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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 467687 matches for " Kimberly A. Leite-Morris "
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Effects of Ethanol and NAP on Cerebellar Expression of the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1
Devon M. Fitzgerald, Michael E. Charness, Kimberly A. Leite-Morris, Suzhen Chen
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024364
Abstract: The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is critical for brain development and plays a role in learning and memory in the adult. Ethanol inhibits L1-mediated cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs), and these actions might underlie the cerebellar dysmorphology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. The peptide NAP potently blocks ethanol inhibition of L1 adhesion and prevents ethanol teratogenesis. We used quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting of extracts of cerebellar slices, CGNs, and astrocytes from postnatal day 7 (PD7) rats to investigate whether ethanol and NAP act in part by regulating the expression of L1. Treatment of cerebellar slices with 20 mM ethanol, 10?12 M NAP, or both for 4 hours, 24 hours, and 10 days did not significantly affect L1 mRNA and protein levels. Similar treatment for 4 or 24 hours did not regulate L1 expression in primary cultures of CGNs and astrocytes, the predominant cerebellar cell types. Because ethanol also damages the adult cerebellum, we studied the effects of chronic ethanol exposure in adult rats. One year of binge drinking did not alter L1 gene and protein expression in extracts from whole cerebellum. Thus, ethanol does not alter L1 expression in the developing or adult cerebellum; more likely, ethanol disrupts L1 function by modifying its conformation and signaling. Likewise, NAP antagonizes the actions of ethanol without altering L1 expression.
Opiate Sensitization Induces FosB/ΔFosB Expression in Prefrontal Cortical, Striatal and Amygdala Brain Regions
Gary B. Kaplan, Kimberly A. Leite-Morris, WenYing Fan, Angela J. Young, Marsha D. Guy
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023574
Abstract: Sensitization to the effects of drugs of abuse and associated stimuli contributes to drug craving, compulsive drug use, and relapse in addiction. Repeated opiate exposure produces behavioral sensitization that is hypothesized to result from neural plasticity in specific limbic, striatal and cortical systems. ΔFosB and FosB are members of the Fos family of transcription factors that are implicated in neural plasticity in addiction. This study examined the effects of intermittent morphine treatment, associated with motor sensitization, on FosB/ΔFosB levels using quantitative immunohistochemistry. Motor sensitization was tested in C57BL/6 mice that received six intermittent pre-treatments (on days 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 12) with either subcutaneous morphine (10 mg/kg) or saline followed by a challenge injection of morphine or saline on day 16. Mice receiving repeated morphine injections demonstrated significant increases in locomotor activity on days 8, 10, and 12 of treatment (vs. day 1), consistent with development of locomotor sensitization. A morphine challenge on day 16 significantly increased locomotor activity of saline pre-treated mice and produced even larger increases in motor activity in the morphine pre-treated mice, consistent with the expression of opiate sensitization. Intermittent morphine pre-treatment on these six pre-treatment days produced a significant induction of FosB/ΔFosB, measured on day 16, in multiple brain regions including prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) cortex, nucleus accumbens (NAc) core, dorsomedial caudate-putamen (CPU), basolateral amygdala (BLA) and central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) but not in a motor cortex control region. Opiate induced sensitization may develop via Fos/ΔFosB plasticity in motivational pathways (NAc), motor outputs (CPU), and associative learning (PL, IL, BLA) and stress pathways (CNA).
Evidence for Environmental Contamination in Residential Neighborhoods Surrounding the Defense Depot of Memphis, Tennessee
Natasha A. Greene,Jason D. White,Vernon R. Morris,Stephanie Roberts,Kimberly L. Jones,Cynthia Warrick
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph2006030029
Abstract: An interdisciplinary environmental assessment team from the Howard University Environmental Justice Partnership (HUEJP) conducted a site visit and assessment of the Defense Depot of Memphis, Tennessee in February of 2000. This depot was built in the late 1940’s for storage of numerous chemicals and munitions. As the years progressed, many Memphis citizens have grown to believe that the activities and chemical stockpile located at this site have negatively affected the health environment of their residents. There is anecdotal evidence and documentation of numerous cancers and other illnesses in those local territories, and specifically, at the Memphis Depot site. Currently, this depot is closed and in remediation by the local government. Particularly, citizens of the Rozelle community have started a campaign to investigate any signs of exposure pathways to noted health risks. The HUEJP was contacted and asked to investigate the community concerns. Obliging to the request, we aimed to sample at three drainage sites and a residential site, talk to local citizens, and gain any additional information that would be helpful in relieving anxiety in the Rozelle community. Soil, sediment, and water samples were collected and analyzed for total organic carbon, inorganic anions, and heavy metals. These data show that for the four sites sampled, the highest concentrations of organic compounds and heavy metals were located either within a residential area or in an area with a direct transport pathway to the community. Atomic absorption analysis revealed detectable amounts of cadmium, lead and chromium metals at all sites with direct transport pathways into the residential community, with chromium concentrations being far in excess of the EPA standard limits.
A Biologist’s View of Creation  [PDF]
James A. Morris
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2019.91002
Abstract: A model of the Universe is proposed in which three-dimensional space consists of positive and negative charges which are exactly equal and opposite. The charges are separated by a distance d, which is a random variable of the order of 0.1 nm. The charges are produce by continuous creation from nothing and the Universe doubles in volume every 2 to 3 billion years. Vast tracts of space move relative to each other and they meet whirlpools that are produced in which the charges are forced together producing protons and neutrons. Each proton and each neutron consume a pair of charges every 917 seconds and this creates the force of gravity in which space physically contracts around large objects. This concept of gravity is consistent with Newton’s and Einstein’s equations and allows one to visualize curved space and space-time. Focal areas in which the charges are ordered create information and energy. Electromagnetic radiation is a wave of energy in which order forms at the front and dissolves at the rear. Large objects move in a straight line because their electrons order adjacent space and the object moves with a surrounding wave. The quantum world and the world of large objects are not dissimilar and we can construct physical models of the Universe that all intelligent humans can understand. This includes a physical understanding of Schrodinger’s equation and its parameters. Everything in the Universe is composed ultimately of positive and negative charges, which can be combined in an infinite number of ways. This applies to abstract concepts as well as concrete objects. The only difference is that the former is four dimensional and involves complex information flow. Thus human consciousness, behavior, religious beliefs and spiritual experience are just as real and susceptible to scientific study as are anatomy and physiology.
Benign Fibrous Histiocytoma of the Neurocranium  [PDF]
Chrisovalantis A. Tsimiklis, Tom Morris
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2013.44038
Abstract:

Presented is a case of benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) involving the calvarium of a 25 years old lady who noticed a depression in her occiput associated with localised pain. Imaging revealed a tumour eroding through the inner and outer skull tables, closely associated with major underlying dural sinuses. She underwent complete macroscopic resection of the tumour and reconstruction of a titanium mesh cranioplasty. Histology favoured a benign process with a diagnosis of BFH of the calvarium given. At 1 year follow-up, the patient is asymptomatic and has not developed recurrence of the tumour.

Comparison of a one-time educational intervention to a teach-to-goal educational intervention for self-management of heart failure: design of a randomized controlled trial
Darren A DeWalt, Kimberly A Broucksou, Victoria Hawk, David W Baker, Dean Schillinger, Bernice Ruo, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Mark Holmes, Morris Weinberger, Aurelia Macabasco-O'Connell, Michael Pignone
BMC Health Services Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-9-99
Abstract: In this randomized controlled multi-site trial, English and Spanish-speaking patients are recruited from university-affiliated General Internal Medicine and Cardiology clinics at 4 sites across the United States. Eligible patients have HF with New York Heart Association class II-IV symptoms and are prescribed a loop diuretic. Baseline data, including literacy level, are collected at enrollment and follow-up surveys are conducted at 1, 6 and 12 monthsUpon enrollment, both the control and intervention groups receive the same 40 minute, literacy-sensitive, in-person, HF education session covering the 4 key self-management components of daily self assessment and having a plan, salt avoidance, exercise, and medication adherence. All participants also receive a literacy-sensitive workbook and a digital bathroom scale. After the baseline education was completed, patients are randomly allocated to return to usual care or to receive ongoing education and training. The intervention group receives an additional 20 minutes of education on weight and symptom-based diuretic self-adjustment, as well as periodic follow-up phone calls from the educator over the course of 1 year. These phone calls are designed to reinforce the education, assess participant knowledge of the education and address barriers to success.The primary outcome is the combined incidence of all cause hospitalization and death. Secondary outcomes include HF-related quality of life, HF-related hospitalizations, knowledge regarding HF, self-care behavior, and self-efficacy. The effects of each intervention will be stratified by patient literacy, in order to identify any differential effects.Enrollment of the proposed 660 subjects will continue through the end of 2009. Outcome assessments are projected to be completed by early 2011.ClinicalTrials.gov http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ webcite NCT00378950Heart failure (HF) is common, costly, and associated with significant mortality, morbidity and poor quality of life. H
Dietary supplement education in a senior population  [PDF]
Kimberly G. Elder, Sarah A. Nisly
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2011.13015
Abstract: Background: Dietary supplements are widely used among United States senior citizens for various indications. Potential dangers with supplement use include the lack of regulation by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the possibility for drug-supplement interactions. Senior focused education may increase the safe use of dietary supplements by older adults. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a pharmacist driven educational seminar in a local senior population. Methods: Participants aged 55 years and older in one of three senior programs were eligible for inclusion. Initially, a needs-assessment interview was conducted at a health fair. At that time, interviews focusing on dietary supplement use were delivered to study participants. Following the health fair, interview responses were analyzed to determine the most commonly used dietary supplements. During the second phase of the project, an educational seminar focusing on general dietary supplement information and the most commonly used supplements in the phase one population was created and delivered. Pre- and post-surveys were administered at the seminar to gauge baseline knowledge and impact of pharmacist education. Additionally, results were analyzed for any change in attitudes about dietary supplements. Results: Forty-nine participants were interviewed about their use of dietary supplements at the initial health fair. Among these participants, 81.6% were taking at least one supplement. The most commonly used supplements were calcium (n = 23), multivitamins (n = 22), fish oil (n = 13), and vitamin B (n = 12). Approximately 180 participants attended the subsequent educational seminar. Knowledge statistically significantly improved from baseline for all six questions posed to study participants. Overall, the program was well received and attitudes about dietary supplements changed as a result of viewing the seminar. Conclusions: Dietary supplements were commonly used by the study population for various indications. Education by pharmacists is an effective method to increase knowledge and awareness about dietary supplements among this population.
An economic model of adult hearing screening
A. Morris
Audiology Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/audiores.2011.e16
Abstract: Populations are ageing and older adults make an increasing contribution to society, yet uncorrected hearing loss is common over the age of 50 years, increasing in prevalence and severity with age. The consequences of uncorrected hearing loss can be profound for hearing-impaired individuals and their communication partners but there is evidence that adults commonly delay 10-15 years before seeking help for hearing difficulty (Stephens et al., 1990; Davis et al., 2007) and the most common reason is the belief that their hearing is not bad enough (Ipsos-Mori/RNID survey, 2005). Hearing aids are currently the mainstay of intervention for hearing loss; evidence shows benefit to social functioning and quality of life even for mild hearing loss (Mulrow et al., 1990; Chisolm et al., 2007) and long term outcomes are better when they are obtained early (Davis et al., 2007). Screening adults for hearing loss would expedite intervention and reduce unmet need, leading to improved quality of life for many older adults. Previous work suggests adult hearing screening (AHS) should target adults aged 50-65 years, old enough for prevalence to justify screening but young enough to gain from early intervention...
Characterization of pPCP1 Plasmids in Yersinia pestis Strains Isolated from the Former Soviet Union
Chythanya Rajanna,Tamara Revazishvili,Mohammed H. Rashid,Svetlana Chubinidze,Lela Bakanidze,Shota Tsanava,Paata Imnadze,Kimberly A. Bishop-Lilly,Shanmuga Sozhamannan,Henry S. Gibbons,J. Glenn Morris Jr.,Alexander Sulakvelidze
International Journal of Microbiology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/760819
Abstract: Complete sequences of 9.5-kb pPCP1 plasmids in three Yersinia pestis strains from the former Soviet Union (FSU) were determined and compared with those of pPCP1 plasmids in three well-characterized, non-FSU Y. pestis strains (KIM, CO92, and 91001). Two of the FSU plasmids were from strains C2614 and C2944, isolated from plague foci in Russia, and one plasmid was from strain C790 from Kyrgyzstan. Sequence analyses identified four sequence types among the six plasmids. The pPCP1 plasmids in the FSU strains were most genetically related to the pPCP1 plasmid in the KIM strain and least related to the pPCP1 plasmid in Y. pestis 91001. The FSU strains generally had larger pPCP1 plasmid copy numbers compared to strain CO92. Expression of the plasmid's pla gene was significantly (≤.05) higher in strain C2944 than in strain CO92. Given pla's role in Y. pestis virulence, this difference may have important implications for the strain's virulence.
The Usefulness of Rapid Diagnostic Tests in the New Context of Low Malaria Transmission in Zanzibar
Delér Shakely, Kristina Elfving, Berit Aydin-Schmidt, Mwinyi I. Msellem, Ulrika Morris, Rahila Omar, Xu Weiping, Max Petzold, Bryan Greenhouse, Kimberly A. Baltzell, Abdullah S. Ali, Anders Bj?rkman, Andreas M?rtensson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072912
Abstract: Background We assessed if histidine-rich-protein-2 (HRP2) based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) remains an efficient tool for Plasmodium falciparum case detection among fever patients in Zanzibar and if primary health care workers continue to adhere to RDT results in the new epidemiological context of low malaria transmission. Further, we evaluated the performance of RDT within the newly adopted integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) algorithm in Zanzibar. Methods and Findings We enrolled 3890 patients aged ≥2 months with uncomplicated febrile illness in this health facility based observational study conducted in 12 primary health care facilities in Zanzibar, between May-July 2010. One patient had an inconclusive RDT result. Overall 121/3889 (3.1%) patients were RDT positive. The highest RDT positivity rate, 32/528 (6.1%), was found in children aged 5–14 years. RDT sensitivity and specificity against PCR was 76.5% (95% CI 69.0–83.9%) and 99.9% (95% CI 99.7–100%), and against blood smear microscopy 78.6% (95% CI 70.8–85.1%) and 99.7% (95% CI 99.6–99.9%), respectively. All RDT positive, but only 3/3768 RDT negative patients received anti-malarial treatment. Adherence to RDT results was thus 3887/3889 (99.9%). RDT performed well in the IMCI algorithm with equally high adherence among children <5 years as compared with other age groups. Conclusions The sensitivity of HRP-2 based RDT in the hands of health care workers compared with both PCR and microscopy for P. falciparum case detection was relatively low, whereas adherence to test results with anti-malarial treatment was excellent. Moreover, the results provide evidence that RDT can be reliably integrated in IMCI as a tool for improved childhood fever management. However, the relatively low RDT sensitivity highlights the need for improved quality control of RDT use in primary health care facilities, but also for more sensitive point-of-care malaria diagnostic tools in the new epidemiological context of low malaria transmission in Zanzibar. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01002066
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