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Trends in Tuberculosis Epidemiology among Children in the Democratic Republic of Congo  [PDF]
Aketi Loukia, Shiku Diayisu Joseph, Kashongwe Zacharie, Lay Gertrude, Kibadi Kapay, Kayembe Kalambay Patrick
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2016.44026
Abstract: Setting: The epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) among children in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is not well known. Objective: This study aimed to describe the trends in TB epidemiology among children in the DRC and to compare these trends in children and adults. Design: Data from the National TB program, the WHO Global TB Report, and a demographic survey of health in the DRC were retrospectively analyzed. The study period was from 1995 to 2014. The notification rate, absolute incidence and incidence rate of TB per 100,000 population were reported. Results: In 2014, 12,785 (12.6% of adult cases) TB cases were reported in children and 101,303 in adults. Among children, 3438 (26.89%) had PTB+; 2828 (22.11%) had PTB; and 6519 (50.98%) had extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). Children under 5 years had a lower reported prevalence of TB (184 cases). The incidence rate per 100,000 population was 10 in children and 181 in adults. The TB incidence decreased between 2010 (11.47) and 2014 (10.46). The proportion of children in overall cases of PTB+ was 4% to 5% in all districts. Conclusion: Caring for childhood TB remains a challenge in the DRC. Improved diagnostic procedures and effective training of providers who care for childhood TB are needed.
Response to Treatment in a Prospective Cohort of Patients with Large Ulcerated Lesions Suspected to Be Buruli Ulcer (Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease)
Kapay Kibadi,Marleen Boelaert,Alexandra G. Fraga,Makanzu Kayinua,Adhemar Longatto-Filho,Jean-Bedel Minuku,Jean-Baptiste Mputu-Yamba,Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum,Jorge Pedrosa,Jean-Jacques Roux,Wayne M. Meyers,Fran?oise Portaels
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000736
Abstract: Background The World Health Organization (WHO) advises treatment of Mycobacterium ulcerans disease, also called “Buruli ulcer” (BU), with a combination of the antibiotics rifampicin and streptomycin (R+S), whether followed by surgery or not. In endemic areas, a clinical case definition is recommended. We evaluated the effectiveness of this strategy in a series of patients with large ulcers of ≥10 cm in longest diameter in a rural health zone of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Methods A cohort of 92 patients with large ulcerated lesions suspected to be BU was enrolled between October 2006 and September 2007 and treated according to WHO recommendations. The following microbiologic data were obtained: Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stained smear, culture and PCR. Histopathology was performed on a sub-sample. Directly observed treatment with R+S was administered daily for 12 weeks and surgery was performed after 4 weeks. Patients were followed up for two years after treatment. Findings Out of 92 treated patients, 61 tested positive for M. ulcerans by PCR. PCR negative patients had better clinical improvement than PCR positive patients after 4 weeks of antibiotics (54.8% versus 14.8%). For PCR positive patients, the outcome after 4 weeks of antibiotic treatment was related to the ZN positivity at the start. Deterioration of the ulcers was observed in 87.8% (36/41) of the ZN positive and in 12.2% (5/41) of the ZN negative patients. Deterioration due to paradoxical reaction seemed unlikely. After surgery and an additional 8 weeks of antibiotics, 98.4% of PCR positive patients and 83.3% of PCR negative patients were considered cured. The overall recurrence rate was very low (1.1%). Interpretation Positive predictive value of the WHO clinical case definition was low. Low relapse rate confirms the efficacy of antibiotics. However, the need for and the best time for surgery for large Buruli ulcers requires clarification. We recommend confirmation by ZN stain at the rural health centers, since surgical intervention without delay may be necessary on the ZN positive cases to avoid progression of the disease. PCR negative patients were most likely not BU cases. Correct diagnosis and specific management of these non-BU ulcers cases are urgently needed.
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