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OALib Journal期刊

ISSN: 2333-9721

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Coagulation Changes in Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia during Painful Crises and Steady State at Federal Medical Centre Abeokuta, Nigeria  [PDF]
Mukhtar Babajide Adebola, Durotoye Michael Olanrewaju, Morufat Mojisola Ogundeyi, Khadijah Bolanle Shonde-Adebola
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105081
Abstract:
Background: The pathophysiology of vaso-occlusive crises in sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is multifactorial and hypercoagulability is believed to play a role. The association between hypercoagulabilty and vaso-occlusive disease has been extensively studied in adult SCA patients, there is however paucity of data on the subject regarding paediatric SCA. Objective: This study set out to determine the presence of hypercoagulable states specifically in paediatric SCA subjects through quantification of specific coagulation markers during painful crises and steady state. Methodology: The study was a hospital- based longitudinal study carried out between May and October 2015 at Federal Medical Center, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Fifty SCA subjects were consecutively recruited during painful crises and followed up into their respective steady states. Twenty-five subjects with HbAA phenotype served as controls. Assays of coagulation markers, D-dimer and prothrombin fragment (F1 2) were carried out by sandwich ELISA method using MyBiosource? D-dimer and F1 2 ELISA kits. Results: Mean D-dimer level was 7358 ± 4354.33 ng/ml in the SCA subjects during painful crises, 5509 ± 3506.2 ng/ml during steady state, and 800 ± 1874.14 ng/ml in HbAA controls. Mean (F1 2) level was 0.84 ± 0.43 nmol/l in the SCA subjects during painful crises, 0.64 ± 0.25 nmol/l during steady state, and 0.41 ± 0.28 nmol/l, in HbAA controls. The mean values of both coagulation markers assayed were significantly higher during painful crises than at steady state (P = 0.002), while steady state values were also significantly higher than that of haemoglobin AA individuals (P = 0.001). Conclusions: This study suggests the presence of hypercoagulable states in paediatric SCA during steady state which is exacerbated during painful crises. The clinical imports of this finding require further elucidation.
A Block Procedure with Linear Multi-Step Methods Using Legendre Polynomials for Solving ODEs  [PDF]
Khadijah M. Abualnaja
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.64067
Abstract: In this article, we derive a block procedure for some K-step linear multi-step methods (for K = 1, 2 and 3), using Legendre polynomials as the basis functions. We give discrete methods used in block and implement it for solving the non-stiff initial value problems, being the continuous interpolant derived and collocated at grid and off-grid points. Numerical examples of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are solved using the proposed methods to show the validity and the accuracy of the introduced algorithms. A comparison with fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is given. The ob-tained numerical results reveal that the proposed method is efficient.
Occupational Burnout Among Employees in Some Service Occupations in Nigeria: Are Health Workers Different?
Bolanle Ogungbamila
Psychological Thought , 2013, DOI: 10.5964/psyct.v6i1.47
Abstract: Studies on occupational burnout among health workers, especially in Nigeria have been at best isolated. No adequate inter-occupationalcomparative study on burnout among health workers, police personnel, and teachers has been conducted. This study, therefore, investigatedthe extent to which health workers were different from police personnel, and teachers in the manifestations of emotional exhaustion,depersonalization, reduced personal accomplishment, and overall occupational burnout. Participants were 455 employees (203 males; 252females) sampled from 3 service occupations (police = 139; health = 159; teaching = 157), whose ages averaged 35.94 years (SD = 7.93).Health workers reported higher levels of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and overall occupational burnout than either police personnelor teachers. Although health workers reported a higher level of reduced personal accomplishment than police personnel, results indicatedthat teachers felt as underachieving as health workers. The findings were discussed in terms of the perceived imbalance in the jobdemands-rewards ratio in the job situations.
PENGALAMAN ANAK DEWASA BERPENDAPATAN RENDAH YANG MENJAGA IBU BAPA TUA: SATU PENDEKATAN BERTERASKAN PENDIDIKAN KOMUNITI (THE EXPERIENCE OF ADULT CHILDREN CARING FOR ELDERLY PARENTS: A COMMUNITY EDUCATION APPROACH)
Khadijah Alavi
Kajian Malaysia , 2007,
Abstract: Kajian ini bertujuan meninjau fenomena bagaimana seseorang penjaga(anak dewasa) mengharungi pengalaman dan mengurus aktiviti hariandalam menjaga ibu bapa tua. Kajian kes berasaskan pendekatanfenomenologi telah dipilih sebagai pendekatan kajian. Responden kajian ini adalah anak dewasa yang menjaga ibu bapa tua yang berumur lebih daripada 60 tahun, berbangsa Melayu, berstatus sosioekonomi rendah dan tinggal di sekitar Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur serta mempunyaikeluarga sendiri. Responden kajian juga dipilih mengikut penjagaanterhadap tiga kumpulan warga tua (yang sihat, kurang upaya dan sakitterlantar) berpaksikan dalam satu kontinum. Hasil kajian mendapatibahawa terdapat lompang antara penjagaan tiga kumpulan warga tuadalam aspek program (penyertaan komuniti dan penyampaianperkhidmatan komuniti) melalui sokongan sosial berteraskan pendidikankomuniti. Kajian ini juga telah mencadangkan sebuah pendekatanpengurusan daya tindak berteraskan pendidikan komuniti untuk anakdewasa yang menjaga ibu bapa tua.
Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(styrene-co-acrylamide) Polymers Prior to Electrospinning  [PDF]
Adebola A. Oketola, Nelson Torto
Advances in Nanoparticles (ANP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/anp.2013.22015
Abstract:

Electrospun nanofibers present a new and rapidly growing research area due to their pronounced micro and nano characteristics associated with high surface area to volume ratio. Poly(styrene-co-acrylamide) and polystyrene polymers were synthesized by boiling temperature soap free emulsion polymerization in aqueous medium with potassium peroxosulphate as the initiator. The resulting polymers were dissolved in dimethylformamide and teterahydrofuran (DMF: THF) (4:1) to form polymer solutions that were electrospun into fiber mats with diameters ranging from 1.84 - 2.53 μm and 5.01 μm, respectively. The fibers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) equipped with universal ATR sampling accessory (4000 - 400 cm-1). The morphology and size were examined by a scanning electron miscroscope (SEM) and the thermal properties by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The FTIR spectra of the poly(styrene-co-acrylamide) revealed the presence of acrylamide on the polystyrene chain. Thus, surface modification of polystyrene with acrylamide is possible in a single step polymerization reaction prior to electrospinning.

Socio-Cultural and Attitudinal Study of Selected Yoruba Taboos in South West Nigeria
Adebola Adebileje
Studies in Literature and Language , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/2262
Abstract: This study presents a socio-cultural description of some Yoruba taboos which are an integral part of culture and youths’ attitude towards these taboos. The theoretical frame work for the study is based on Vygotskian’s sociocultural approach which holds that higher order functions develop out of social interaction. In other words, cultural development of an individual, especially the young ones, depends largely on social interactions with elders. Some socio-cultural factors like age, sex and education are the variables employed in the analysis. Data is gathered from interviewing students and staff of Redeemer’s University, Mowe, Ogun state and Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun state in the South Western part of Nigeria. Books and documents are also consulted. In the process of describing some selected Yoruba taboos, it is discovered that: (a) the language of a particular society is an integral part of its culture, (b) many of the taboos have been taken over by Christianity and technology (c) youths have a laissez-faire attitude as their belief in taboos is fast disappearing because parents and guardians do not educate children in these acts any more. It is concluded that for the Yoruba culture to be saved from imminent extinction, parents must expose the young ones to cultural beliefs and ensure that they speak the language. This is necessary because internalized culture allows people to respond in appropriate ways to the norms of the society or community in which they live. Key words: Socio-cultural; Yoruba taboos; Society’s attitude
Effect of Extrusion Cooking of White Yam (Dioscorea rotundata) and Bambara-Nut (Vigna subterranean) Blend on Some Selected Extrudate Parameters  [PDF]
Bolanle Oluwatoyin Oluwole, Abiodun Adekunle Olapade
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.26084
Abstract: The effect of thermo-extrusion processing of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) and bambara nut (Vigna subterranean) on some selected extrudate parameters of residence time, throughput and moisture content were investigated in this study. Both yam and bambara nut were processed into meals of 750 µm and 500 µm respectively. Extrusion was carried out following a three variable response surface methodology using a Box Behnken design. Blend of yam meal and Bambara nut meal at ratio 80:20 respectively was conditioned into 12.5, 15.0 and 17.5% moisture content (dry basis) and allowed to equilibrate for 4 h. Extrusion was carried out on a single screw extruder at 50, 60 and 70 rpm screw speed and 130oC, 140oC and 150oC barrel temperatures. The study revealed that the extrusion time varied between 13.1 and 29.7 sec, throughput varied from 13.3 to 34.4 kg/h and product moisture ranged from 11.1 to 16.8% dry basis). All investigated extrudate parameters were significantly affected (p< 0.05) by the process variables of screw speed, barrel temperature and feed moisture content, and their interactions. The results were indicative that the second order polynomial was adequate to model the dependence of the extrudate parameters of residence time, throughput and moisture content on extrusion variables of barrel temperature, feed moisture content and screw speed.
Anti-diabetic and antioxidant effects of virgin coconut oil in alloxan induced diabetic male Sprague Dawley rats  [PDF]
Bolanle Iranloye, Gabriel Oludare, Makinde Olubiyi
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2013.34034
Abstract:

Oxidative stress has been discovered to be involved in the progression of diabetes mellitus. The antioxidant properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO) among other functions might have a beneficial effect in ameliorating the disease. This study was aimed to determine the glycemic and antioxidant effects of VCO in alloxan induced diabetic rats. 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups as follows: control (C), diabetes untreated (DUT), diabetes treated with 7.5 ml/kg VCO (DT7.5) and diabetes treated with 10 ml/kg VCO (DT10). Alloxan (100 mg/kg b.w I.P) was used to induce diabetes and VCO was administered orally once daily for 4 weeks. Fasting blood glucose level was measured on Day 0 (72 hours post alloxan injection) and after 4 weeks. Glucose tolerance test was conducted on the 4th week as well as the determination of serum insulin and liver antioxidant parameters using standard biochemical methods. Values are means ± S.E.M., compared by ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test. The results show that VCO significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose level in DT7.5 rats (132.4 ± 6.911) and DT10 rats (131.6 ± 12.2) are compared with DUT rats (320.4 ± 22.99) and improved the oral glucose tolerance. Serum insulin was increased in DT10 rats. GSH activities significantly increased p < 0.05 in DT10 rats (0.39 ± 0.022) when compared to DUT rats (0.032 ± 0.004). CAT activities also significantly increased p < 0.05 in

Green recycling of chicken feather and sheep wool using the partially purified alkaline protease from Bacillus circulans L.  [PDF]
Eman Fathi Sharaf, Khadijah Al-Fadel
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.56A004
Abstract:

The previously optimized crude alkaline protease from the haloalkaliphilic Bacillus circulans L. was partially purified using ammonium sulphate fractionation and dialysis. The best specific activity (27.7 U/mg protein) was obtained at 80% saturation. The optimum reaction temperature and reaction pH was 47and 9, respectively. The enzyme activity was enhanced with Ca and K chlorides but suppressed with HgCl2 and EDTA. The partially purified protease showed strong proteolytic activity on sheep wool and chicken feather. Also, the enzyme was compatible with the common detergent Tide and could improve its cleaning power in removing blood stain. These findings support the application of the present alka-line protease in biotechnological industries.

Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography-Computed Tomography (SPECT-CT) Use in Osteosarcoma with Lung Uptake  [PDF]
Khadijah Abdul Hamid, Sazilah Ahmad Sarji
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2014.38107
Abstract:

A 15-year-old patient with osteosarcoma of left distal femur underwent a bone scan with Tc-99m hydroxymethylenediphosphonate (HDP). Whole body bone scan revealed extensive bone and thoracic metastases. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography-Computed Tomography (SPECT-CT) of the thorax localized the uptake at pleura and lung nodules. In this case study we want to share our experience using SPECT-CT.

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