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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 523 matches for " Kirstin Greaves-Lord "
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Determinants of Physiological and Perceived Physiological Stress Reactivity in Children and Adolescents
Brittany E. Evans, Kirstin Greaves-Lord, Anja S. Euser, Joke H. M. Tulen, Ingmar H. A. Franken, Anja C. Huizink
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061724
Abstract: Aims Abnormal physiological stress reactivity is increasingly investigated as a vulnerability marker for various physical and psychological health problems. However, studies are inconsistent in taking into account potential covariates that may influence the developing stress system. We systematically tested determinants (individual, developmental, environmental and substance use-related) of physiological and perceived physiological stress reactivity. We also examined the relation between physiological and perceived physiological stress reactivity. Method In a stratified sample of 363 children (7–12 years) and 344 adolescents (13–20 years) from the general population, we examined cortisol, heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia and perceived physiological stress reactivity to a psychosocial stress procedure. Results Using multivariate linear regression models, we found that individual, developmental, environmental and substance use-related factors were related to each of the stress response indices. These determinant factors were different for each of the stress reactivity indices, and different in children versus adolescents. Perceived physiological stress reactivity predicted cortisol reactivity in adolescents only. All other relations between perceived physiological and physiological stress reactivity were not significant. Conclusions As physiological stress variables are often examined as vulnerability markers for the development of health problems, we maintain that it is essential that future studies take into consideration factors that may account for found relations. Our study provides an overview and indication of which variables should be considered in the investigation of the relation between physiological stress indices and illness.
Multifactorial Determinants of Target and Novelty-Evoked P300 Amplitudes in Children of Addicted Parents
Anja S. Euser, Brittany E. Evans, Kirstin Greaves-Lord, Ben J. M. van de Wetering, Anja C. Huizink, Ingmar H. A. Franken
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080087
Abstract: Background Although P300 amplitude reductions constitute a persistent finding in children of addicted parents, relatively little is known about the specificity of this finding. The major aim of this study was to investigate the association between parental rearing, adverse life events, stress-reactivity, substance use and psychopathology on the one hand, and P300 amplitude in response to both target and novel distracter stimuli on the other hand. Moreover, we assessed whether risk group status (i.e., having a parental history of Substance Use Disorders [SUD]) uniquely contributed to P300 amplitude variation above and beyond these other variables. Methods Event-related potentials were recorded in high-risk adolescents with a parental history of SUD (HR;n=80) and normal-risk controls (NR;n=100) while performing a visual Novelty Oddball paradigm. Stress-evoked cortisol levels were assessed and parenting, life adversities, substance use and psychopathology were examined by using self-reports. Results HR adolescents displayed smaller P300 amplitudes in response to novel- and to target stimuli than NR controls, while the latter only approached significance. Interestingly, the effect of having a parental history of SUD on target-P300 disappeared when all other variables were taken into account. Externalizing problem behavior was a powerful predictor of target-P300. In contrast, risk group status uniquely predicted novelty-P300 amplitude reductions above and beyond all other factors. Conclusion Overall, the present findings suggest that the P300 amplitude reduction to novel stimuli might be a more specific endophenotype for SUD than the target-P300 amplitude. This pattern of results underscores the importance of conducting multifactorial assessments when examining important cognitive processes in at-risk adolescents.
Pharmacogenetics in the Management of Coumarin Anticoagulant Therapy: The Way Forward or an Expensive Diversion?
Mike Greaves
PLOS Medicine , 2005, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0020342
Abstract:
Gunshot bullet embolus with pellet migration from the left brachiocephalic vein to the right ventricle: a case report
Nicholas Greaves
Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1757-7241-18-36
Abstract: The diagnosis and management of penetrating wounds of the great vessels continues to be a major surgical challenge. Their presentation varies from moribund patients to completely stable ones in whom the diagnosis is often missed unless subtle clues are noted [1]. This case study documents the conservative management of a patient who developed a venous bullet embolus after being shot with a shotgun. We aim to review some of the literature on bullet emboli to raise awareness of their existence, investigation and management. With the amount of gun crime increasing the likelihood of seeing such a case is higher. Such a complication can have significant morbidity and mortality unless detected early. Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report.A 16 year old male presented to our emergency department having been the victim of a 'drive-by' shooting. He was haemodynamically stable with shotgun wounds to the left side of the head and neck. Primary and secondary surveys were essentially normal barring superficial wounds but a CT trauma series was performed to look for occult injuries and establish pellet trajectories. The report confirmed over 70 lead density pellets scattered throughout the sub-cutaneous tissues of the left head, neck and shoulder. It also revealed a single pellet in the right atrium in the absence of any cardiac or mediastinal injury (see figure 1). However, there was evidence of damage to the left brachiocephalic vein with extravasation of contrast. The most plausible explanation for the intra-cardiac pellet was intra-vascular migration from the left brachiocephalic vein to the heart via the superior vena cava.Given the nature of his injuries the patient was moved to HDU for observation and on day 2 went to theatre for debridement and exploration of neck and facial wounds. Conservative management with antibiotics and serial scanning to monitor further bullet migration was favoured over surgical extraction for t
Pharmacogenetics in the management of coumarin anticoagulant therapy: the way forward or an expensive diversion?
Greaves Mike
PLOS Medicine , 2005,
Abstract:
Ashok Bery. Cultural Translation and Postcolonial Poetry
Sara GREAVES
E-rea : Revue électronique d’études sur le Monde Anglophone , 2009,
Abstract: This book explores and develops the fruitful and currently popular paradigm of translation as a metaphor, or at least as a far more elastic, extensive term than its common usage allows. It does not seek to dazzle, but invites the reader to an engaging, clearly-stated discussion of a number of poets loosely grouped under the umbrella-heading “postcolonial”: some are longstanding familiars such as Nobel Prize-winner Seamus Heaney or Louis MacNeice, slightly unexpected in this context, some are ...
Gullah, African Continuities, and their Representation in Dash’s Daughters of the Dust
Dara Greaves
The English Languages : History, Diaspora, Culture , 2010,
Abstract: This article examines Julie Dash's 1992 film Daughters of the Dust in relation to linguistic debates about the Gullah language. Dash's emphasis on Gullah culture's African continuities resembles a body of linguistic scholarship stressing African retentions in the Gullah language. Problematically, most theories of African linguistic continuity rely on troubling assumptions about authenticity and temporality, positioning Gullah as a pure preservation of African languages, and thereby implying that it embodies an earlier stage of linguistic development. Yet, this paper argues that Dash acknowledges Gullah's African continuities without perpetuating ideological assumptions about authenticity and temporal development. Dash creates characters from divergent cultural and linguistic backgrounds, who speak different levels of dialect and demonstrate a range of stylistic variation within the Gullah language. In doing so, the film rejects simple conceptions of African continuity and authenticity in favour of theories of linguistic and cultural convergence, componentiality, and flexibility.
Book Reviews - Heaven on Earth. A Journal Through Shari'a Law from the Deserts of Ancient Arabia to the Streets of the Modern Muslim World. By Sadakat Kadri.
Sheldon Greaves
Journal of Strategic Security , 2012,
Abstract:
Book Reviews - The New Muslim Brotherhood in the West. By Lorenzo Vidino.
Sheldon Greaves
Journal of Strategic Security , 2011,
Abstract:
A Primer of Middle Eastern Leadership Culture
Sheldon Greaves
Journal of Strategic Security , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5038/1944-0472.5.4.7
Abstract: It is natural for someone looking in on a foreign culture from the outside to interpret what they see and frame their reactions based on their own background and assumptions. With cultures as a different as those of the Middle East and the West, the potential for blunders increases dramatically, made worse by the high political, diplomatic, military, and commercial stakes involved. Leadership culture in this region has been shaped over centuries through a variety of factors, such as reputation, family, and religion, which continue to influence decision making. The present study posits that an understanding of these factors and how they work is crucial for intelligence analysts, policy and decision makers, strategists, and scholars who must find their way through a very unfamiliar cultural landscape in the Middle East. It is hoped that this discussion will in some way assist in the creation of more effective interaction, policies, and analysis associated with the Middle East.
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