Escherichia coli and turbidity.Water usage was higher from water nipples than from water bowls both in experiment 1 (dry goats) and experiment 2 (lactating goats). There was however, no difference in water intake from water nipples and water bowls. In the preference test (period 3), the water intake tended to be higher from the water nipple than from the water bowl both for the dry goats (exp. 1) and lactating goats (exp. 2). Especially for the dry goats, the differences between groups were large. Turbidity and heterotrophy germs were much higher in the samples from the water bowls than from the water nipples.Water wastage from the water bowls was negligible compared to the water nipples. From the water nipples the water wastage was 30% and 23% of water usage for the dry and lactating goats respectively.We conclude that type of water dispenser (nipple or bowl) was probably of minor importance for water intake in goats, but water bowls had a lower water quality.The literature on water intake in goats is scare, and the studies mainly concern goats living in desert conditions under heat stress and/or water restrictions [e.g. 1]. In temperate climates, the water intake for goats is reported to be 139 g/kg W0.75 at mid-pregnancy, and lactating goats need 1.28 kg of water to produce one kg milk [2]. Ehrlenbruch et al. (2010) measured the water intake in lactating goats to be 6.2 and 4.4 liters/day when fed hay and
Assistive Navigation Device for Visually Impaired—A Study on Reaction Time to Tactile Modality Stimuli  [PDF]
Jing Yu, Knut Moeller
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.510B041

A tactile system to support severe visually-impaired or blind people in the world for their orientation and navigation had been developed. To optimize the design, some parameters of tactile display device were evaluated. In the present paper,we focused on the reaction time to tactile stimuli. In the test, the stimuli were produced through a vibration belt that was worn around the participants’ waist. In the choice reaction time task, the participants had to click corresponding arrow keys according to the location of a tactile signal. The findings of this study provided a reference of the reaction time range, so as to design a more effective and safe tactile navigation system.

A prospective study of weight development and behavior problems in toddlers: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study
Susan Garthus-Niegel, Knut A Hagtvet, Margarete E Vollrath
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-626
Abstract: The study was part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. The sample consisted of 10 860 toddlers, followed up to age 36 months. We used data from maternal questionnaires from gestation week 17 and at child ages 18 and 36 months, and data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Child height and weight were assessed at child health stations and recorded by mothers. Behavior problems were assessed using shortened subscales from the Child Behavior Checklist. Statistical analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling.Behavior problems in toddlers were not associated with higher body mass index cross-sectionally at either age 18 or 36 months, and there was no indication that behavior problems caused increasing body mass index over time or vice versa.The association between behavior problems and body mass index found in older children did not appear in toddlers up to age 36 months. Future studies should focus on the age span from 3 to 6 years, which includes the period of adiposity rebound.In recent decades, childhood overweight has been increasing rapidly worldwide. Between 1975 and 2000 in Norway, body weight in childhood increased evenly across the entire weight spectrum of weight by 1 unit of the body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2). In 2000, close to 22% of all newborns in Norway weighed more than 4 kg [1]. Today, around 19% of Norwegian children and adolescents age 4-15 years are above the 90th weight-for-height percentile of the growth references for the years 1971-1974 [2]. However, for children younger than age 4, exact overweight rates are still lacking. The rapid increase of overweight rates in children is alarming because of the serious consequences of overweight for health [3,4]. First, obese children are at high risk of obesity in adulthood [3]. Moreover, obesity has adverse effects on many health parameters, such as blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin resistance. These parameters in turn increase the risk for cardiovascu
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