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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4821 matches for " Khadra Abdullahi Ibrahim "
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Prevalence of Rifampicin Resistance and Associated Risk Factors among Suspected Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis Cases in TB Centers Mogadishu-Somalia: Descriptive Study  [PDF]
Ahmed Y. Guled, Ayub Hassan Elmi, Bashir Mohamud Abdi, Abdihamid Mohamed Ali Rage, Fartun Mohamed Ali, Abdullahi Hassan Abdinur, Abdullahi Abdulle Ali, Anab Adam Ahmed, Khadra Abdullahi Ibrahim, Salah Osman Mohamed, Fos Ali Mire, Omar Abdi Adem, Ali Dirie Osman
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2016.62003
Abstract: Introduction and Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has emerged as a significant global health concern. Patients who had failed previous TB treatment, relapsed after treatment, contacted known MDRTB patients or defaulted during previous treatment, and HIV patients are considered to be suspected and at high risk for developing drug resistant TB specially MDR-TB. However, there is little data available on the prevalence and trends of MDR tuberculosis in national level but luck of it in Mogadishu is our main concern. Methodology: This was a crosssectional, descriptive study involving all suspected MDR TB patients attended at the Mogadishu three Tb centers. Results: A total of 138 cases of suspected MDRTB patients were included in the study. Of these, 70 patients (51%) had rifampicin resistant-TB. Of the 138 study participants, 94 (68.62%) were between 21 - 40 years old that indicates the dominance of productive age group (21 - 40 years). Previous Tuberculosis treatment has been noted to be a major risk factor for development of multidrug resistance tuberculosis. MDR-TB prevalence is significantly higher in male than female patients. Conclusion and Interpretation: The prevalence of Rifampicin resistance among these high risk groups was significant. The high association of previous TB treatment to MDR-TB might be explained due to inappropriate anti-tubercular regimens, sub-optimal drugs, inadequate or irregular drug supply, unsatisfactory patient or clinician compliance, lack of supervision of treatment and absence of infection control measures in healthcare facilities. As the prevalence of MDRTB is high and yet the cases remain un-isolated in the community we recommend the MOH/NTP and funding agencies to facilitate establishment of MDRTB management centers earlier in Mogadishu in order to treat the MDRTB case otherwise it might Amplify of the incidence of this Emerging Disease.
Effect of lead on zooplankton dynamics in Challawa River, Kano State, Nigeria
S Ibrahim, BA Abdullahi
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: Lead concentration was determined with the aid of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer while zooplankton were collected with the aid of plankton net and analysed microscopically to assess their diversity and density in the Challawa River at four selected sites on fortnight basis between July 2006 and December 2007. The mean lead concentration was between 125 mg/L and 2.84 mg/L, far above maximum acceptable and allowable concentrations in drinking water of 0.05 mg/L and 0.10 mg/L respectively (WHO, 1996). The mean zooplankton density ranged between 3.09 Org/L and 10.26 Org/L. Only five protozoan, two insect, four copepod (plus one naplius I), one cladoceran and five rotifer species were identified during the study. The river quality decreased down stream, with least plankton recovery of 4 species at the industrial effluent inflow site and highest off-stream (site A) with 14 species. The site that experiences a direct inflow of industrial effluent was the most polluted (Odum’s Index = 0.22). Significant differences occurred in the lead concentration between the sites (P<0.01) and the seasons (P<0.05). The lead concentration at the sampling sites was negatively correlated with zooplankton diversity (r = -0.28734). It was feared that consumption of raw Challawa River water can over time lead to bioaccumulation of this heavy metal with possible negative consequences on health and wellbeing of man. Likewise, the low zooplankton diversity and density in this river could largely be attributed to its poor physicochemical status that had detrimental effect on them especially at the industrial effluent inflow site.
Anthropometric Comparison of Three-Year-Old Nigerian Child and Crash Dummies  [PDF]
Ibrahim Abdullahi Rafukka, Barkawi Bin Sahari, Abdulaziz Nuraini, Arumugam Manohar
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2016.64019
Abstract: In this work, anthropometric data measured from three-year-old Nigerian child were compared with United States anthropometric database collected by Snyder, 1977 which formed the basis of US anthropometry used today. Further comparison was also carried out with the dimensions of crash dummies: Hybrid III three-year-old (HIII 3YO) and Q3s dummies in order to determine the validity of using such crash dummies for safety evaluation of cars and child restraint systems (CRS) used for Nigerian children. Anthropometric survey was performed on 30 Nigerian children aged 2.5 to 3.5 years old. Twenty three standard measurements were taken from each child including the weight, height and circumferences etc. Various percentiles mean and standard deviation values were obtained and compared with international database. As observed, the dimensions of three-year-old Nigerian child appeared to be about 25% lower than US data reported by Snyder. Significant difference was also found between the dimensions of three-year-old Nigerian child and crash dummies. This study provides the external dimensions of 3-year-old Nigerian child that could be used for crash dummy and CRS design.
Hypermucoviscosity in Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae Correlates with High Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) Index  [PDF]
Uzal Umar, Sandra Anagor, Abdullahi Aliyu, Abdulmumini Ibrahim Suleiman
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2016.63013
Abstract: Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen of medical importance and the capsule and mucoid phenotype in this organism are considered as requisite virulence determinants. A total of 62 clinical samples from ATBUTH were collected and screened for K. pneumoniae. The isolates were identified using standard tests for this organism. The string test was used to detect the mucoid (hypermucoviscous) phenotype and the antimicrobial susceptibility test to 10 antibiotics was carried out with the disk diffusion technique after standardizing inoculum. A K. pneumoniae prevalence of 24% (15/62) was obtained of which 47% (7/15) were mucoid (hypermucoviscous) and 53% (8/15) were non-mucoid. Colonial sizes of the two strains do not reveal any significant differences in growth fitness of the strains. On blood agar, the mucoid and non-mucoid strains had a mean colonial size ± standard deviations of 4.41 ± 0.58 mm and 4.27 ± 0.42 mm respectively. The antibiotic susceptibility rate showed that the mucoid strains compared to the non-mucoid were more resistant to nine out of 10 antibiotics. The mucoid strains were outrightly resistant to augmentin, amoxicillin, septrin, sparfloxacin and perfloxacin. The non-mucoid strains showed no complete resistant to any antibiotic tested but had a higher resistant rate to chloramphenicol only. The Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index shows the themucoid strains with a high MAR index range of 0.7 - 1.0 with a median MAR index of 0.8, while the non-mucoid strains had a MAR index of 0.2 - 0.8 with a median MAR index of 0.35. The data suggest that the mucoid phenotype could be associated with extrachromsomal element(s) carrying resistance genes to antibiotics and that these extrachromosomal elements may not harbour resistance determinants to chloramphenicol. Furthermore, the extrachromosomal elements bearing the mucoid phenotype and the resistance elements in the mucoid strains do not significantly impact on the fitness of the cognate strain. Whether these phenotype and resistances that had no fitness cost to the bacterium could significantly affect the virulence of the bacteria in vivo remains to be investigated.
The Political Economy and Impact of Educational Finances in Communist and Liberal Democracies: The Case of China and Nigeria
Sheriff Ghali Ibrahim,Abdullahi Liman
Journal of Economics Theory , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/jeth.2012.81.90
Abstract: Education is universally perceived as the backbone and engine of development in every socio-political formation. Without education, development is said to be a mirage or simply put a dream that is not feasible and realizable. This study delves in to the political economy of education in the communist state of China and the liberal or mixed ideological state of Nigeria. The study also analyses the impact of educational finances in the two countries showing the significance of high level of financial concern to education. The study has adopted both primary and secondary sources of data in order to arrive at a scientific conclusion. Findings show that the higher the amount of finances used in the process of developing educational institutions, the higher the outcome of having more educated individuals in the society and the better level of economic development. The study concludes that the Chinese government has been able to develop manpower in the mainland due to the proper financing of education, research and development, motivation in the development of science and technology while Nigeria is lagging behind due to corruption, lack of commitment and political instability among other things. The study recommends absolute finances in scientific research and more budgetary instruments be geared towards education for development, among other things.
Condom Use among Teenagers and Young Adults in Nasarawa State Nigeria
Abdullahi Ibrahim,Benjamin Ezikiel Bwadi
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/pjssci.2012.211.216
Abstract: This study examines the use of condom among teenagers and young adults in six selected local government areas of Nasarawa State. The aim was basically to look at how often teenagers and young adults use condom during sexual intercourse in the state. The study relied on primary data gathered from the adolescents living in selected places of the state. A structured questionnaire was employed to capture both qualitative and quantitative data. The data were subjected to descriptive statistical and χ2-test analysis. The results showed preponderance of female (50.9%) respondents than the male (49.1%) respondents. About 60% of the respondents were urban dwellers while about 40% were from the rural areas. A total of 47% of respondents claimed total abstinence from sex. It was gathered that level of education, employment status and media exposure were dominant factors that predisposes respondents to the use of condom. It was discovered that only 33.4% of sexually active respondents with formal education used condom regularly during sexual intercourse while just 1% of respondents with no formal education observe same 12 months preceding this study. It is therefore recommended that teenagers and young adults should be enlightened on the significance of using condom during intercourse if they can t abstain from sex (Appendix 1).
Climate Change Impact on Sub-Surface Hydrology of Kaduna River Catchment  [PDF]
Haruna Garba, Abubakar Ismail, Rabia Lawal Batagarawa, Saminu Ahmed, Abdullahi Ibrahim, Faustinus Bayang
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology (OJMH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmh.2013.33015
Abstract: This paper applied the use of a stochastic weather generator at the site of a hydrological model to simulate the impact of climate change on the sub-surface hydrological response of Kaduna River as a basis for a sustainable ground water development plan. Average time series of rainfall, temperature and gauge height observed readings were downscaled to the watershed flow volume and applied as forcing to simulate the ground water response as spatially lumped, ignoring the heterogeneous nature of the ground water aquifer. Future simulations indicate increase in base flow, ground storage and decrease soil storage throughout the summer and autumn months for the catchment.

Material Flow Analysis of Electronic Wastes (e-Wastes) in Lagos, Nigeria  [PDF]
Fatima Badiru Ibrahim, Donatus Begianpuye Adie, Abdul-Raheem Giwa, Sule Argungu Abdullahi, Charles Amen Okuofu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.49117

The fate of end-of-life electronics (e-wastes) is of increasing concern because of their toxicity and ever increasing volumes. Addressing these concerns requires proper management plans and strategy which in turn requires reliable estimates of e-waste generation in the present as well as future times. In this study, a material flow model for the analysis of e-waste generation from computer equipments inNigeriahas been developed. Data used to develop the model are the sales data from major distributors of electronics, usage time of computer equipments and transfer coefficients of the electronics from one stage to another. The analysis of individual flows of computer from the material flow model showed that the fate of obsolete computer equipments were storage (41%), reuse (35%) and direct disposal (24%). The projections of the flows for a period of 15 years also indicated that storage and reuse of computer equipments would be preferred over direct disposal; and computer equipments would continue to remain in either storage, re-use or gradually disposed off for about 11 years after its inflow. This delay or staggering disposal is of advantage as it would reduce the amount of e-waste disposed yearly and also afford the country some time to make plans to accommodate and manage the e-wastes generated more efficiently.

Seroprevalence of and Risk Factors for Cytomegalovirus among HIV-Infected Patients at University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria  [PDF]
Ibrahim Musa Kida, Ballah Akawu Denue, Bukar Bakki, Baba Goni Waru, Mohammed Abdullahi Talle, Ibrahim Ummate, Salisu Aliyu Kwayabura, Ibrahim Shettima Kuburi, Haruna Yusuph
Open Journal of Immunology (OJI) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oji.2014.42008

Although the distribution of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has a wide regional variation, it is more common in Africa and Asia with high prevalence approaching 100% in some communities. CMV is a frequent opportunistic infection and major cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV patients with severe immunosuppression. It can be contracted from body fluid, including saliva, urine, blood, cervical secretions, and semen. CMV seropositivity is considered the best laboratory measure of past infection. We determined the prevalence of CMV and the risk factors associated with its acquisition in a population of HIV positive patients. Anti-CMV IgG seroprevalence was 100% among HIV infected subjects and 98.6% among controls. Having multiple sexual partners and traditional practices were identified as risk factors associated with risk of contracting CMV infection.

Effect of Preservative on the Shelf Life of Yoghurt Produced from Soya Beans Milk
Uduak G. AKPAN,Abdullahi D. MOHAMMED,Ibrahim AMINU
Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies , 2007,
Abstract: This study concentrated on the effects of preservatives on shelf life of yoghurt produced from Soya beans milk. The yoghurt was produced by heating Soya beans milk slurry, cooled and incubated with starter culture. After the required yoghurt has been formed, sugar, flavour and preservatives were added. Study of the effect of preservatives revealed that Sodium benzoate preservative used at 20mg/ml give the best (optimum) preservation on both shelf and refrigeration storage for 15 and 21 days respectively. This is because the inhibitive ability of Sodium benzoate at lower temperature is higher than that of Potassium metabisulphate preservative. The study also revealed that 40mg/ml concentration of the combined preservatives gives the best (optimum) concentration level for both shelf and refrigeration storage with pH values of 3.92 and 4.01 respectively after 14 days fermentation. The preservatives concentration added are within the threshold values specified by Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON) and National Agency for Food Administration and Control (NAFDAC).
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