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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 302371 matches for " Kevin J. Gunning "
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Blindly inserted nasogastric feeding tubes and thoracic complications in intensive care  [PDF]
Elpis Giantsou, Kevin J. Gunning
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.210166
Abstract: Purpose of review: This article reviews the thoracic complications from malpositioned blindly inserted nasogastric feeding tubes in mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care and the methods to check the position and promote safe placement of the feeding tubes. Recent findings: Malpositioned feeding tubes are not included in risk management databases. The reported incidence is 1-3% and more than half occur in mechanically ventilated patients. Eighty three mechanically ventilated patients were reported with malpositioned nasogastric tubes and 66% of them developed serious thoracic complications. Pneumothoraces accounted for 80% of thoracic complications that were evenly distributed between tubes with and without stylet. Repeated misplacements appear to increase the risk. Non-radiological confirmation of the position of the tube has suboptimal performance. Protocols to place feeding tubes and new technology are promising candidates. Summary: Malpositioned nasogastric feeding tubes are underreported and associated with serious thoracic complications in mechanically ventilated patients. We need more data to answer whether we can afford to prevent them.
Cancer and pH—A Prospective  [PDF]
Kevin J. Carlin
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2014.43011
Abstract: How can cancer develop in so many different organs in so many different ways, but the outcome is similar enough to all be under the same title—cancer? There are so many causes of cancer—viruses, genetic defects, sunburn, gastroesophageal reflux, smoking, alcohol, radiation, chemicals, etc. The above variable well known etiologies of cancer could all induce a need for repair which involves alkalinizing the cells involved. Thus the commonality for cancers could be a pH change. If true, this could give the field of cancer prevention and therapy new avenues of pursuit.
SUMOylation of GTF2IRD1 Regulates Protein Partner Interactions and Ubiquitin-Mediated Degradation
Jocelyn Widagdo, Kylie M. Taylor, Peter W. Gunning, Edna C. Hardeman, Stephen J. Palmer
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049283
Abstract: GTF2IRD1 is one of the genes implicated in Williams-Beuren syndrome, a disease caused by haploinsufficiency of certain dosage-sensitive genes within a hemizygous microdeletion of chromosome 7. GTF2IRD1 is a prime candidate for some of the major features of the disease, presumably caused by abnormally reduced abundance of this putative transcriptional repressor protein. GTF2IRD1 has been shown to interact with the E3 SUMO ligase PIASxβ, but the significance of this relationship is largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that GTF2IRD1 can be SUMOylated by the SUMO E2 ligase UBC9 and the level of SUMOylation is enhanced by PIASxβ. A major SUMOylation site was mapped to lysine 495 within a conserved SUMO consensus motif. SUMOylation of GTF2IRD1 alters the affinity of the protein for binding partners that contain SUMO-interacting motifs, including a novel family member of the HDAC repressor complex, ZMYM5, and PIASxβ itself. In addition, we show that GTF2IRD1 is targeted for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Cross regulation by SUMOylation modulates this process, thus potentially regulating the level of GTF2IRD1 protein in the cell. These findings, concerning post-translational control over the activity and stability of GTF2IRD1, together with previous work showing how GTF2IRD1 directly regulates its own transcription levels suggest an evolutionary requirement for fine control over GTF2IRD1 activity in the cell.
Dexmedetomidine as a Procedural Sedative for Percutaneous Tracheotomy: Case Report and Systematic Literature Review
Jerrold L. Perrott,Michelle T. Co,Steven C. Reynolds,Derek J. R. Gunning
Case Reports in Critical Care , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/659415
Abstract: Purpose. To describe the successful use of dexmedetomidine as the primary procedural sedative for a percutaneous tracheotomy procedure and to systematically present the supporting literature. Materials and Methods. A Case report of our experience and systematic literature search. PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar were searched without restriction using the key words dexmedetomidine, percutaneous tracheotomy, and tracheotomy procedure. All relevant published references were retrieved irrespective of their methodological quality. Results. In total, only 3 relevant references were found. These include one small placebo controlled randomized trial and 2 case reports. The randomized, placebo controlled trial enrolled patients already sedated on midazolam and included 64 total patients. The 2 other case reports both described the use of dexmedetomidine as the primary procedural sedative. All of the cases reported the successful completion of the percutaneous tracheotomy without any major complication, but none reported the subjective patient experience. Conclusion. Based on the available published literature and our experience, we suggest that dexmedetomidine be considered for use as the primary procedural sedative for percutaneous tracheotomy procedure. Dexmedetomidine’s ability to provide adequate sedation and amnesia, without blunting the respiratory drive and protective reflexes of the patient, may make it an optimal agent in specific cases. 1. Introduction Dexmedetomidine is a centrally acting alpha-2 agonist with licensed indications for an intensive care unit sedation and a conscious sedation for Monitored Anaesthesia Care and Awake Fiberoptic Intubation. Its pharmacology is such that it provides sedative, analgesic, and antishivering effects without attenuating respiratory drive and provides a state of “cooperative sedation” whereby the patient is sedated, but still able to interact with the healthcare team [1]. The primary adverse effects observed with the procedural use are bradycardia and hypotension [1]. Other agents for procedural sedation, such as benzodiazepines and propofol, can induce significant respiratory depression and loss of protective airway reflexes, making them suboptimal in certain clinical scenarios. The properties of dexmedetomidine make it a viable option for procedural sedation when it is vital to maintain the respiratory drive of the patient. We present a case of a percutaneous tracheotomy performed under sedation with dexmedetomidine and fentanyl with lidocaine for local anaesthesia and a systematic literature review of the
Ferromagnetism in defect-ridden oxides and related materials
J. M. D. Coey,P. Stamenov,R. D. Gunning,M. Venkatesan,K. Paul
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/12/5/053025
Abstract: The existence of high-temperature ferromagnetism in thin films and nanoparticles of oxides containing small quantities of magnetic dopants remains controversial. Some regard these materials as dilute magnetic semiconductors, while others think they are ferromagnetic only because the magnetic dopants form secondary ferromagnetic impurity phases such as cobalt metal or magnetite. There are also reports in d0 systems and other defective oxides that contain no magnetic ions. Here, we investigate TiO2 (rutile) containing 1 - 5% of iron cations and find that the room-temperature ferromagnetism of films prepared by pulsed-laser deposition is not due to magnetic ordering of the iron. The films are neither dilute magnetic semiconductors nor hosts to an iron-based ferromagnetic impurity phase. A new model is developed for defect-related ferromagnetism which involves a spin-split defect band populated by charge transfer from a proximate charge reservoir in the present case a mixture Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions in the oxide lattice. The phase diagram for the model shows how inhomogeneous Stoner ferromagnetism depends on the total number of electrons Ntot, the Stoner exchange integral I and the defect bandwidth W; the band occupancy is governed by the d-d Coulomb interaction U. There are regions of ferromagnetic metal, half-metal and insulator as well as nonmagnetic metal and insulator. A characteristic feature of the high-temperature Stoner magnetism is an an anhysteretic magnetization curve which is practically temperature independent below room temperature. This is related to a wandering ferromagnetic axis which is determined by local dipole fields. The magnetization is limited by the defect concentration, not by the 3d doping. Only 1-2 % of the volume of the films is magnetically ordered.
Increasing the Pensionable Age: What Changes Are OECD Countries Making? What Considerations Are Driving Policy?  [PDF]
Hila Axelrad, Kevin J. Mahoney
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.57005
Abstract: The average age of retirement used to be low in most countries due to numerous policies introduced 30 to 40 years ago which encouraged lower retirement ages. However, in response to the growth of the older segment of the population, increased life expectancy, the need for skilled workers, and the precarious financial state of public pension systems, pension reforms have been implemented in the U.S. and Europe, and are now geared towards improving employment rates for older workers, increasing retirement ages and pension eligibility. This paper surveys recent changes in retirement age and maps the changes that have occurred in the last decades using data from 34 OECD (The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. This paper then reviews the arguments for and against these changes, the criteria for setting a certain retirement age, and the differences in statutory retirement age by gender, occupation, employment status, and other factors unique to particular countries. The purpose of this paper is to analyze current trends in terms of raising the pensionable age.
H$α$ Emission From Active Equal-mass, Wide M Dwarf Binaries
Heather C. Gunning,Sarah J. Schmidt,James R. A. Davenport,Saurav Dhital,Suzanne L. Hawley,Andrew A. West
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1086/679329
Abstract: We identify a sample of near-equal mass wide binary M dwarf systems from the SLoWPoKES catalog of common proper-motion binaries and obtain follow-up observations of their chromospheric activity as measured by the H$\alpha$ emission line. We present optical spectra for both components of 48 candidate M dwarf binaries, confirming their mid-M spectral types. Of those 48 coeval pairs, we find eight with H$\alpha$ emission from both components, three with weak emission in one component and no emission in the other, and 37 with two inactive components. We find that of the eleven pairs with at least one active component, only three follow the net trend of decreasing activity strength $L_{\rm H\alpha}/L_{\rm bol}$ with later spectral type. The difference in quiescent activity strength between the A and B components is larger than what would be expected based on the small differences in color (mass). For five binaries with two active components, we present 47 hours of time-resolved spectroscopy, observed on the ARC 3.5-m over twelve different nights. For four of the five pairs, the slightly redder (B) component exhibits a higher level of H$\alpha$ emission during the majority of the observations and the redder objects are the only components to flare. The full range of H$\alpha$ emission observed on these variable mid-M dwarfs is comparable to the scatter in H$\alpha$ emission found in single-epoch surveys of mid-M dwarfs, indicating that variability could be a major factor in the spread of observed activity strengths. We also find that variability is independent of both activity strength and spectral type.
Self-Regulation of Goals and Performance: Effects of Discrepancy Feedback, Regulatory Focus, and Self-Efficacy  [PDF]
Jessica M. Nicklin, Kevin J. Williams
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.23030
Abstract: We adopted a social cognitive approach of motivation (Bandura, 1986, 1989, 2002) to examine the influence of normative feedback and self-set goals on positive discrepancy creation and goal revision in the face of a novel task. The moderating effects of self-efficacy and regulatory focus were also examined. A laboratory study in-cluding 297 undergraduate students demonstrated that feedback, whether based on normative standards of performance or goal-performance discrepancies was a strong predictor of positive discrepancy creation and goal revision. Self-efficacy was also an independent predictor of goal revision, but regulatory focus was not. These findings have important practical implications for a variety of performance contexts (e.g., work, school, sports). Individuals will modify their goals based largely on feedback received (goal-performance discrepancies and normative standards); however, self-efficacy independently influences goal revision beyond the effects of feed-back. Other implications for research and practice are discussed.
Reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in rats following 7-day oral supplementation with a proprietary eggshell membrane-derived product  [PDF]
Kevin J. Ruff, Dale P. DeVore
Modern Research in Inflammation (MRI) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/mri.2014.31003
Abstract: NEM® brand eggshell membrane is a novel dietary supplement that has been clinically shown to alleviate arthritis joint pain and stiffness; however the mechanism of action is not well understood. Preliminary evidence from an in vitro study of NEM® indicated that the mechanism of action may be based on the reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In vivo studies were therefore initiated to evaluate the effects of NEM® on pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines following oral administration in rats. NEM® was administered daily at doses of 6.13 mg/kg bw/day (Study 1), 10.0 mg/kg bw/day (Study 2), or at doses of 0 (control), 26.0 or 52.0 mg/kg bw/day (Study 3) by oral gavage for 7 consecutive days. Inflammation was induced in the Study 3 rats by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide. Changes in plasma cytokine levels from baseline following 7 days of oral supplementation with NEM® at 6.13 mg/kg bw/ day (Study 1) were statistically significant at Day 8 for IL-2, TIMP-1 and VEGF, at Day 21 for IL-10, and at Day 35 for MCP-1, MCP-3 and TIMP-1, and at 10.0 mg/kg
Hybrid ICA-Seed-Based Methods for fMRI Functional Connectivity Assessment: A Feasibility Study
Robert E. Kelly,Zhishun Wang,George S. Alexopoulos,Faith M. Gunning,Christopher F. Murphy,Sarah Shizuko Morimoto,Dora Kanellopoulos,Zhiru Jia,Kelvin O. Lim,Matthew J. Hoptman
International Journal of Biomedical Imaging , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/868976
Abstract: Brain functional connectivity (FC) is often assessed from fMRI data using seed-based methods, such as those of detecting temporal correlation between a predefined region (seed) and all other regions in the brain; or using multivariate methods, such as independent component analysis (ICA). ICA is a useful data-driven tool, but reproducibility issues complicate group inferences based on FC maps derived with ICA. These reproducibility issues can be circumvented with hybrid methods that use information from ICA-derived spatial maps as seeds to produce seed-based FC maps. We report results from five experiments to demonstrate the potential advantages of hybrid ICA-seed-based FC methods, comparing results from regressing fMRI data against task-related a priori time courses, with “back-reconstruction” from a group ICA, and with five hybrid ICA-seed-based FC methods: ROI-based with (1) single-voxel, (2) few-voxel, and (3) many-voxel seed; and dual-regression-based with (4) single ICA map and (5) multiple ICA map seed. 1. Introduction Functional connectivity (FC), broadly defined, is “correlations between remote neurophysiological events” [1]. There are a number of approaches for the detection of FC from blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brain. A commonly implemented approach is a “seed-based” approach that can be applied with a general linear model (GLM) using time course regressors derived from selected brain regions to find other brain regions having correlated BOLD signal activity patterns [2, 3]. Another commonly used data-driven approach is independent component analysis (ICA), which derives spatiotemporal components (pairs of spatial maps and associated time courses) through blind signal source separation and linear decomposition of fMRI data [4, 5]. Independent component (IC) spatial maps represent constellations of brain regions that are partially synchronized with the corresponding component time courses. ICA in this article is synonymous with spatial ICA, the most common implementation of ICA used with fMRI data, which allows components to be temporally correlated, but restricts them to be spatially independent. Both the seed-based approach and ICA have produced similar FC maps in experiments where no experimentally-derived time course was available (e.g., resting-state) [6–8]. Both approaches have produced pairs of spatial maps and associated time courses comparable to those produced by standard GLM techniques that regress fMRI data against experimentally derived a priori
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