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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4653 matches for " Kenneth McIntosh "
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The first influenza pandemic of the 21st century
Al Hajjar Sami,McIntosh Kenneth
Annals of Saudi Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: The 2009 H1N1 influenza virus (formerly known as swine flu) first appeared in Mexico and the United States in March and April 2009 and has swept the globe with unprecedented speed as a result of airline travel. On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization raised its pandemic level to the highest level, Phase 6, indicating widespread community transmission on at least two continents. The 2009 H1N1 virus contains a unique combination of gene segments from human, swine and avian influenza A viruses. Children and young adults appear to be the most affected, perhaps reflecting protection in the elderly owing to exposure to H1N1 strains before 1957. Most clinical disease is relatively mild but complications leading to hospitalization, with the need for intensive care, can occur, especially in very young children, during pregnancy, in morbid obesity, and in those with underlying medical conditions such as chronic lung and cardiac diseases, diabetes, and immunosuppression. Bacterial co-infection has played a significant role in fatal cases. The case of fatality has been estimated at around 0.4%. Mathematical modeling suggests that the effect of novel influenza virus can be reduced by immunization, but the question remains: can we produce enough H1N1 vaccine to beat the pandemic?
Obesity and the Demand for Canadian Physician Services  [PDF]
James McIntosh
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.619301
Abstract: The objective of this study is to determine the role that obesity plays in how often Canadians visit their family doctors or general practitioners. Doctor visits are analyzed using mixtures of ordered probability models applied to sample survey data from the 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey. This procedure is shown to be superior in terms of likelihood criteria to the more usual one involving count models of doctor visits. The main result is that obesity is one of the leading causes of doctor visits. Obesity has become more important in the demand for physician services than smoking for all Canadians. Other factors including diabetes, the individual’s level of education, position in the income distribution, and drinking behavior are also important. The application of latent class’s ordered probability models by age-group and gender leads to results which are different from what others have found. While obesity is shown to be a serious problem in Canada, it has not yet reached the stage which some researchers have described as critical.
Alcohol and Type 2 Diabetes: Results from Canadian Cross-Sectional Data  [PDF]
James McIntosh
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2014.44044
Abstract: Cross-section data from Canadian Community Health Surveys are used to examine the relationship between moderate alcohol use and type 2 diabetes. Results from these data are compared with those which have been obtained from prospective longitudinal studies. The major result is that both types of data yield similar conclusions with respect to this relationship. The reason why this occurs is because Canadian drinking behavior is quite stable once a respondent has become an adult and remains relatively stable thereafter. The only difference between the two types of survey is the time at which information on drinking behavior is obtained. Since this does not matter if drinking behavior is stable over large age ranges results from the two types of survey will be similar. Neither type of data can be used to support the proposition that the relationship between drinking behavior and the risk of diabetes is causal. Some advantages that sample survey data have over longitudinal data are also noted.
Plin2 Inhibits Cellular Glucose Uptake through Interactions with SNAP23, a SNARE Complex Protein
Subramanian Senthivinayagam, Avery L. McIntosh, Kenneth C. Moon, Barbara P. Atshaves
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073696
Abstract: Although a link between excess lipid storage and aberrant glucose metabolism has been recognized for many years, little is known what role lipid storage droplets and associated proteins such as Plin2 play in managing cellular glucose levels. To address this issue, the influence of Plin2 on glucose uptake was examined using 2-NBD-Glucose and [3H]-2-deoxyglucose to show that insulin-mediated glucose uptake was decreased 1.7- and 1.8-fold, respectively in L cell fibroblasts overexpressing Plin2. Conversely, suppression of Plin2 levels by RNAi-mediated knockdown increased 2-NBD-Glucose uptake several fold in transfected L cells and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. The effect of Plin2 expression on proteins involved in glucose uptake and transport was also examined. Expression of the SNARE protein SNAP23 was increased 1.6-fold while levels of syntaxin-5 were decreased 1.7-fold in Plin2 overexpression cells with no significant changes observed in lipid droplet associated proteins Plin1 or FSP27 or with the insulin receptor, GLUT1, or VAMP4. FRET experiments revealed a close proximity of Plin2 to SNAP23 on lipid droplets to within an intramolecular distance of 51 ?. The extent of targeting of SNAP23 to lipid droplets was determined by co-localization and co-immunoprecipitation experiments to show increased partitioning of SNAP23 to lipid droplets when Plin2 was overexpressed. Taken together, these results suggest that Plin2 inhibits glucose uptake by interacting with, and regulating cellular targeting of SNAP23 to lipid droplets. In summary, the current study for the first time provides direct evidence for the role of Plin2 in mediating cellular glucose uptake.
Quality of Life and Cannabis Use: Results from Canadian Sample Survey Data  [PDF]
Rawan Hassunah, James McIntosh
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.814155
Abstract: Data from the 2013 Canadian Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey, and two other surveys are used to determine the effects of cannabis use on self-reported physical and mental health. Daily or almost daily marijuana use is shown to be detrimental to both measures of health for some age groups but not all. The age group specific effects depend on gender. Males and females respond differently to cannabis use. The health costs of regularly using cannabis are significant but they are much smaller than those associated with tobacco use. These costs are attributed to both the presence of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and the fact that smoking cannabis is itself a health hazard because of the toxic properties of the smoke ingested. Cannabis use is costlier to regular smokers and age of first use below the age of 15 or 20 and being a former user leads to reduced physical and mental capacities which are permanent. These results strongly suggest that the legalization of marijuana be accompanied by educational programs, counseling services, and a delivery system, which minimizes juvenile and young adult usage.
Medical Education below the 48th Parallel
Chris McIntosh
University of Toronto Medical Journal , 2000, DOI: 10.5015/utmj.v78i1.970
Harmonic tori and their spectral data
I McIntosh
Mathematics , 2004,
Abstract: This is an expository article which describes one approach to the construction and classification of harmonic tori "of finite type", namely, via their ring of polynomial Killing fields. To keep the discussion focussed, the first section is devoted entirely to non-conformal harmonic tori in the 2-sphere. The second section summarizes the authors more recent work on pluri-harmonic maps into complex Grassmannians.
The quaternionic KP hierarchy and conformally immersed 2-tori in the 4-sphere
Ian McIntosh
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: The quaternionic KP hierarchy is the integrable hierarchy of p.d.e obtained by replacing the complex numbers with the quaternions, mutatis mutandis, in the standard construction of the KP hierarchy equations and solutions; it is equivalent to what is often called the Davey-Stewartson II hierarchy. This article studies its relationship with the theory of quaternionic holomorphic 2-tori in HP^1 (which are equivalent to conformally immersed 2-tori in S^4). After describing how the Sato-Segal-Wilson construction of KP solutions (particularly solutions of finite type) carries over to this quaternionic setting, we compare three different notions of "spectral curve": the QKP spectral curve, which arises from an algebra of commuting differential operators; the (unnormalised) Floquet multiplier spectral curve for the related Dirac operator; and the curve parameterising Darboux transforms of a conformal 2-torus in S^4 (in the sense of Bohle, Leschke, Pedit and Pinkall). The latter two are shown to be images of the QKP spectral curve, which need not be smooth. Moreover, it is a singularisation of this QKP spectral curve, rather than the normalised Floquet multiplier curve, which determines the classification of conformally immersed 2-tori of finite spectral genus.
Harmonic tori and generalised Jacobi varieties
Ian McIntosh
Mathematics , 1999,
Abstract: This article shows that every non-isotropic harmonic 2-torus in complex projective space factors through a generalised Jacobi variety related to the spectral curve. Each map is composed of a homomorphism into the variety and a rational map off it. The same ideas allow one to construct (pluri)-harmonic maps of finite type from Euclidean space into Grassmannians and the projective unitary groups. Further, some of these maps will be purely algebraic. For maps into complex projective space the algebraic maps of the plane are always doubly periodic i.e. they yield 2-tori. The classification of all these algebraic maps remains open.
Special Lagrangian cones in C^3 and primitive harmonic maps
Ian McIntosh
Mathematics , 2002,
Abstract: In this article I show that every special Lagrangian cone in C^3 determines, and is determined by, a primitive harmonic surface in the 6-symmetric space SU_3/SO_2. For cones over tori, this allows us to use the classification theory of harmonic tori to describe the construction of all the corresponding special Lagrangian cones. A parameter count is given for the space of these, and some examples found recently by Joyce are put into this context.
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