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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4339 matches for " Kenneth Chola "
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Climate Change Adaptation and Vulnerability: A Case of Rain Dependent Small-Holder Farmers in Selected Districts in Zambia  [PDF]
Cuthbert Casey Makondo, Kenneth Chola, Blesswell Moonga
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2014.34034
Abstract: Food crop production by small-holder farmers in Africa is particularly vulnerable to climate change, given high dependence on rainfall coupled with limited adaptive capacity. In Zambia, smallholder farmers contribute about 79% of national stable food requirements particularly maize. This paper attempted to establish levels of food security in each of the three agro-ecological zones of Zambia, and evaluated the current adaptive measures of rain dependent small-holder farmers against climate change risks. The challenges farmers are facing in adapting to the change risks were identified and livelihood vulnerability assessed. The findings indicate that rain dependent small-holder farmers in Zambia are highly vulnerable to weather related shocks which impact greatly on their food production; and that the levels of vulnerability vary across gender and per agro-ecological zone. After the evaluation of scenarios including staple food crop yields (maize), the authors conclude that most rain-fed small-holder farmers in Zambia (about 70%) are facing considerable hardships in adapting to the changing climate, which in turn, undermines their contribution to food security. While efforts by government have been made to assist farmers towards climate change adaptation, there still remains many challenges to achieve the desired outcomes. Most farmers (66%) are unable to afford certain alternatives, such as those of agro-forestry or conservation. Difficulties in accessing markets, poor road infrastructure, fluctuating market prices, high costs and late deliveries of farming in-puts were found to be among the major challenges that farmers are facing in Zambia. There are also no systematic early warning systems in place against natural hazards and disasters. This makes farming a difficult undertaking in Zambia.
Estimating average inpatient and outpatient costs and childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea treatment costs in an urban health centre in Zambia
Lumbwe Chola, Bjarne Robberstad
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1478-7547-7-16
Abstract: Annual economic and financial cost data were collected in 2005-2006. Data were summarized in a Microsoft excel spreadsheet to obtain total department costs and average disease treatment costs.The total annual cost of operating the health centre was US$1,731,661 of which US$1 284 306 and US$447,355 were patient care and overhead departments costs, respectively. The average cost of providing out-patient services was US$3 per visit, while the cost of in-patient treatment was US$18 per bed day. The cost of providing dental services was highest at US$20 per visit, and the cost of VCT services was lowest, with US$1 per visit. The cost per out-patient visit for under-five pneumonia was US$48, while the cost per bed day was US$215. The cost per outpatient visit attributed to under-five diarrhoea was US$26, and the cost per bed day was US$78.In the face of insufficient data, a cost analysis exercise is a difficult but feasible undertaking. The study findings are useful and applicable in similar settings, and can be used in cost effectiveness analyses of health interventions.The challenge to meet the millennium development goal of reducing under-five mortality with two thirds by 2015 has prompted the need for increased investment in child health in low income countries, where about 4.8 million children die every year from preventable diseases [1]. More than 70 per cent of these child deaths are attributable to diseases such as diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia [2]. Pneumonia and diarrhoea together account for more child deaths than any other single causes of death [3].Morbidity and mortality due to these and other diseases impose a huge economic burden on individuals, families and on society at large. This economic burden is more acute in developing countries, where the opportunity costs of resources are very high. This necessitates the need for priority setting in the allocation of resources.However, priority setting in most developing countries is hampered by lack of suffici
Association of Neighbourhood and Individual Social Capital, Neighbourhood Economic Deprivation and Self-Rated Health in South Africa – a Multi-Level Analysis
Lumbwe Chola, Olufunke Alaba
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071085
Abstract: Introduction Social capital is said to influence health, mostly in research undertaken in high income countries' settings. Because social capital may differ from one setting to another, it is suggested that its measurement be context specific. We examine the association of individual and neighbourhood level social capital, and neighbourhood deprivation to self-rated health using a multi-level analysis. Methods Data are taken from the 2008 South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey. Health was self-reported on a scale from 1 (excellent) to 5 (poor). Two measures of social capital were used: individual, measured by two variables denoting trust and civic participation; and neighbourhood social capital, denoting support, association, behaviour and safety in a community. Results Compared to males, females were less likely to report good health (Odds Ratio 0.82: Confidence Interval 0.73, 0.91). There were variations in association of individual social capital and self-rated health among the provinces. In Western Cape (1.37: 0.98, 1.91) and North West (1.39: 1.13, 1.71), trust was positively associated with reporting good health, while the reverse was true in Limpopo (0.56: 0.38, 0.84) and Free State (0.70: 0.48, 1.02). In Western Cape (0.60: 0.44, 0.82) and Mpumalanga (0.72: 0.55, 0.94), neighbourhood social capital was negatively associated with reporting good health. In North West (1.59: 1.27, 1.99) and Gauteng (1.90: 1.21, 2.97), increased neighbourhood social capital was positively associated with reporting good health. Conclusion Our study demonstrated the importance of considering contextual factors when analysing the relationship between social capital and health. Analysis by province showed variations in the way in which social capital affected health in different contexts. Further studies should be undertaken to understand the mechanisms through which social capital impacts on health in South Africa.
The Stellar Black Hole  [PDF]
Kenneth Dalton
Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology (JHEPGC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jhepgc.2018.44037
Abstract: A black hole model is proposed in which a neutron star is surrounded by a neutral gas of electrons and positrons. The gas is in a completely degenerate quantum state and does not radiate. The pressure and density in the gas are found to be much less than those in the neutron star. The radius of the black hole is far greater than the Schwarzschild radius.
Locke’s Solid Souls  [PDF]
D. Kenneth Brown
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.24034
Abstract: John Locke holds that matter is solid, the soul thinks, and for all we know the soul may be a material substance divinely endowed with a power to think. Though he openly admits to nothing stronger than the bare possibility of thinking matter, Locke grants that what thinks in us occupies a definite spatial location to the exclusion of other souls. Solidity is the quality that prevents other things from occupying a spatial location. Locke’s general criterion for identity is spatiotemporal exclusion of other things of the same kind. To meet these conditions for identity, souls must be solid. Although Locke refuses to declare that souls really are material things, taking the solidity of souls to be a condition for their identity is consistent with the following of Locke’s other important commitments: (1) nominalism about the essences by which substances are classified, (2) agnosticism about the underlying reality of what supports such “nominal essences,” and (3) the identity of persons is distinct from the identity of any substance. Locke ignores the implication that souls are solid because the solidity of souls is irrelevant to those three aims. Nevertheless he could allow for the solidity of souls without giving up on any of his other important and explicitly held commitments. There is therefore no need for Locke’s commentators to refrain from employing solidity in their accounts of Locke’s general criterion for identity from fear of attributing to Locke the position that souls would be solid.
Monitoring Land-Use Change in Nakuru (Kenya) Using Multi-Sensor Satellite Data  [PDF]
Kenneth Mubea, Gunter Menz
Advances in Remote Sensing (ARS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ars.2012.13008

Recently land-use change has been the main concern for worldwide environment change and is being used by city and regional planners to design sustainable cities. Nakuru in the central Rift Valley of Kenya has undergone rapid urban growth in last decade. This paper focused on urban growth using multi-sensor satellite imageries and explored the potential benefits of combining data from optical sensors (Landsat, Worldview-2) with Radar sensor data from Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data for urban land-use mapping. Landsat has sufficient spectral bands allowing for better delineation of urban green and impervious surface, Worldview-2 has a higher spatial resolution and facilitates urban growth mapping while PALSAR has higher temporal resolution compared to other operational sensors and has the capability of penetrating clouds irrespective of weather conditions and time of day, a condition prevalent in Nakuru, because it lies in a tropical area. Several classical and modern classifiers namely maximum likelihood (ML) and support vector machine (SVM) were applied for image classification and their performance assessed. The land-use data of the years 1986, 2000 and 2010 were compiled and analyzed using post classification comparison (PCC). The value of combining multi-temporal Landsat imagery and PALSAR was explored and achieved in this research. Our research illustrated that SVM algorithm yielded better results compared to ML. The integration of Landsat and ALOS PALSAR gave good results compared to when ALOS PAL- SAR was classified alone. 19.70 km2 of land changed to urban land-use from non-urban land-use between the years 2000 to 2010 indicating rapid urban growth has taken place. Land-use information is useful for the comprehensive land-use planning and an integrated management of resources to ensure sustainability of land and to achieve social Eq- uity, economic efficiency and environmental sustainability.


Climate change and the conservation of marmots  [PDF]
Kenneth B. Armitage
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.55A005
Abstract: Conservation of marmots, large ground-dwelling squirrels restricted to the northern hemisphere, was impacted by direct human activity through hunting or modifying ecosystem dynamics. Regulating human activities reduced the threat of extinction. Climate change, an indirect human impact, threatens marmot survival through global warming and extreme weather events. Most marmot species occupy a harsh environment characterized by a short growing season and a long, cold season without food. Marmots cope with seasonality by hibernating. Their large size increases the efficiency of fat accumulation and its use as the sole energy source during hibernation. Marmot physiology is highly adapted to coping with low environmental temperatures; they are stressed by high heat loads. Global warming since the last ice age reduced the geographic distribution of some of the 15 species of marmots. Recent warming resulted in a movement upslope of their lower elevation boundary. This process likely will continue because warming is associated with drier unpalatable vegetation. Drought reduces reproduction and increases mortality; thus decreased summer rainfall in the montane environments where marmots live may cause local extinction. Snow cover, a major environmental factor, is essential to insulate hibernation burrows from low, stressful temperatures. However, prolonged vernal snow cover reduces reproduction and increases mortality. Montane areas currently lacking marmot populations because vernal snow cover persists beyond the time that marmots must begin foraging may become colonized if warming causes earlier snow melt. This benefit will be short-lived because decreased precipitation likely will result in unpalatable vegetation. Although some marmot populations are physiologically adapted to a warmer climate, global warming will increase too rapidly for any significant evolutionary response to dryness. The species that live in high, alpine meadows where tree and shrub invasions occur are most threatened with extinction. Captive breeding can preserve marmot species in the shortrun, but is impractical over the long-term. Widespread species are unlikely to be endangered in the foreseeable future, but local, low elevation populations will be lost.
Portfolio Size in Stochastic Portfolio Networks Using Digital Portfolio Theory  [PDF]
C. Kenneth Jones
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2013.32028

The investment portfolio with stochastic returns can be represented as a maximum flow generalized network with stochastic multipliers. Modern portfolio theory (MPT) [1] provides a myopic short horizon solution to this network by adding a parametric variance constraint to the maximize flow objective function. MPT does not allow the number of securities in solution portfolios to be specified. Integer constraints to control portfolio size in MPT results in a nonlinear mixed integer problem and is not practical for large universes. Digital portfolio theory (DPT) [2] finds a non-myopic long-term solution to the nonparametric variance constrained portfolio network. This paper discusses the long horizon nature of DPT and adds zero-one (0-1) variables to control portfolio size. We find optimal size constrained allocations from a universe of US sector indexes. The feasible size of optimal portfolios depends on risk. Large optimal portfolios are infeasible for low risk investors. High risk investors can increase portfolio size and diversification with little effect on return.

Lean Six Sigma Methodologies and Organizational Profitability: A Review of Manufacturing SMEs in Nigeria  [PDF]
Okpala Kenneth Enoch
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2013.36066
Abstract: Manufacturing small-and medium-size enterprises (MSMEs) are reluctant to the implementation Lean and Six sigma methodologies (LSS) all the over world. This is traced to the impeding factors which seem stronger than motivating factors coupled with lack of proper documented evidence of LSS’s successful implementation in many MSMEs. This paper investigated the influence of LSS on the profitability of MSMEs in Nigeria. The population of the study consists of 450 manufacturing SMEs with 2250 employees. The sample frame is made up of 225 MSMEs with 1026 staff selected at random upon which copies of structured questionnaire were administered. 1002 valid responses received were analyzed. Pearson product moment correction (PPMC) confirmed the formulated propositions with negative association between awareness, achievement CSFs and LSS implementation and the profitability level of MSMEs. The result obtained shows that LSS implementation among MSMEs in Nigeria is almost none existing and has no influence on the profit level. The study recommended that CEOs of MSMEs should undertake training on LSS to enable them to provide a strong leadership and support the initiative, LSS consultants should be engaged to help drive the quality improvement approach and MSMEs should focus on the impeding factors to reduce the effect on the LSS implementation and achieve continual quality improvement, customers’ satisfaction, increase sales volume at a minimized cost to attain targeted market share and profit level.
Spatial Effects of Varying Model Coefficients in Urban Growth Modeling in Nairobi, Kenya  [PDF]
Kenneth Mubea, Gunter Menz
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2014.66053
Abstract: Urban land-use modeling has gained increased attention as a research topic over the last decade. This has been attributed to advances in remote sensing and computing technology that now can process several models simultaneously at regional and local levels. In this research we implemented a cellular automata (CA) urban growth model (UGM) integrated in the XULU modeling frame-work (eXtendable Unified Land Use Modeling Platform). We used multi-temporal Landsat satellite image sets for 1986, 2000 and 2010 to map urban land-use in Nairobi. We also tested the spatial effects of varying model coefficients. This approach improved model performance and aided in understanding the particular urban land-use system dynamics operating in our Nairobi study area. The UGM was calibrated for Nairobi and predicted development was derived for the city for the year 2030 when Kenya plans to attain Vision 2030. Observed land-use changes in urban areas were compared to the results of UGM modeling for the year 2010. The results indicate that varying the UGM model coefficients simulates urban growth in different directions and magnitudes. This approach is useful to planners and policy makers because the model outputs can identify specific areas within the urban complex which will require infrastructure and amenities in order to realize sustainable development.
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