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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 295168 matches for " Kieron P. O’Connor "
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Effect of emotional valence on episodic memory stages as indexed by event-related potentials  [PDF]
Marc E. Lavoie, Kieron P. OConnor
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2013.34034
Abstract:

Several investigations have shown that emotional events show superior recall than non-emotional ones. However, the cortical mechanisms underlying the episodic recall of emotional scenes are still poorly understood. Our main aim was to compare the magnitude of the Event-Related brain Potentials (ERP) old-new effect related to emotionally unpleasant, pleasant and neutral photographic images. As expected, correct recognition of all types of images elicited three topographically distinct ERP components sensitive to the classical old-new recognition effect. The results revealed that the behavioral performances were mainly sensitive to arousal, while the ERP old/new effect over posterior regions (300 - 1000 ms) was exclusively affected by unpleasantness. A later component (1000 - 1400 ms) showed an inverted old/ new effect at parietal sites, which was also sensitive to unpleasantness. These results imply that ERP reflecting episodic conscious recollection and post-retrieval monitoring are clearly affected both by valence and arousal.

Cognitive Aspects of Hyperactivity and Overactivity in Preadolescents with Tourette Syndrome
Anick Laverdure,Kieron O'Connor,Marc E. Lavoie
Psychiatry Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/198746
Abstract: Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD) is a common comorbidity in children with Tourette syndrome (TS). However, motor restlessness and high levels of sensorimotor activation or “overactivity” may be a feature of TS rather than a distinct ADHD comorbidity. The link between overactivity and ADHD in TS has yet to be established and in particular between adult and preadolescent manifestations. The current study furthers this understanding of ADHD features in TS by investigating the relationship between cognitive and behavioral aspects of ADHD and TS. The style of planning (STOP) overactivity scale was compared in preadolescent ( ) and adult ( ) samples. The STOP overactivity scale measures the characteristic overactive style of planning in everyday life. The aims of the study were twofold as follows: (1) to see if an overactive style was present in adolescents as well as in adults, and (2) to see if this overactive style correlated with hyperactivity, impulsivity, or perfectionism. Results suggest that overactivity may be a better description of the hyperactivity manifestations in TS. Behavioral components of overactivity were present in preadolescents while the cognitive components were more frequent in adults. Overactivity relates at the same time to perfectionism and impulsivity. 1. Introduction Tourette syndrome (TS) is a tic disorder characterized by the presence of at least one phonic tic and several motor tics for 3 consecutive months (American Psychiatric Association [1]. A tic is defined as an involuntary, sudden, repetitive and stereotyped movement or vocalization. TS has to be diagnosed before the age of 18 and is more frequent in males than in females (1.5?:?1 to 3?:?1) [2–6] TS is present in 5 to 30 children and in 1 to 2 adults on 10?000 [1]. Over the last decade, many epidemiological studies have tried to establish a more representative prevalence rate of TS [7–11], and the prevalence rate of TS is estimated now to be one individual in 200 [12]. Rates of comorbidity vary across studies and estimates between 50% and 90% of children with TS have sufficient behavioral and emotional symptoms to meet diagnostic criteria for a comorbid disorder [13, 14]. In most cases, the externalized manifestations of these comorbid disorders may be more disruptive than the tics per se and can often be the main motivator for seeking help [12]. The disorders most frequently associated with TS are attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety and mood disorders, behavioral disorders, and learning
A longitudinal study of quality of life among people living with a progressive neurological illness  [PDF]
Marita P. McCabe, Elodie J. OConnor
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.56A2004
Abstract:

This study investigated predictors of quality of life (QOL) of people with progressive neurological illnesses. Participants were 257 people with motor neurone disease (MND), Huntington’s disease (HD), multiple sclerosis (MS), or Parkinson’s. Participants completed questionnaires on two occasions, 12 months apart. There was an increase in severity of symptoms for people withMND, negative mood for people with HD and Parkinson’s, and social support satisfaction for people with MS. Regression analyses were conducted to determine predictors of QOL for each group. Predictor variables were length of illness, symptoms (physical symptoms, control over body, cognitive symptoms and psychological symptoms), mood, relationship satisfaction and social support. Predictors of QOL were severity of symptoms for people withMND, HD and MS; negative mood for people withMNDand Parkinson’s; and social support satisfaction for people with MS. These results demonstrate the importance of illness severity and mood in predicting QOL, but also indicate differences between illness groups. The limited role played by social support and relationship is a surprising finding from the current study.

Improvement of 18 carat white gold alloys
Grahame P. OConnor
Gold Bulletin , 1978, DOI: 10.1007/BF03215446
Abstract: Although there appears to be scope for the improvement of existing white gold jewellery alloys, the discovery of a radically new alloy seems unlikely. In this article, details are given of one line of approach which resulted in an interesting 18 carat alloy containing nickel, cobalt, iron, chromium and indium.
Crosstalk in multi-output CCDs for LSST
P. O'Connor
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/10/05/C05010
Abstract: LSST's compact, low power focal plane will be subject to electronic crosstalk with some unique signatures due to its readout geometry. This note describes the crosstalk mechanisms, ongoing characterization of prototypes, and implications for the observing cadence.
Recovery of Essential Plant Nutrients from Biofuel Residual  [PDF]
S. Agyin- Birikorang, G. A. OConnor, P. C. Pullammanappallil, G. R. Mohan
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2013.32021
Abstract:

Essential plant nutrients contained in residues and wastes generated during biofuel processing can be recovered for further production of bioenergy biomass. The objective of this study was to determine the relative agronomic efficiency of “processed” biofuel residual (PBR). Liquid biofuel residual was “processed” by precipitating phosphate and ammonium in the residual with magnesium into a struvite-like material. Then, in a series of greenhouse experiments, we evaluated the fertility potential of PBR, using sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), as a test bioenergy crop. We compared the agronomic effectiveness of PBR to inorganic commercial fertilizers, biosolids, and poultry manure as nutrient sources. The sources were either applied alone or in combination with supplemental essential plant nutrients (S, K, Mg, and micronutrients). In each of the greenhouse experiments, the crop was grown for 12 wk on soil of minimal native fertility. After each harvest, sufficient water was applied to the soil in each pot over a 6-wk period to yield ~2 L (~one pore volume) of leachate to assess potential total N and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) losses. Dry matter yields from the PBR treatment applied alone were significantly greater than yields from inorganic fertilizers, biosolids, and poultry manure treatments applied alone, and similar to yields obtained when the supplemental essential plant nutrients were added to the inorganic fertilizer, biosolids, and manure treatments. Leachate N and SRP concentrations from the PBR treatment were significantly lower than in the treatments with inorganic fertilizers, poultry manure, and biosolids. We conclude that PBR can substitute for inorganic fertilizers and other organic sources of plant nutrients to produce bioenergy biomass cheaply, without causing offsite N and P losses in vulnerable soils.

The Sociology of Humanist, Spiritual, and Religious Practice in Prison: Supporting Responsivity and Desistance from Crime
Tom P. OConnor,Jeff B. Duncan
Religions , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/rel2040590
Abstract: This paper presents evidence for why Corrections should take the humanist, spiritual, and religious self-identities of people in prison seriously, and do all it can to foster and support those self-identities, or ways of establishing meaning in life. Humanist, spiritual, and religious (H/S/R) pathways to meaning can be an essential part of the evidence-based responsivity principle of effective correctional programming, and the desistance process for men and women involved in crime. This paper describes the sociology of the H/S/R involvement of 349 women and 3,009 men during the first year of their incarceration in the Oregon prison system. Ninety-five percent of the women and 71% of the men voluntarily attended at least one H/S/R event during their first year of prison. H/S/R events were mostly led by diverse religious and spiritual traditions, such as Native American, Protestant, Islamic, Wiccan, Jewish, Jehovah Witness, Latter-day Saints/Mormon, Seventh Day Adventist, Buddhist, and Catholic, but, increasingly, events are secular or humanist in context, such as education, yoga, life-skills development, non-violent communication, and transcendental meditation groups. The men and women in prison had much higher rates of H/S/R involvement than the general population in Oregon. Mirroring gender-specific patterns of H/S/R involvement found in the community, women in prison were much more likely to attend H/S/R events than men.
Additions and corrections to Part 1 of ‘A World Catalogue of Chironomidae (Diptera)’
Patrick Ashe,James P O'Connor
Fauna Norvegica , 2012, DOI: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1366
Abstract: An update of the more significant changes affecting Part 1 of ‘A World Catalogue of Chironomidae (Diptera)’ is provided. These concern new taxon names, new combinations and new synonymies that were proposed, as well as omissions and errors detected, since the publication of the Catalogue at the end of 2009. doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1366. Published online: 17 October 2012.
High-Resolution Three-Dimensional Simulations of Core-Collapse Supernovae in Multiple Progenitors
Sean M. Couch,Evan P. O'Connor
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/785/2/123
Abstract: Three-dimensional simulations of core-collapse supernovae are granting new insight into the as-yet uncertain mechanism that drives successful explosions. While there is still debate about whether explosions are obtained more easily in 3D than in 2D, it is undeniable that there exist qualitative and quantitative differences between the results of 3D and 2D simulations. We present an extensive set of high-resolution one-, two-, and three-dimensional core-collapse supernova simulations with multispecies neutrino leakage carried out in two different progenitors. Our simulations confirm the results of Couch (2013) indicating that 2D explodes more readily than 3D. We argue that this is due to the inadequacies of 2D to accurately capture important aspects of the three-dimensional dynamics. We find that without artificially enhancing the neutrino heating rate we do not obtain explosions in 3D. We examine the development of neutrino-driven convection and the standing accretion shock instability and find that, in separate regimes, either instability can dominate. We find evidence for growth of the standing accretion shock instability for both 15-$M_\odot$ and 27-$M_\odot$ progenitors, however, it is weaker in 3D exploding models. The growth rate of both instabilities is artificially enhanced along the symmetry axis in 2D as compared with our axis-free 3D Cartesian simulations. Our work highlights the growing consensus that core-collapse supernovae must be studied in 3D if we hope to solve the mystery of how the explosions are powered.
Applying Complexity Theory to a Dynamical Process Model of the Development of Pathological Belief Systems
Brian P. O'Connor,Liane Gabora
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: A general dynamical process model of psychiatric disorders is proposed that specifies the basic cognitive processes involved in the transition from beliefs about self, others and world that are normal and adaptive, to beliefs that are rigid, extreme, and maladaptive. The relevant thought trajectories are self-confirming, and are considered to underlie the corresponding trajectories in symptoms. In contrast with previous work, the model focuses on underlying mechanisms, and it provides an evolutionary basis for the widespread susceptibility to psychiatric symptoms and disorders without the problematic claim that such disorders were selected by evolutionary forces. The model thereby incorporates both normality and abnormality in the same framework.
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