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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 311452 matches for " Kevin J.;Garcia "
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Suporte farmacológico a lactentes e crian?as com choque séptico
Irazuzta, José;Sullivan, Kevin J.;Garcia, Pedro Celiny R.;Piva, Jefferson Pedro;
Jornal de Pediatria , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0021-75572007000300005
Abstract: objectives: septic shock (ss) is a frequent cause for admission to the pediatric intensive care unit, requiring prompt recognition and intervention to improve outcome. our aim is to review the relevant literature related to the diagnosis and management of ss and present a sequential management for its treatment. sources: non-systematic review of medical literature using the medline database. articles were selected according to their relevance to the objective and according to the authors’ opinions. summary of the findings: the outcome of sepsis and ss is dependent on the early recognition and implementation of time-sensitive goal-directed therapies. these include rapid aggressive fluid resuscitation followed by a well-designed pharmacotherapy. the goals of the resuscitation are the restoration of microcirculation and improved organ tissue perfusion. clinical and laboratory markers are needed to assess the adequacy of the treatments. altered pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic responses dictate that vasoactive agents should be adjusted to achieve the predetermined goals. in initial resuscitation with isotonic solutions (> 60 ml/kg), either crystalloid (normal saline) or colloid infusion could be used. despite adequate fluid resuscitation, if: (a) wide pulse pressure, low blood pressure, or bounding pulses (high cardiac output, low systemic vascular resistance - svr) are present, norepinephrine should be considered; (b) prolonged capillary refill, weak pulses, narrow pulse pressure, normotensive (low cardiac output, high svr), dopamine, epinephrine or dobutamine should be considered. adjunctive therapy with stress dose of corticosteroid is indicated in selected populations. conclusions: septic shock hemodynamics is a changing process that requires frequent assessment and therapeutic adjustments.
Cancer and pH—A Prospective  [PDF]
Kevin J. Carlin
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2014.43011
Abstract: How can cancer develop in so many different organs in so many different ways, but the outcome is similar enough to all be under the same title—cancer? There are so many causes of cancer—viruses, genetic defects, sunburn, gastroesophageal reflux, smoking, alcohol, radiation, chemicals, etc. The above variable well known etiologies of cancer could all induce a need for repair which involves alkalinizing the cells involved. Thus the commonality for cancers could be a pH change. If true, this could give the field of cancer prevention and therapy new avenues of pursuit.
Time-dependent photoionization of azulene: Competition between ionization and relaxation in highly excited states
Valerie Blanchet,Kevin Raffael,Giorgio Turri,Béatrice Chatel,Bertrand Girard,Ivan Anton Garcia,Iain Wilkinson,Benjamin J Whitaker
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1063/1.2913167
Abstract: Pump-probe photoionization has been used to map the relaxation processes taking place from highly vibrationally excited levels of the S2 state of azulene, populated directly or via internal conversion from the S4 state. Photoelectron spectra obtained by 1+2[prime] two-color time-resolved photoelectron imaging are invariant (apart from in intensity) to the pump-probe time delay and to the pump wavelength. This reveals a photoionization process which is driven by an unstable electronic state (e.g., doubly excited state) lying below the ionization potential. This state is postulated to be populated by a probe transition from S2 and to rapidly relax via an Auger-like process onto highly vibrationally excited Rydberg states. This accounts for the time invariance of the photoelectron spectrum. The intensity of the photoelectron spectrum is proportional to the population in S2. An exponential energy gap law is used to describe the internal conversion rate from S2 to S0. The vibronic coupling strength is found to be larger than 60$\pm$5 $\mu$eV.
Time-dependent photoionization of azulene: Optically induced anisotropy on the femtosecond scale
Kevin Raffael,Valerie Blanchet,Béatrice Chatel,Giorgio Turri,Bertrand Girard,Ivan Anton Garcia,Iain Wilkinson,Benjamin J Whitaker
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1016/j.cplett.2008.06.009
Abstract: We measure the photoionization cross-section of vibrationally excited levels in the S2 state of azulene by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. At the wavelengths studied (349-265 nm in the pump) the transient signals exhibit two distinct and well-defined behaviours: (i) Short-term (on the order of a picosecond) polarization dependent transients and (ii) longer (10 ps - 1 ns) time-scale decays. This letter focuses on the short time transient. In contrast to an earlier study by Diau et al.22 [J. Chem. Phys. 110 (1999) 9785.] we unambiguously assign the fast initial decay signal to rotational dephasing of the initial alignment created by the pump transition.
Blindly inserted nasogastric feeding tubes and thoracic complications in intensive care  [PDF]
Elpis Giantsou, Kevin J. Gunning
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.210166
Abstract: Purpose of review: This article reviews the thoracic complications from malpositioned blindly inserted nasogastric feeding tubes in mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care and the methods to check the position and promote safe placement of the feeding tubes. Recent findings: Malpositioned feeding tubes are not included in risk management databases. The reported incidence is 1-3% and more than half occur in mechanically ventilated patients. Eighty three mechanically ventilated patients were reported with malpositioned nasogastric tubes and 66% of them developed serious thoracic complications. Pneumothoraces accounted for 80% of thoracic complications that were evenly distributed between tubes with and without stylet. Repeated misplacements appear to increase the risk. Non-radiological confirmation of the position of the tube has suboptimal performance. Protocols to place feeding tubes and new technology are promising candidates. Summary: Malpositioned nasogastric feeding tubes are underreported and associated with serious thoracic complications in mechanically ventilated patients. We need more data to answer whether we can afford to prevent them.
Protease Activated Receptor Signaling Is Required for African Trypanosome Traversal of Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells
Dennis J. Grab ,Jose C. Garcia-Garcia,Olga V. Nikolskaia,Yuri V. Kim,Amanda Brown,Carlos A. Pardo,Yongqing Zhang,Kevin G. Becker,Brenda A. Wilson,Ana Paula C. de A. Lima,Julio Scharfstein,J. Stephen Dumler
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000479
Abstract: Background Using human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) as an in vitro model for how African trypanosomes cross the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) we recently reported that the parasites cross the BBB by generating calcium activation signals in HBMECs through the activity of parasite cysteine proteases, particularly cathepsin L (brucipain). In the current study, we examined the possible role of a class of protease stimulated HBMEC G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as protease activated receptors (PARs) that might be implicated in calcium signaling by African trypanosomes. Methodology/Principal Findings Using RNA interference (RNAi) we found that in vitro PAR-2 gene (F2RL1) expression in HBMEC monolayers could be reduced by over 95%. We also found that the ability of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense to cross F2RL1-silenced HBMEC monolayers was reduced (39%–49%) and that HBMECs silenced for F2RL1 maintained control levels of barrier function in the presence of the parasite. Consistent with the role of PAR-2, we found that HBMEC barrier function was also maintained after blockade of Gαq with Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT). PAR-2 signaling has been shown in other systems to have neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective roles and our data implicate a role for proteases (i.e. brucipain) and PAR-2 in African trypanosome/HBMEC interactions. Using gene-profiling methods to interrogate candidate HBMEC pathways specifically triggered by brucipain, several pathways that potentially link some pathophysiologic processes associated with CNS HAT were identified. Conclusions/Significance Together, the data support a role, in part, for GPCRs as molecular targets for parasite proteases that lead to the activation of Gαq-mediated calcium signaling. The consequence of these events is predicted to be increased permeability of the BBB to parasite transmigration and the initiation of neuroinflammation, events precursory to CNS disease.
Identifying alemtuzumab as an anti-myeloid cell antiangiogenic therapy for the treatment of ovarian cancer
Heather L Pulaski, Gregory Spahlinger, Ines A Silva, Karen McLean, Angela S Kueck, R Kevin Reynolds, George Coukos, Jose R Conejo-Garcia, Ronald J Buckanovich
Journal of Translational Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5876-7-49
Abstract: We used FACS to analyze VLC in ovarian and non-ovarian tumors, and characterize the relationship of VLC and Tie2-monocytes. We performed qRT-PCR and FACS on human VLC to assess the expression of the CD52 antigen, the target of the immunotherapeutic Alemtuzumab. We assessed Alemtuzumab's ability to induce complement-mediated VLC killing in vitro and in human tumor ascites. Finally we assessed the impact of anti-CD52 immuno-toxin therapy on murine ovarian tumor growth.Human VLC are present in ovarian and non-ovarian tumors. The majority of VLC appear to be Tie2+ monocytes. VLC and Tie2+ monocytes express high levels of CD52, the target of the immunotherapeutic Alemtuzumab. Alemtuzumab potently induces complement-mediated lysis of VLC in vitro and ex-vivo in ovarian tumor ascites. Anti-CD52 immunotherapy targeting VLC restricts tumor angiogenesis and growth in murine ovarian cancer.These studies confirm VLC/myeloid cells as therapeutic targets in ovarian cancer. Our data provide critical pre-clinical evidence supporting the use of Alemtuzumab in clinical trials to test its efficacy as an anti-myeloid cell antiangiogenic therapeutic in ovarian cancer. The identification of an FDA approved anti-VLC agent with a history of clinical use will allow immediate proof-of-principle clinical trials in patients with ovarian cancer.There is increasing evidence that monocyte derived myeloid cells expressing vascular markers such as Tie2 or VE-Cadherin support tumor growth [1-5]. These cells are recruited to regions of hypoxia and promote angiogenesis and vasculogenesis [6,7]. Myeloid cell recruitment to the tumor bed appears to precede or coincide with the 'angiogenic switch'[8,9]. In an established tumor, myeloid cells appear to be a primary source of resistance to anti-VEGF therapy, suggesting a critical role for these cells in tumor angiogenesis [5].The exact mechanism of action of myeloid cells remains contentious. These cells can clearly promote angiogenesis through local produ
A Deterministic Approach to the Synchronization of Cellular Automata
J. Garcia,P. Garcia
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: In this work we introduce a deterministic scheme of synchronization of linear and nonlinear cellular automata (CA) with complex behavior, connected through a master-slave coupling. By using a definition of Boolean derivative, we use the linear approximation of the automata to determine a function of coupling that promotes synchronization without perturbing all the sites of the slave system.
Self-Regulation of Goals and Performance: Effects of Discrepancy Feedback, Regulatory Focus, and Self-Efficacy  [PDF]
Jessica M. Nicklin, Kevin J. Williams
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.23030
Abstract: We adopted a social cognitive approach of motivation (Bandura, 1986, 1989, 2002) to examine the influence of normative feedback and self-set goals on positive discrepancy creation and goal revision in the face of a novel task. The moderating effects of self-efficacy and regulatory focus were also examined. A laboratory study in-cluding 297 undergraduate students demonstrated that feedback, whether based on normative standards of performance or goal-performance discrepancies was a strong predictor of positive discrepancy creation and goal revision. Self-efficacy was also an independent predictor of goal revision, but regulatory focus was not. These findings have important practical implications for a variety of performance contexts (e.g., work, school, sports). Individuals will modify their goals based largely on feedback received (goal-performance discrepancies and normative standards); however, self-efficacy independently influences goal revision beyond the effects of feed-back. Other implications for research and practice are discussed.
Reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in rats following 7-day oral supplementation with a proprietary eggshell membrane-derived product  [PDF]
Kevin J. Ruff, Dale P. DeVore
Modern Research in Inflammation (MRI) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/mri.2014.31003
Abstract: NEM® brand eggshell membrane is a novel dietary supplement that has been clinically shown to alleviate arthritis joint pain and stiffness; however the mechanism of action is not well understood. Preliminary evidence from an in vitro study of NEM® indicated that the mechanism of action may be based on the reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In vivo studies were therefore initiated to evaluate the effects of NEM® on pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines following oral administration in rats. NEM® was administered daily at doses of 6.13 mg/kg bw/day (Study 1), 10.0 mg/kg bw/day (Study 2), or at doses of 0 (control), 26.0 or 52.0 mg/kg bw/day (Study 3) by oral gavage for 7 consecutive days. Inflammation was induced in the Study 3 rats by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide. Changes in plasma cytokine levels from baseline following 7 days of oral supplementation with NEM® at 6.13 mg/kg bw/ day (Study 1) were statistically significant at Day 8 for IL-2, TIMP-1 and VEGF, at Day 21 for IL-10, and at Day 35 for MCP-1, MCP-3 and TIMP-1, and at 10.0 mg/kg
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