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Family Environment Factors to Impact on the Effect of the Smoking Prevention Educational Program for Elementary and Junior High School Students  [PDF]
Kikuko Okuda, Hiroki Okada, Tetsuya Tanioka, Kyoko Osaka
Health (Health) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/health.2018.101006
Abstract: Smoking is a major health problem in many countries. It has been reported on the effects of education on youth with a reduced smoking rate and developed awareness of avoiding smoking verified as a result of educational intervention. The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between sex, school age, and family smoking and the effectiveness of smoking prevention education program (SPEP) as factors that impact the effectiveness of SPEP in elementary school and junior high school students. The participants in this survey were 6676 students, who attended elementary and junior high schools in Tokushima Prefecture between 2011 and 2015, and attended the SPEP. As factors that influence the effectiveness of the SPEP, we examined school types, sex, smokers in the family. Participants were asked the following questions before and after the SPEP to measure awareness of and attitudes toward smoking: “intention not to smoke cigarettes as adults”, “intention to refuse cigarettes when offered”, “attitude of staying away from smokers”, and “desire that their family will not smoke”. The number of survey collected was 6676, with effective responses from 5974 (90%). Among the 5974, there were 2963 (50%) males and 3011 (50%) females, 5106 elementary school students (86%), and 868 junior high school students (15%). In the case of smoker mother, it was difficult to improve these children’s “intention not to smoke as adults”, “intention to refuse cigarettes when offered”, and smoker father, it was difficult to improve these children’s “attitude of staying away from smokers”, and “desire that their family will not smoke”. Especially, in the case of smoker parents, it was particularly difficult for the SPEP to be effective in improving awareness of and attitudes toward smoking among elementary and junior high school students.
Characteristics of a Transactive Phenomenon in Relationships among Older Adults with Dementia, Nurses as Intermediaries, and Communication Robot  [PDF]
Kyoko Osaka, Hiroko Sugimoto, Tetsuya Tanioka, Yuko Yasuhara, Rozzano Locsin, Yueren Zhao, Kikuko Okuda, Ken Saito
Intelligent Control and Automation (ICA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ica.2017.82009
Abstract: Healthcare for older adults with dementia is an important healthcare problem in Japan and in other developed countries. Importantly, healthcare workers in Japan are also getting older. In order to address solutions to this problem, using robots is being realized and is starting to assist healthcare and welfare practice needs. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of a transactive phenomenon in relationships among older adults with dementia, with nurses as intermediaries and with a cognitive skill-aid robot. Subjects were two institutionalized older adults who were diagnosed with dementia using Hasegawa’s Dementia Scale-Revised; a Kabochan (Nodding Kabochan) fixed with a remote-controlled speaker, Pechat (Kabochan with Pechat). Measurements of autonomic nervous activity were done using wearable electrocardiography attached to the subjects for four hours. Heart Rate Variability data were assessed at various frequency bands using a HRV software tool. In a continuously recorded data, interbeat (R-R) intervals were obtained for a 1-min segment using the maximum entropy method. In this study, the two major spectral components of HRV, the variances of the low-frequency (LF: 0.04 - 0.15 Hz) band and high-frequency (HF: 0.15 - 0.4 Hz) band, were calculated. Activities and behaviors of subjects transacting with Kabochan were observed by the expert nurses and video-recorded. Throughout the transaction period, observations were recorded of patients’ behavior, words uttered and over-all contents of the transactive conversation with the Kabochan or Kabochan with Pechat. Identified characteristics were transactive relationship phenomenon; changes in autonomic nervous system activity of persons with dementia are expressed as per one minute, linguistic response of elderly people, transactive relations among Kabochan, Kabochan with Pechat, and nurses as intermediaries. These were exhibited as Figures: Situation 1, A Sense of Fear, Situation 2, A Pleasant Sensation, and Situation 3, Misunderstanding and Confusion. It also showed that autonomic nervous system activity of persons with communication skills is actively changing in older adults with dementia. Conversation of adding Pechat to the Kabochan illustrated that nurses as intermediaries showed emotional conversations as established by effectively manipulating the Pechat. Also, it was revealed that if Kabochan with Pechat uttered words about patient’s personal information in a conversation, the patient felt a sense of fear. The researchers suggest that when developing future
Proposal of Functional Thermal Control Systems for High-Power Micro-Satellite and Its Demonstration under Thermal Vacuum Condition  [PDF]
Ai Ueno, Kohei Yamada, Kikuko Miyata, Hosei Nagano
Journal of Electronics Cooling and Thermal Control (JECTC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jectc.2018.81001
Abstract: In previous years, several high-power micro-satellites below ~100 kg have been developed for high-functional spacecraft. This paper proposes a functional and high-power thermal control system with no power supply and a simple configuration for micro-satellite: 100 W, 3 U. The proposed system consists of a heat storage panel (HSP) with pitch type CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer), a micro loop heat pipe (m-LHP) and a flexible re-deployable radiator (FRDR) as an active thermal control system. The aim of this research is to try not only to verify the thermal control devices, but also to perform a water phase change experiment as a payload using an electric power generation of 100 W in space environment. In this paper, the basic design of the satellite, the analysis of the feasibility by the thermal mathematical model, and the fabrication of thermal test model including water phase chamber are reported. The main results of thermal analysis as feasibility verification showed that the paddles could absorb the thermal energy up to 97 W at the solar input of 180 W, and the operating temperature of bus equipment became within the allowable temperature range (0°C - 40°C). At thermal vacuum test, the difference between the analysis and the experiment for the temperature history of water due to the discordance for the value of thermal conductance was discussed.
Multidrug Delivery Systems with Single Formulation——Current status and Future Perspective  [PDF]
Tatsuya Okuda, Satoru Kidoaki
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2012.31007
Abstract: Development of new way and system for multidrug delivery has recently attracted much attention and became one of major issue in drug delivery research. Although this research field is still immature compared to the single drug delivery system, intensive efforts have recently been devoted by researchers in order to realize more efficient, functional, and safe combination therapy using multiple drugs or agents. In this review article, we outline several targets in terms of application for biochemical modulation together with various concrete attempts of simultaneous and sequential delivery of multiple drugs or agents with single formulation. Finally, we will also summarize the possible contribution of biomaterial sciences and nanobiotechnology for improvement of future multidrug delivery system.
Distinct Transforming Activity of ABL Family Tyrosine Kinase Oncogenes Is Induced by Their C-Terminal Domain*  [PDF]
Keiko Okuda, Hideyo Hirai
Open Journal of Blood Diseases (OJBD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojbd.2013.33A005
Abstract: The TEL/ARG oncogene is similar in structure to the TEL/ABL fusion found in human leukemia, however, we have demonstrated previously that the expression of TEL/ARG in Ba/F3 cells does not sustain strong activity of proliferation, whereas, that of TEL/ABL appeared to induce immediate cell proliferation. To study the molecular basis of the difference in the transforming activity of TEL/ARG and TEL/ABL, TEL/ARG mutants that swapped the kinase domain or C-terminus of ARG with the corresponding domain in ABL were generated, and each mutant was expressed in Ba/F3 cells. A TEL/ARG mutant containing the ABL kinase domain was similar to TEL/ARG in this study, but replacing the ARG C-terminal domain with that of ABL resulted in accelerated proliferation that was similar to that of TEL/ABL. When expressed in primary mouse bone marrow cells by retroviral transduction, spontaneous colony formation in methylcellulose culture was observed, in a fashion dependent on the C-terminal portion of ABL. These results indicate that distinct bio-phenotypes associated with these oncogenes are likely to be regulated by their C-termini, and the C-terminus of ARG contains a functional subdomain that impairs the growth signal induced by ABL family tyrosine kinase.
The Relationship between Experiences of Athletic and Daily Life and Personality in Senior High School Students  [PDF]
Daisuke Horii, Enji Okuda
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2019.103020
Abstract: No single factor has yet emerged to date in the literature on personality, and it is unlikely that one will ever be found given the diversity of traits subsumed under the category of personality. We hypothesized that experiences of crisis, exploration, and commitment in athletic and daily life events affect personality. This study examined the relationship between experiences of athletic and daily life and personality in Japanese senior high school students by using multiple regression analysis. We had senior high school students (189 males and 118 females) complete a questionnaire assessing their experiences of crisis, exploration, and commitment on four issues (Teammates, Authority Figures, Competition Results, Contest Continuation) in the athletic domain, and on six issues (Study, Future Courses, Values, Family, Opposite Sex Friends, Same Sex Friends) in the daily life domain. Our results reveal that, there are significant models for factors of Extraversion and Neuroticism in males with less than 10 years of experience; for males with over 10 years of experience, there were significant models for factors of Neuroticism. Moreover, for males with less than 10 years of experience, there were significant relationships between personality with regards to exploration in the athletic domain and daily life domain; for males with over 10 years of experience, there were significant relationships between personality with regards to commitment in the athletic domain, crisis, and commitment in the daily life domain. For females with less than 10 years of experience, there was no significant difference; for females with over 10 years of experience, there were significant relationships between personality with regards to crisis in the athletic domain. Thus, there was a more significant relationship between various experiences and personality in males than females. Similar to previous research examining personality, this study highlights the importance of including experiences of crisis, exploration, and commitment when taking part in sports activity.
Acetic acid ulcer model - state of the art in 2010
Susumu Okabe,Kikuko Amagase,Koji Takeuchi
Polish Gastroenterology , 2010,
Abstract: Two types of a chronic ulcer model, named acetic acid ulcers, have been developed in experimental animals to examine the healing process of gastro-duodenum ulcers, screen ulcer-healing drugs, and evaluate the adverse effects of various anti-inflammatory drugs and/or Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection on the gastrointestinal mucosa. The model demonstrates ease and reliability for producing round, deep ulcers in the stomach and duodenum in mice, rats, Mongolian gerbils, guinea pigs, cats, dogs, miniature pigs, and monkeys. One of the characteristic features of acetic acid ulcers in rats is the spontaneous relapse of healed ulcers >100 days after ulceration, an endoscopical examination confirmed the phenomenon. Indomethacin significantly delays the healing of acetic acid ulcers, probably by reducing endogenous prostaglandins and inhibiting angiogenesis in ulcerated tissue. H. pylori significantly delays healing of acetic acid ulcers and causes relapse of healed ulcers at a high incidence in Mongolian gerbils. Antisecretory drugs (e.g. omeprazole, lansoprazole) and mucosal defensive drugs (e.g. sucralfate, irsogladine maleate, rebamipide) are known to enhance healing of acetic acid ulcers. In addition, we discussed the potential usefulness of acetic acid ulcer models for early gastric tumor therapy by changing a malignant tumor to a benign ulcer by applying acetic acid under the tumor tissue or topically to the luminal surface of tumor tissue using an endoscope.
Review of tocilizumab in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
Yasuaki Okuda
Biologics: Targets and Therapy , 2008,
Abstract: Yasuaki OkudaDepartment of Internal Medicine, Center for Rheumatic Diseases, Dohgo Spa Hospital, Matsuyama-city, Ehime, JapanAbstract: Constitutively overproduced in proliferating synovial tissues, interleukin-6 (IL-6) is deeply involved in the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Tocilizumab is a humanized anti-human IL-6 receptor antibody that binds to soluble and membrane-bound IL-6 receptor, and at detectable levels in blood, tocilizumab is capable of almost completely blocking the transmembrane signaling of IL-6. In clinical trials for patients with RA in Japan, tocilizumab monotherapy has shown clinical efficacy equaling that of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor in combination with methotrexate, and in an extension study in patients who responded to tocilizumab, almost no patients showed a decrease in the efficacy of tocilizumab. Evidence obtained in a phase III study in Japan demonstrated that tocilizumab monotherapy had a significant inhibitory effect on the progression of structural joint damage compared with that of conventional disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Furthermore it has been shown that tocilizumab has an excellent ability to suppress serum amyloid A levels and could therefore be an important therapeutic strategy in amyloid A amyloidosis secondary to rheumatic diseases. The safety profile of tocilizumab appears to be satisfactory. However, several serious infections were also reported, and careful monitoring is therefore important during use.Keywords: tocilizumab, rheumatoid arthritis, interleukin-6, treatment, amyloidosis, biologics
The Equality of Solutions in Vacuum String Field Theory
Takuya Okuda
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1016/S0550-3213(02)00615-6
Abstract: We analytically prove that the matter solution of vacuum string field theory constructed by Kostelecky and Potting is the matter sliver state. We also give an analytical proof that the ghost solution by Hata and Kawano is the sliver state in the twisted ghost CFT. It is also proved that the candidate state for the tachyon proposed by Hata and Kawano can be identified with the state constructed by Rastelli, Sen and Zwiebach using CFT. Our proofs are based on the techniques recently developed by Okuyama.
Recent results from Telescope Array
Takeshi Okuda
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: The Telescope Array (TA) observatory, located in midwest Utah, USA, is designed to detect ultra high energy cosmic rays whose energy is greater than 1 EeV. TA mainly consists of two types of detector. The first type is the atmospheric Fluorescence Detector (FD). TA's three FDs have been in operation since Fall 2007. The other type of detector is a ground-covering Surface Detector (SD), which has been operating at TA since Spring 2008. In addition, the TA-Rader (TARA) and EUSO-TA associated experiments are co-located with TA, and the TA Low Energy (TALE) extension recently started partial operation. I report some recent general results from TA, and describe our future plans.
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