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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 145270 matches for " Kirsten B. Moysich "
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Early Detection of Lung Cancer Using CT Scan and Bronchoscopy in a High Risk Population  [PDF]
Vijayvel Jayaprakash, Gregory M. Loewen, Samjot S. Dhillon, Kirsten B. Moysich, Martin C. Mahoney, Sai Yendamuri, D. Kyle Hogarth, Mary E. Reid
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2012.324051
Abstract: Background: Computed tomography (CT) and bronchoscopy have been shown to improve the detection rates of peripheral and central lung cancers (LC), respectively. However, the performance of the combination of CT and bronchoscopy in detecting LC, in high-risk patients, is not clear. Patients & Methods: This prospective study included 205 high-risk patients with a history of at least 2 of the following risk factors: (1) heavy smoking; (2) aero-digestive cancer; (3) pulmonary asbestosis or; (4) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Patients were offered chest X-ray, sputum cytology, conventional white-light followed by autofluorescence beonchoscopy (WL/AFB) and low-dose spiral CT both at baseline and follow-up visits. Results: Seven patients (3.4%) were diagnosed with LC or carcinoma in-situ (CIS) at baseline: CT evaluation detected 5 LC/CIS, while WL/AFB evaluation also identified 5 LC/CIS, 2 of which were not detected on CT. Six (85%) of these baseline lesions were early stage (0/IA). The relative-sensitivity of CT with WL/ AFB was 40% better than CT alone. On four year follow-up, 20 patients (9.8%) were diagnosed with an LC/CIS. CT with WL/AFB detected 19 cases (95%), whereas CT alone detected 15 cases (75%). Conclusion: Bimodality surveillance with spiral CT and WL/AFB can improve the detection of early stage LCs among high-risk patients
Regular use of aspirin and pancreatic cancer risk
Ravi J Menezes, Kenneth R Huber, Martin C Mahoney, Kirsten B Moysich
BMC Public Health , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-2-18
Abstract: In this hospital-based case-control study, 194 patients with pancreatic cancer were compared to 582 age and sex-matched patients with non-neoplastic conditions to examine the association between aspirin use and risk of pancreatic cancer. All participants received medical services at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, NY and completed a comprehensive epidemiologic questionnaire that included information on demographics, lifestyle factors and medical history as well as frequency and duration of aspirin use. Patients using at least one tablet per week for at least six months were classified as regular aspirin users. Unconditional logistic regression was used to compute crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Pancreatic cancer risk in aspirin users was not changed relative to non-users (adjusted OR = 1.00; 95% CI 0.72–1.39). No significant change in risk was found in relation to greater frequency or prolonged duration of use, in the total sample or in either gender.These data suggest that regular aspirin use may not be associated with lower risk of pancreatic cancer.Regular use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been consistently associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma [1-4], and there is some evidence for a protective effect for other types of cancer [5-9]. It is widely thought that the mechanism by which these drugs affect cancer risk is through the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes: the constitutively expressed COX-1 and the induced (in most tissues) COX-2 [10]. By inhibiting these enzymes, NSAIDs can inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, enhance cellular immune response, or induce of apoptosis, all of which have been postulated to be involved in carcinogenesis [11-13].The cyclooxygenase pathway and NSAIDs have been implicated in pancreatic carcinogenesis, as elevated levels of COX-2 mRNA and protein have been detected in pancreatic carcinomas relative to hi
Estimation of the correlation coefficient using the Bayesian Approach and its applications for epidemiologic research
Enrique F Schisterman, Kirsten B Moysich, Lucinda J England, Malla Rao
BMC Medical Research Methodology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-3-5
Abstract: The use of the hyperbolic tangent transformation (ρ = tanh ξ and r = tanh z) enables the investigator to take advantage of the conjugate properties of the normal distribution, which are expressed by combining correlation coefficients from different studies.One of the strengths of the proposed method is that the calculations are simple but the accuracy is maintained. Like meta-analysis, it can be seen as a method to combine different correlations from different studies.The correlation coefficient is a standard measure of association between two random variables and is widely used in epidemiology. As such, considerable attention has been given to its interpretation [1-3] as well as to the methods for correcting attenuation due to random measurement error [4,5]. Strategies for correcting measurement error require knowledge about the reliability of the measurements [2] for the use of an alloyed gold standard [6] to estimate reliability coefficients. In many epidemiological studies, the reliability of the measurements is unknown making it impossible to correct for attenuation.Classical methods are based solely on collected data, and ignore any prior knowledge of the association under investigation. The Bayesian approach is one alternative for estimating correlation coefficients in which knowledge from previous studies is incorporated to improve estimation. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the utility of the Bayesian approach. The summarizing properties and correction for measurement error of the Bayesian approach will be demonstrated. To illustrate this method, the correlation between maternal weight gain during pregnancy and infant birth weight will be examined.Bayes' Theorem holds that a prior state of knowledge offers relevant information for statistical analyses. To update beliefs about a hypothesis, Bayes' Theorem is used to calculate the posterior probability of the hypothesis, such as correlation coefficient ρ. As such, Bayes' Theorem [7] holds that the
Predictors of Immunosuppressive Regulatory T Lymphocytes in Healthy Women
Shalaka S. Hampras,Mary Nesline,Paul K. Wallace,Kunle Odunsi,Nicholas Furlani,Warren Davis,Kirsten B. Moysich
Journal of Cancer Epidemiology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/191090
Abstract: Immunosuppressive regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in antitumor immunity, self-tolerance, transplantation tolerance, and attenuation of allergic response. Higher proportion of Treg cells has been observed in peripheral blood of cancer cases compared to controls. Little is known about potential epidemiological predictors of Treg cell levels in healthy individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 75 healthy women, between 20 and 80 years of age, who participated in the Data Bank and BioRepository (DBBR) program at Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI), Buffalo, NY, USA. Peripheral blood levels of CD4
Influence of various factors on individual radiation exposure from the chernobyl disaster
Pavlo Zamostian, Kirsten B Moysich, Martin C Mahoney, Philip McCarthy, Alexandra Bondar, Andrey G Noschenko, Arthur M Michalek
Environmental Health , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-1-4
Abstract: This study employed an extensive review of data on radionuclide deposition, contamination patterns and lifestyle characteristics. Data were obtained from the Ukraine Ministry of Health and the Ukraine Research Center for Radiation Medicine.Data are presented on annual contamination rates in selected locales as well as data on local food consumption patterns. Historical factors including economic and political circumstances are also highlighted. Results show the diminution of individual doses between 1987 and 1991 and then an increase between 1991 and 1994 and the relationship between this increase and changes in the lifestyle of the local population.A number of factors played direct and indirect roles in contributing to the populace's cumulative radiation exposure. Future post-contamination studies need to consider these factors when estimating individual exposures.The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident can be differentiated from other radiation accidents not only by its magnitude but also by its transcontinental impact and the unique patterns of radionuclide fallout. It is estimated that more than four million people in the Ukraine alone were exposed. Unlike the atomic bomb detonation, exposures from Chernobyl were different and subtler [1]. Rather than high-energy external exposure, the vast majority of individuals received on-going, low-dose exposures owing to the presence of long-lived radionuclides such as cesium (Cs), strontium (Sr) and plutonium (Pu) in their food supply. These exposures and the government's response to minimize their effect were further complicated by the interplay of economic and political factors resulting from the dissolution of the Soviet Union.This report describes the dynamics of these factors in a specific region of Ukraine where the population received significant internal doses of radiation due to consumption of radioactively contaminated food and where these exposures, and thereby their health risks, appear to have been exacerb
Cruciferous vegetable intake is inversely associated with lung cancer risk among smokers: a case-control study
Li Tang, Gary R Zirpoli, Vijayvel Jayaprakash, Mary E Reid, Susan E McCann, Chukwumere E Nwogu, Yuesheng Zhang, Christine B Ambrosone, Kirsten B Moysich
BMC Cancer , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-10-162
Abstract: We conducted a hospital-based case-control study with lung cancer cases and controls matched on smoking status, and further adjusted for smoking status, duration, and intensity in the multivariate models. A total of 948 cases and 1743 controls were included in the analysis.Inverse linear trends were observed between intake of fruits, total vegetables, and cruciferous vegetables and risk of lung cancer (ORs ranged from 0.53-0.70, with P for trend < 0.05). Interestingly, significant associations were observed for intake of fruits and total vegetables with lung cancer among never smokers. Conversely, significant inverse associations with cruciferous vegetable intake were observed primarily among smokers, in particular former smokers, although significant interactions were not detected between smoking and intake of any food group. Of four lung cancer histological subtypes, significant inverse associations were observed primarily among patients with squamous or small cell carcinoma - the two subtypes more strongly associated with heavy smoking.Our findings are consistent with the smoking-related carcinogen-modulating effect of isothiocyanates, a group of phytochemicals uniquely present in cruciferous vegetables. Our data support consumption of a diet rich in cruciferous vegetables may reduce the risk of lung cancer among smokers.Lung cancer is the second most common cancer, and represents the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women. An estimated 29% of all cancer deaths in 2008 in the United States was expected from lung cancer [1]. Due to the poor survival rate, prevention has been the primary focus in fighting lung cancer. Cigarette smoking is the leading risk factor for lung cancer, contributing to 80-90% of lung cancer cases [2]. The primary public strategy to prevent lung cancer is to prevent initiation and promote cessation of smoking. In addition, certain dietary components may also be able to contribute to the prevention or delay of lung cancer among
CYP17 genetic polymorphism, breast cancer, and breast cancer risk factors
Christine B Ambrosone, Kirsten B Moysich, Helena Furberg, Jo L Freudenheim, Elise D Bowman, Sabrina Ahmed, Saxon Graham, John E Vena, Peter G Shields
Breast Cancer Research , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/bcr570
Abstract: Questionnaire and genotyping data were obtained from a population-based, case–control study of premenopausal (n = 182) and postmenopausal (n = 214) European-American Caucasian women in western New York. Cases and controls were frequency matched by age and by county of residence. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to estimate relative risks.The CYP17 genotype was not associated with breast cancer risk; however, controls with the A2/A2 genotype (associated with higher estrogens) had earlier menarche and earlier first full-term pregnancy. Premenopausal women with A1/A1 genotypes, but not with A2 alleles, were at significantly decreased risk with late age at menarche (odds ratio = 0.37, 95% confidence interval = 0.14–0.99), and at increased risk with late age at first full-term pregnancy (odds ratio = 4.30, 95% confidence interval = 1.46–12.67) and with use of oral contraceptives (odds ratio = 3.24, 95% confidence interval = 1.08–9.73). Associations were weaker among postmenopausal women.These results suggest that the effects of factors that may alter breast cancer risk through a hormonal mechanism may be less important among premenopausal women with putative higher lifetime exposures to circulating estrogens related to the CYP17 A2 allele.A number of studies have evaluated possible associations between a polymorphism in the cytochrome P450c17α (CYP17) gene and breast cancer risk [1-16]. Cytochrome P450c17α functions at key branch points in human steroidogenesis, catalyzing the ovarian and adrenal biosynthesis pathways for androstenedione, the immediate precursor of testosterone [17]. Three polymorphisms have been described in this gene: a C → T transition at nucleotide 5471 in intron 6 [18], a G → A transition at nucleotide 47 in the 5'-untranslated region promoter [19], and a thymidine substitution for cytosine at nucleotide 27 in the 5'-untranslated region promoter that creates a MspAI recognition site [20].The MspAI polymorphism gives rise to three g
The Chernobyl childhood leukemia study: background & lessons learned
Martin C Mahoney, Kirsten B Moysich, Philip L McCarthy, Richard C McDonald, Valery F Stepanenko, Robert W Day, Arthur M Michalek
Environmental Health , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-3-12
Abstract: This paper identifies the major challenges faced and the lessons learned in addressing them by the collaborative research groups involved in developing and conducting a large, multi-national case-control study of acute leukemia among children in areas of the former Soviet Union (FSU) that were most heavily exposed to radioactive fallout as a result of the April 1986 accident in reactor vessel #4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant.In this accident, a variety of radioisotopes including iodine (131I), cesium (137Cs, 134Cs), and strontium (90Sr), were released from the damaged reactor vessel contaminating soil, vegetation, and groundwater [1]. Fallout from the Chernobyl accident contaminated large portions of Eastern Europe, the then Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and more distant regions. Areas of the FSU, including the now independent republics of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine, were among the most heavily contaminated. The intent of the research project was to examine acute leukemias without specific regard to national boundaries, while recognizing the requirement to bring together investigators from these three republics in a common effort.Acute external exposures to ionizing radiation have been etiologically linked with observed increases in the risk of all types of leukemia, except chronic lymphocytic leukemia; the risk is greatest for acute myeloid leukemia [2-12]. The association between exposure to ionizing radiation from the Chernobyl accident and the occurrence of leukemia has been summarized in a recent review [10] which highlights mixed results from published studies to date (see the review article for a comprehensive overview of published studies). Accounting for differences between the studies in the methodologies used to assess the radiological exposures, the procedures for identifying childhood malignancies and in the lengths of follow up, these authors concluded that there is not strong evidence demonstrating increases in childhood or adult
Prognostic significance of MCM2, Ki-67 and gelsolin in non-small cell lung cancer
Jun Yang, Nithya Ramnath, Kirsten B Moysich, Harold L Asch, Helen Swede, Sadir J Alrawi, Joel Huberman, Joseph Geradts, John SJ Brooks, Dongfeng Tan
BMC Cancer , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-6-203
Abstract: 128 patients with pathologically confirmed, resectable NSCLC (stage I-IIIA) were included. Immunohistochemistry was utilized to measure the expressions of these markers in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissues. Staining and scoring of MCM2, Ki-67 and gelsolin was independently performed. Analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic significance of single expression of each marker, as well as the prognostic significance of composite expressions of MCM2 and gelsolin. Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were used for statistical analysis.Of the three markers, higher levels of gelsolin were significantly associated with an increased risk of death (adjusted RR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.17–3.05, p = 0.01), and higher levels of MCM2 were associated with a non-significant increased risk of death (adjusted RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 0.84–2.20, p = 0.22). Combined, adjusted analyses revealed a significantly poor prognostic effect for higher expression of MCM2 and gelsolin compared to low expression of both biomarkers (RR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.21–4.45, p = 0.01). Ki-67 did not display apparent prognostic effect in this study sample.The results suggest that higher tumor proliferation and motility may be important in the prognosis of NSCLC, and composite application of biomarkers might be of greater value than single marker application in assessing tumor prognosis.Abnormal cell proliferation, which results from deregulation of the cell cycle, is fundamental in tumorigenesis. The integrated mechanisms that regulate the accurate replication of DNA and correct division of cells are thus pivotal in the neoplastic process [1,2]. Regulation of the cell cycle is complex and involves a wide variety of genes and proteins, among which the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) nuclear proteins are essential replication initiation factors. The MCM protein family consists of six major isoforms (MCM2-7), which have similar biochemical functions [3] and are equally important for contin
Regular aspirin use and lung cancer risk
Kirsten B Moysich, Ravi J Menezes, Adrienne Ronsani, Helen Swede, Mary E Reid, K Cummings, Karen L Falkner, Gregory M Loewen, Gerold Bepler
BMC Cancer , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-2-31
Abstract: We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate the role of regular aspirin use in lung cancer etiology. Study participants included 868 cases with primary, incident lung cancer and 935 hospital controls with non-neoplastic conditions who completed a comprehensive epidemiological questionnaire. Participants were classified as regular aspirin users if they had taken the drug at least once a week for at least one year.Results indicated that lung cancer risk was significantly lower for aspirin users compared to non-users (adjusted OR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.41–0.78). Although there was no clear evidence of a dose-response relationship, we observed risk reductions associated with greater frequency of use. Similarly, prolonged duration of use and increasing tablet years (tablets per day × years of use) was associated with reduced lung cancer risk. Risk reductions were observed in both sexes, but significant dose response relationships were only seen among male participants. When the analyses were restricted to former and current smokers, participants with the lowest cigarette exposure tended to benefit most from the potential chemopreventive effect of aspirin. After stratification by histology, regular aspirin use was significantly associated with reduced risk of small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer.Overall, results from this hospital-based case-control study suggest that regular aspirin use may be associated with reduced risk of lung cancer.Regular use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory dugs (NSAIDs) has been consistently associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma [1-4], possibly due to NSAID-related inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, enhancement of cellular immune response, or induction of apoptosis [5-8]. A number of epidemiological studies have investigated the potential protective effect of NSAIDs with respect to other cancer sites. There is some evidence that regular and prolonged NSAID use is associat
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