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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 25279 matches for " Kiwon Lee "
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Sensory Evaluation of Vegetable-Infused Fruit-Flavored Applesauce and the Comparison between Adults and Children  [PDF]
Peter Bordi, Kiwon Lee, Martha Conklin
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.45072
Abstract:

Low consumption of fruits and vegetables among children is considered to be a leading contributor to childhood obesity, making it prudent to develop healthier foods that are accessible, affordable and satisfying to children. Our objective was to investigate the sensory characteristics and preferred flavors of vegetable-infused applesauce among adults (male and female) and 7th grade middle school students; and to compare the flavor preferences of adults and children in order to gather information that helps determine target demographics for each applesauce flavor. Sensory testing for eight attributes (overall liking, overall appearance, appearance of texture, appearance of color, taste, mouth feel, amount of fruit flavor, amount of sweetness) were rated by 120 adults and 106 middle school students. Adults and kids demonstrated significantly different preferences for the tropical and mixed berry applesauce flavors but no difference with the strawberry banana-flavored applesauce. Female adults demonstrated clear preference for the strawberry banana flavor; children demonstrated a higher preference for the mixed berry flavor, followed by the tropical flavor. Overall, both adults and children rated all of the applesauce flavors favorably, suggesting that developing and bringing such products to market could be an effective method for helping adults and children consume more fruits and vegetables.

Pulmonary Complications in Patients with Severe Brain Injury
Kiwon Lee,Fred Rincon
Critical Care Research and Practice , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/207247
Abstract: Pulmonary complications are prevalent in the critically ill neurological population. Respiratory failure, pneumonia, acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS), pulmonary edema, pulmonary contusions and pneumo/hemothorax, and pulmonary embolism are frequently encountered in the setting of severe brain injury. Direct brain injury, depressed level of consciousness and inability to protect the airway, disruption of natural defense barriers, decreased mobility, and secondary neurological insults inherent to severe brain injury are the main cause of pulmonary complications in critically ill neurological patients. Prevention strategies and current and future therapies need to be implemented to avoid and treat the development of these life-threatening medical complications. 1. Introduction Pulmonary complications are very prevalent in the critically-ill neurological population. Respiratory failure, pneumonia, pleural effusions and empyema, acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS), pulmonary edema, and pulmonary embolism (PE) from venous thromboembolism (VTE) are frequently encountered in this patient population [1–7]. In addition, direct chest trauma and patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are not exempt from direct complications such as rib fractures, flail chest, lung contusions, and hemo/pneumothorax. Unfortunately, the development of these complications extends the patient’s need for care in the intensive care unit (ICU) and prevents early mobilization, and this increases the likelihood of developing secondary disability. Direct brain injury, depressed level of consciousness and inability to protect the airway, disruption of natural defense barriers, decreased mobility, and secondary physiopathologic insults inherent to severe brain injury are the main cause of pulmonary complications in critically-ill neurological patients. The goal in the ICU is to prevent, treat, and optimize hypoxemia and maintain oxygen delivery to limit secondary neurological insults. In the absence of feasible pharmacological agents to target these goals, prevention strategies to minimize pulmonary complications such as use of bedside techniques such as thoracentesis, closed thoracostomies (chest tubes), lung-protective ventilator strategies, bundles for prevention of ventilator associated pneumonias (VAP), and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis are the cornerstone in the prevention and management of pulmonary complications in severe brain injured patients. Finally, additional strategies to target
Chocolate Milk with Sucrose and Stevia Preference by Pre- and Post-Menopausal Women  [PDF]
Marta Regina Verruma-Bernardi, Kiwon Lee, Stephanie Qing Liu, Peter Lawrence Bordi Jr.
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.514147
Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the preference of chocolate milk products sweetened with sucrose and stevia by pre- and post-menopausal women and to examine their concerns about bone health. Women panelists were divided into two groups according to age: pre- menopausal (from 18 to 47 years old) and post-menopausal (over 48 years old) and answered the frequency of white and chocolate milk consumption during a week and their concerns about bone health. For preference, five kinds of chocolate milk were used: 1) Non Sucrose Added [NSA] with stevia and NutraFlora?, 2) NSA with stevia, 3) with sucrose and stevia, 4) with sucrose, stevia, and NutraFlora?, and 5) control with sucrose. The results showed that both groups (pre- and post- menopausal women) prefer chocolate milk to white milk. Pre-menopausal women prefer the chocolate milk with NSA stevia and NutraFlora?, while post-menopausal women prefer the chocolate milk NSA with stevia without NutraFlora?. For comparisons between chocolate milk with sucrose and stevia vs. chocolate milk with sucrose and stevia and NutraFlora? and chocolate milk with sucrose vs. chocolate milk with sucrose and stevia, there were no visible differences between pre- and post-menopausal women. Both groups were concerned about bone health, fiber, and calories, and their concerns about which influenced their milk choices. Pre-menopausal women showed a greater positive impact on milk choice when being informed the amount of fibers in the sample than post-menopausal women. Therefore, this study suggests that milk sweetened with stevia needs to be produced as calcium resources without increasing calories.

Investigation of non-uniform airflow signal oscillation during high frequency chest compression
Kiwon Sohn, Warren J Warwick, Yong W Lee, Jongwon Lee, James E Holte
BioMedical Engineering OnLine , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1475-925x-4-34
Abstract: The computational model, which is based on previous physiological studies and represented by an electrical circuit analogue, was used for simulation of in vivo protocol that shows the nonlinearity of the respiratory system. Besides, airflow was measured during use of HFCC. We compared the simulation results to either the measured data or the previous research, to understand and explain the observations.We could observe two important phenomena during respiration pertaining to the airflow signal oscillation generated by HFCC. The amplitudes of HFCC airflow signals varied depending on spontaneous airflow signals. We used the simulation results to investigate how the nonlinearity of airway resistance, lung capacitance, and inertance of air characterized the respiratory airflow. The simulation results indicated that lung capacitance or the inertance of air is also not a factor in the non-uniformity of HFCC airflow signals. Although not perfect, our circuit analogue model allows us to effectively simulate the nonlinear characteristics of the respiratory system.We found that the amplitudes of HFCC airflow signals behave as a function of spontaneous airflow signals. This is due to the nonlinearity of the respiratory system, particularly variations in airway resistance.High Frequency Chest Compression (HFCC) [6,9,19,29] is a useful and popular therapy for clearing bronchial airways of excessive or thick mucus since it does not require patients to do any directed efforts for respiration while therapy is given, unlike other airway clearance techniques such as active cycle of breathing or autogenic drainage [17]. A HFCC machine pumps air into an inflatable jacket worn by patient. By means of a surrogate piston, sine waveform compression pulses with frequencies ranging from ~5 Hz to ~21 Hz are supplied to the thorax of a patient through the jacket. These pulses squeeze and vibrate the patient's thorax at prescribed frequencies. These actions help in the evacuation of mucus throu
Amyloid β-Related Angiitis Causing Coma Responsive to Immunosuppression
Shennan A. Weiss,David Pisapia,Stephan A. Mayer,Joshua Z. Willey,Kiwon Lee
Case Reports in Pathology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/678746
Abstract: Introduction. Amyloid-beta-related angiitis (ABRA) is a form of CNS vasculitis in which perivascular beta-amyloid in the intracerebral vessels is thought to act as a trigger for inflammation mediated by CD68
Vav3 oncogene activates estrogen receptor and its overexpression may be involved in human breast cancer
Kiwon Lee, Yin Liu, Jun Mo, Jinsong Zhang, Zhongyun Dong, Shan Lu
BMC Cancer , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-8-158
Abstract: Immunohistochemistry analysis was performed in 43 breast cancer specimens and western blot analysis was used for human breast cancer cell lines to determine the expression level of Vav3 protein. The impact of Vav3 on breast cancer cell growth was determined by siRNA knockdown of Vav3 expression. The role of Vav3 in ERα activation was examined in luciferase reporter assays. Deletion mutation analysis of Vav3 protein was performed to localize the functional domain involved in ERα activation. Finally, the interaction of Vav3 and ERα was assessed by GST pull-down analysis.We found that Vav3 was overexpressed in 81% of human breast cancer specimens, particularly in poorly differentiated lesions. Vav3 activated ERα partially via PI3K-Akt signaling and stimulated growth of breast cancer cells. Vav3 also potentiated EGF activity for cell growth and ERα activation in breast cancer cells. More interestingly, we found that Vav3 complexed with ERα. Consistent with its function for AR, the DH domain of Vav3 was essential for ERα activation.Vav3 oncogene is overexpressed in human breast cancer. Vav3 complexes with ERα and enhances ERα activity. These findings suggest that Vav3 overexpression may aberrantly enhance ERα-mediated signaling axis and play a role in breast cancer development and/or progression.Vav3 oncogene, a quanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rho family GTPases, belongs to Vav family proteins. The three mammalian Vav proteins (Vav1, Vav2, and Vav3) differ in their tissue distribution. Vav1 is primarily expressed in hematopoietic cells, while Vav2 and Vav3 are more ubiquitously expressed [1,2]. Vav proteins contain multiple function motifs and are involved in various cellular signaling processes, including cytoskeleton organization, calcium influx, phagocytosis, and cell transformation [3]. Vav proteins share a common structure, including a N-terminal calponin homology (CH) domain involved in Ca+2 mobilization and transforming activity, an acidic domain (AD)
Amyloid β-Related Angiitis Causing Coma Responsive to Immunosuppression
Shennan A. Weiss,David Pisapia,Stephan A. Mayer,Joshua Z. Willey,Kiwon Lee
Case Reports in Pathology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/678746
Abstract: Introduction. Amyloid-beta-related angiitis (ABRA) is a form of CNS vasculitis in which perivascular beta-amyloid in the intracerebral vessels is thought to act as a trigger for inflammation mediated by CD68+ macrophages and CD3+ T lymphocytes. Patients with severe ABRA may develop coma responsive to immunosuppressive treatment. Case Presentation. A 57-year-old man presented to the neurological intensive care unit febrile, obtunded, and with a left hemiparesis. He had suffered from intermittent left arm weakness and numbness for several months prior. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid studies showed a lymphocytic leukocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), but no other evidence of infection, and the patient underwent a brain biopsy. Histopathological examination demonstrated amyloid angiopathy, with an extensive perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate, indicative of ABRA. The patient was started on cyclophosphamide and steroids. Following a week of treatment he awakened and over several weeks made a significant neurological recovery. Conclusions. ABRA can have a variety of clinical presentations, including impairments in consciousness and coma. Accurate pathological diagnosis, followed by aggressive immunosuppression, can lead to impressive neurological improvements. This diagnosis should be considered in patients with paroxysmal recurrent neurological symptoms and an accelerated progression. 1. Introduction Deposition of beta-amyloid in the cerebral vasculature affects 30% of the healthy elderly and 90% of those with Alzheimer’s disease [1]. This process has been termed amyloid angiopathy and is a recognized cause of cerebral microhemorrhages and cerebral lobar hemorrhages. Amyloid-beta-related angiitis (ABRA) is a rare complications of amyloid angiopathy and is considered a form of CNS angiitis in which perivascular of beta-amyloid is thought to act as a trigger for inflammation [2]. Primary CNS vasculitis, encompassing all subtypes including ABRA, is rare occurring in 2.4 cases per 1,000,000 patient years [3]. We describe a patient with ABRA who was comatosed and responded to aggressive immunosuppression. 2. Case Presentation A 57-year-old man with a past history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2, hyperlipidemia, and crack cocaine use was admitted to a community hospital for flu like symptoms of one-week duration and ongoing paroxysmal episodes of left hand numbness and weakness occurring over several months. In the emergency department patient was febrile to 38.9°C. He had a slight peripheral white count and CSF demonstrated a lymphocytic
Non-Thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Preferentially Induces Apoptosis in p53-Mutated Cancer Cells by Activating ROS Stress-Response Pathways
Yonghao Ma, Chang Seung Ha, Seok Won Hwang, Hae June Lee, Gyoo Cheon Kim, Kyo-Won Lee, Kiwon Song
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091947
Abstract: Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPP) is an ionized gas at room temperature and has potential as a new apoptosis-promoting cancer therapy that acts by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, it is imperative to determine its selectivity and standardize the components and composition of NTAPP. Here, we designed an NTAPP-generating apparatus combined with a He gas feeding system and demonstrated its high selectivity toward p53-mutated cancer cells. We first determined the proper conditions for NTAPP exposure to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells. The apoptotic effect of NTAPP was greater for p53-mutated cancer cells; artificial p53 expression in p53-negative HT29 cells decreased the pro-apoptotic effect of NTAPP. We also examined extra- and intracellular ROS levels in NTAPP-treated cells to deduce the mechanism of NTAPP action. While NTAPP-mediated increases in extracellular nitric oxide (NO) did not affect cell viability, intracellular ROS increased under NTAPP exposure and induced apoptotic cell death. This effect was dose-dependently reduced following treatment with ROS scavengers. NTAPP induced apoptosis even in doxorubicin-resistant cancer cell lines, demonstrating the feasibility of NTAPP as a potent cancer therapy. Collectively, these results strongly support the potential of NTAPP as a selective anticancer treatment, especially for p53-mutated cancer cells.
Nutritional support and brain tissue glucose metabolism in poor-grade SAH: a retrospective observational study
J Michael Schmidt, Jan Claassen, Sang-Bae Ko, Hector Lantigua, Mary Presciutti, Kiwon Lee, E Sander Connolly, Stephan A Mayer, David S Seres, Neeraj Badjatia
Critical Care , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/cc11160
Abstract: We used a retrospective observational cohort study of 50 mechanically ventilated poor-grade (Hunt-Hess 4 or 5) aneurysmal SAH patients who underwent brain microdialysis monitoring for an average of 109 hours. Enteral nutrition was started within 72 hours of admission whenever feasible. Intensive insulin therapy was used to maintain serum glucose levels between 5.5 and 7.8 mmol/l. Serum glucose, insulin and caloric intake from enteral tube feeds, dextrose and propofol were recorded hourly. Cerebral metabolic distress was defined as a lactate to pyruvate ratio (LPR) > 40. Time-series data were analyzed using a general linear model extended by generalized estimation equations (GEE).Daily mean caloric intake received was 13.8 ± 6.9 cal/kg and mean serum glucose was 7.9 ± 1 mmol/l. A total of 32% of hourly recordings indicated a state of metabolic distress and < 1% indicated a state of critical brain hypoglycemia (< 0.2 mmol/l). Calories received from enteral tube feeds were associated with higher serum glucose concentrations (Wald = 6.07, P = 0.048), more insulin administered (Wald = 108, P < 0.001), higher body mass index (Wald = 213.47, P < 0.001), and lower body temperature (Wald = 4.1, P = 0.043). Enteral feeding (Wald = 1.743, P = 0.418) was not related to brain glucose concentrations after accounting for serum glucose concentrations (Wald = 67.41, P < 0.001). In the presence of metabolic distress, increased insulin administration was associated with a relative reduction of interstitial brain glucose concentrations (Wald = 8.26, P = 0.017), independent of serum glucose levels.In the presence of metabolic distress, insulin administration is associated with reductions in brain glucose concentration that are independent of serum glucose levels. Further study is needed to understand how nutritional support and insulin administration can be optimized to minimize secondary injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage.Hyperglycemia, defined as serum glucose > 11 mmol/l after suba
Effects of the neurological wake-up test on clinical examination, intracranial pressure, brain metabolism and brain tissue oxygenation in severely brain-injured patients
Raimund Helbok, Pedro Kurtz, Michael J Schmidt, Morgan R Stuart, Luis Fernandez, Sander E Connolly, Kiwon Lee, Erich Schmutzhard, Stephan A Mayer, Jan Claassen, Neeraj Badjatia
Critical Care , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/cc11880
Abstract: This prospective observational study was performed in a neuroscience intensive care unit in a tertiary-care academic center. Twenty consecutive severely brain-injured patients with multimodal neuromonitoring were analyzed for levels of brain lactate, pyruvate and glucose, intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2) during IS trials.Of the 82 trial days, 54 IS-trials were performed as interruption of sedation and analgesics were not considered safe on 28 days (34%). An increase in the FOUR Score (Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score) was observed in 50% of IS-trials by a median of three (two to four) points. Detection of a new neurologic deficit occurred in one trial (2%), and in one-third of IS-trials the trial had to be stopped due to an ICP-crisis (> 20 mmHg), agitation or systemic desaturation. In IS-trials that had to be aborted, a significant increase in ICP and decrease in PbtO2 (P < 0.05), including 67% with critical values of PbtO2 < 20 mmHg, a tendency to brain metabolic distress (P < 0.07) was observed.Interruption of sedation revealed new relevant clinical information in only one trial and a large number of trials could not be performed or had to be stopped due to safety issues. Weighing pros and cons of IS-trials in patients with acute brain injury seems important as related side effects may overcome the clinical benefit.Titrating sedatives and analgesics to achieve the right balance between deep sedation and wakefulness and to ameliorate patients' comfort in the intensive care unit (ICU) is an integral part of critical care [1]. Over-sedation can lead to prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay and increase the incidence of secondary complications, including nosocomial infections and delirium.Daily interruption of sedation trials (IS-trials) have been implemented in many surgical and medical ICUs after randomized controlled trials demonstrated that IS decreased the duration of
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