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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4515 matches for " Kichul Shin "
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Adiponectin is a potential catabolic mediator in osteoarthritis cartilage
Eun Kang, Yun Lee, Tae Kim, Chong Chang, Jin-Haeng Chung, Kichul Shin, Eun Lee, Eun Lee, Yeong Song
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/ar3218
Abstract: Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to evaluate differential expression of adiponectin receptors (AdipoRs) in nonlesional and lesional areas of OA cartilage. Cartilage and chondrocytes from the knee joints of primary OA patients were cultured in the presence of adiponectin (0~30 μg/ml). The levels of total nitric oxide (NO), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -3, and -13, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 were measured in the conditioned media. The levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and MMPs were determined with the quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The concentrations of collagenase-cleaved type II collagen neoepitope (C1-2C) were determined in the supernatant of adiponectin-stimulated OA cartilage explants. The effects of kinase and NOS inhibitors were evaluated in the adiponectin-stimulated chondrocytes.The expression levels of both AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were significantly higher in lesional than in nonlesional areas of OA cartilage. The increased rate of AdipoR1-positive chondrocytes was twice that of AdipoR2-positive chondrocytes when compared between nonlesional and lesional areas. Adiponectin-stimulated OA chondrocytes showed increased total NO and MMP-1, -3, and -13 levels compared with nonstimulated cells. The TIMP-1 level was not affected. The C1-2C levels were increased by adiponectin in OA cartilage explant culture. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitors (compound C and SP600125) significantly suppressed adiponectin-induced production of total NO and MMP-1, -3, and -13. Inducible NOS inhibitors enhanced the expression of the adiponectin-induced MMPs.Adiponectin causes matrix degradation in OA cartilage and increases MMPs and iNOS expression via the AMPK and JNK pathways in human OA chondrocytes. The catabolic effects of adiponectin may be counteracted by NO.Obesity has long been considered a risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA) [1-4]. It has been report
Associations between the HLA-A polymorphism and the clinical manifestations of Behcet's disease
Eun Ha Kang, Jeong Yeon Kim, Fujio Takeuchi, Joon Wan Kim, Kichul Shin, Eun Young Lee, Yun Jong Lee, Eun Bong Lee, Myoung Hee Park, Yeong Wook Song
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/ar3292
Abstract: Genotyping for the HLA-A locus was performed using the polymerase chain reaction-Luminex typing method in 223 BD patients and 1,398 healthy controls.The phenotypic frequencies of HLA-A*02:07 (odds ratio (OR) = 2.03, P = 0.002), A*26:01 (OR = 1.85, P = 0.008), and A*30:04 (OR = 2.51, P = 0.006) tended to be higher in BD patients than in normal controls, but the frequency of A*33:03 (OR = 0.59, P = 0.003) tended to be lower in BD patients. A meta-analysis adopting our and the Japanese data confirmed the associations of HLA-A*02:07, A*26:01, and A*33:03 with BD. Furthermore, the frequencies of the HLA-A*02:07, A*26:01, and A*30:04 were significantly higher in patients with skin lesions (OR = 2.37, P < 0.0005, Pc < 0.012) and arthritis (OR = 2.32, P = 0.002, Pc = 0.048), with uveitis (OR = 3.01, P < 0.0005, Pc < 0.012), and with vascular lesions (OR = 9.80, P < 0.0005, Pc < 0.012) and a positive pathergy test (OR = 4.10, P = 0.002, Pc = 0.048), respectively, than in controls. In HLA-B*51 non-carriers, these associations were also significant, being much stronger between HLA-A*26:01 and uveitis (OR = 4.19, P < 0.0005, Pc < 0.012) and between HLA-A*30:04 and vascular lesions (OR = 13.97, P < 0.00005, Pc < 0.0012). In addition, HLA-A*30:04 was associated with genital ulcers in HLA-B*51 non-carriers (OR = 3.89, P = 0.002, Pc = 0.048).HLA-A*02:07, A*26:01, and A*30:04 were associated with increased risk for BD, while HLA-A*33:03 with decreased risk. HLA-A*02:07, A*26:01, and A*30:04 were associated with skin lesions and arthritis, with uveitis, and with vascular lesions, genital ulcers, and a positive pathergy test, respectively.Behcet's disease (BD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory disease characterized by oro-genital ulcers, cutaneous inflammation, and uveitis. In addition to its typical muco-cutaneous and ocular manifestations, BD targets the musculoskeletal, vascular, nervous, and gastrointestinal systems [1]. Although the etiology of BD remains unclear, strong famili
Interferon Regulatory Factor 5 in the Pathogenesis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Candace M. Cham,Kichul Ko,Timothy B. Niewold
Clinical and Developmental Immunology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/780436
Abstract: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by multiple genetic risk factors, high levels of interferon alpha (IFN-α), and the production of autoantibodies against components of the cell nucleus. Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is a transcription factor which induces the transcription of IFN-α and other cytokines, and genetic variants of IRF5 have been strongly linked to SLE pathogenesis. IRF5 functions downstream of Toll-like receptors and other microbial pattern-recognition receptors, and immune complexes made up of SLE-associated autoantibodies seem to function as a chronic endogenous stimulus to this pathway. In this paper, we discuss the physiologic role of IRF5 in immune defense and the ways in which IRF5 variants may contribute to the pathogenesis of human SLE. Recent data regarding the role of IRF5 in both serologic autoimmunity and the overproduction of IFN-α in human SLE are summarized. These data support a model in which SLE-risk variants of IRF5 participate in a “feed-forward” mechanism, predisposing to SLE-associated autoantibody formation, and subsequently facilitating IFN-α production downstream of Toll-like receptors stimulated by immune complexes composed of these autoantibodies.
Interferon Regulatory Factor 5 in the Pathogenesis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Candace M. Cham,Kichul Ko,Timothy B. Niewold
Journal of Immunology Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/780436
Abstract: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by multiple genetic risk factors, high levels of interferon alpha (IFN-α), and the production of autoantibodies against components of the cell nucleus. Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is a transcription factor which induces the transcription of IFN-α and other cytokines, and genetic variants of IRF5 have been strongly linked to SLE pathogenesis. IRF5 functions downstream of Toll-like receptors and other microbial pattern-recognition receptors, and immune complexes made up of SLE-associated autoantibodies seem to function as a chronic endogenous stimulus to this pathway. In this paper, we discuss the physiologic role of IRF5 in immune defense and the ways in which IRF5 variants may contribute to the pathogenesis of human SLE. Recent data regarding the role of IRF5 in both serologic autoimmunity and the overproduction of IFN-α in human SLE are summarized. These data support a model in which SLE-risk variants of IRF5 participate in a “feed-forward” mechanism, predisposing to SLE-associated autoantibody formation, and subsequently facilitating IFN-α production downstream of Toll-like receptors stimulated by immune complexes composed of these autoantibodies. 1. Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex and heterogeneous disease characterized by a strong genetic contribution and activation of a number of immune system pathways [1–3]. Recent advances in human genetics and gene expression studies have increased our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of the disorder [4]. Interferon (IFN)-α is a pleiotropic type I IFN with the potential to break self-tolerance by inducing dendritic cell differentiation, which can lead to the activation of autoreactive T and B cells [5, 6]. Serum IFN-α levels are often elevated in lupus patients [7–9] and the “IFN-α signature” of gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is present in more than 50% of SLE patients [10–14]. High IFN-α levels are associated with more severe disease and presence of particular autoantibodies [9, 14, 15]. Additionally, high levels of IFN-α are common in unaffected SLE family members, suggesting that IFN-α is a heritable risk factor [8, 16]. Moreover, some patients given recombinant human IFN-α for viral hepatitis C or malignancy have developed de novo SLE and recovered after the IFN-α was discontinued [17–19]. This body of evidence suggests that IFN-α plays a key role in etiology and pathogenesis of SLE. Interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 5 is a transcription factor that can induce
Introducing a Function with Plural Derivatives  [PDF]
Changsoo Shin
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2016.43056
Abstract: It is a solid truth in mathematics that the derivative of a function is unique. We want to show that there exist particular functions all of which have the same form but their derivatives are different. Even though this may seem quite novel, such function could be crucial for the purpose of describing the world such as related to mental phenomena where the logic of the current mathematics is not adequate.
Possible Effect of Pressure Solution on the Movement of a Canister in the Buffer of Geological Disposal System  [PDF]
Koichi Shin
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2017.82006
Abstract: One of the major concepts of the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste is to enclose a metallic container with bentonite buffer which is considered to be impermeable and chemically stable. Since the average density of the container is around 6 to 7 and very heavy compared to bentonite, the scenario of container sinking has been evaluated because excess sinking makes short the pathway of nuclide migration in the bentonite and is detrimental to the safety of the disposal system. Previous considerations on container sinking have been made from the viewpoint of mechanical deformation of the bentonite. In this paper, a chemical deformation process is presented as another mechanism of container sinking, which has not been previously considered for the container sinking in the field of radioactive waste disposal. The chemical deformation mentioned in this paper is the deformation through the process of pressure solution of minerals constituting the buffer, transportation by diffusion and precipitation. That such chemical deformation is a ubiquitous phenomenon occurring in various scales in the crust of the earth will be shown through the review of previous works. Then, some future research topics will be suggested which would be required in order to evaluate the container sinking in the safety case for radioactive waste disposal.
Inorganic Molecularly Imprinted Polymer by Sol-Gel Process for Recognition of Caffeine  [PDF]
Min Jae Shin, Young Jae Shin, Jae Sup Shin
Open Journal of Organic Polymer Materials (OJOPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojopm.2013.31001
Abstract: A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was formed using an inorganic polymer by a sol-gel process. The monomers which were used to synthesize the inorganic polymer were tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), triethoxymethylsilane (MTES), and triethoxyphenylsilane (PTES). Caffeine was chosen as a template for the molecular imprinting, and theophylline was chosen as the analogous counterpart compound. The discriminating ability of the synthesized MIP to these two-compounds was estimated in this study. The MIP showed the highest discriminating ability when the ratio of TEOS:MTES: PTES in the synthesis of the inorganic polymer was 1:1:3, the reaction temperature was 50?C, and the pH of the reaction system was ~6.5.
Risperidone Versus Yokukansan in the Treatment of Severe Alzheimer’s Disease  [PDF]
Yuko Furuhashi, Kouichi Shin
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2011.22028
Abstract: PURPOSE: Patients with AD commonly exhibit behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). This study is aimed to compare the efficacy of yokukansan (YKS) and risperidone (RIS) on BPSD in patients with severe Alzheimer’s disease (AD). METHODS: Thirty eight inpatients with AD were investigated. Patients were randomly as-signed to the YKS group (N = 18) or the RIS group (N = 20) and treated for 4 weeks. The primary outcomes were changes in the scores on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Bar-thel Index, and the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI). The frequency of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) and other adverse events were recorded at every visit. RESULTS: All participants in both groups completed the trial. The Barthel Index did not significantly change either in the RIS group or the YKS group. The MMSE scores did not change either in the RIS group or the YKS group. Significant improvements in mean total NPI and CMAI scores showed in both groups. Between the YKS and the RIS groups, there were no significant differences in the NPI or the CMAI scores. EPS and other serious adverse effects were not observed in either group. CONCLUSIONS: In this 4-week trial, YKS treatment significantly improved BPSD in the patients with severe AD. The present study suggests that YKS is as effective as RIS on BPSD with severe AD.
Packet Compression Ratio Dependent Spanning Tree for Convergecast  [PDF]
Changjin Suh, Jisoo Shin
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.201027062
Abstract: A convergecast is a popular routing in sensor networks. It periodically forwards collected data at every sensor node along a configured routing path to the outside of a sensor network via the base station (BS). To extend the lifetime of energy-limited sensor networks, many previous researches proposed schemes for data compression. However, few researches investigated the relation between packet compression ratio and spanning trees. We propose packet Compression ratio dependent Spanning Tree (CST) which can provide effective routing paths in terms of the tree length for all ranges of compression ratio f. CST is equivalent to the Shortest Path spanning Tree (SPT) which is optimum in the case of no-compression (f = 0) and is equivalent to the Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) in the case of full-compression (f = 1). CST outperforms SPT and MST for any range of f (0 &lt; f &lt; 1). Through simulation we show CST provides shorter paths than MST and SPT in terms of the tree length by 34.1% and 7.8% respectively. We confirm CST is very useful in convergecasts.
Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Water and Ethanol Extracts Obtained from Dried Boxthorn (Lycium chinensis) Fruit  [PDF]
Joo-Shin Kim
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.39173
Abstract: Antioxidant activities of W and E extracts obtained from dried boxthorn (Lycium chinensis) fruit were measured based on DPPH radical scavenging and reducing powers, and their relationships with total phenolics, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity were investigated. A linear correlation among antioxidant activity, total phenolics, and flavonoid content was observed in concentration-dependent mode. Both extracts showed > 95% DPPH radical-scavenging activity and the higher reducing power of 3200 ppm at the same concentration. The antioxidant potential of both extracts were compared with those of commercial antioxidants such as BHA, BHT, TBHQ, ferulic acid, and α-tocopherol using H2O2 scavenging activity, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, inhibition of hemolysis of rat erythrocyte induced by peroxyl radicals, and inhibition of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation using rat brain tissue. In the H2O2 scavenging activity, E extract showed a comparable significant antioxidant power, comparable to commercial antioxidants, and no signifi-cant difference (P > 0.05) was found between W and E extracts on inhibition of the linoleic acid peroxidation. Whereas W extract exhibited a significant power in the hemolysis of rat erythrocytes, none was observed in E extract. In the Fe-induced lipid peroxidation using rat brain tissue, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was found between both ex-tracts, showing a comparable activity with those of synthetic antioxidants. Both W and E extracts of dried boxthorn (Lycium chinensis) fruit may have a potential as natural antioxidants to replace synthetic antioxidants.
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