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The rapid detection of infectivity of several agents that cause Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has previously been achieved by assaying for deposits of abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) in follicular dendritic cells in the spleens of transgenic mice carrying the human prion protein gene. In this study, transgenic mice expressing the bovine prion protein were inoculated intraperitoneally with classical (C-type) or atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE). Proteinase-resistant PrPSc were detected in the spleens of all transgenic mice at 75 days after inoculation with both types of BSE. Infectivity in PrPSc-positive spleens of the transgenic mice revealed that prions of C- and L-type BSE replicated. These results suggest that bioassay system by the transgenic mice could be useful for the rapid detection of BSE infectivity with discriminating between C- and L-type BSEs.
Seed priming is a physiological seed enhancement method.
Hydro- or osmotic priming can advance germination under adequate moisture
conditions. During direct seeding on well-drained paddy and upland fields, rice
seeds occasionally encounter low soil moisture conditions. Under these
conditions, rice seeds need to undergo rapid germination and secure
emergence through improved water absorption capacity and seed bioactive. This
study aims to clarify the effects of seed hydropriming on germination and
seedling vigor in rice under different soil moisture conditions. The study employed three
hydration conditions such as priming, soaking, and control. The seeds to be
primed and soaked were submerged in tap water at 30℃ for 12 h.
For priming, the seeds were subsequently dried to attain their initial seed
weight, but the seeds for soaking were not dried before sowing, and the control
seeds were untreated. In addition, different soil moisture conditions, such as
3%, 6%, 8%, 11%, 15%, and 20%, were set. Therefore, emergence time shortened
with seed priming at 3%-11% soil moisture contents. In particular, at 8% soil
moisture content, priming and soaking decreased emergence time by
26.8 h and 21.7 h, respectively compared with that of the control. At 8%-15% soil moisture
contents, shoot elongation rate obtained with the priming seeds increased
>1.2 times compared with that obtained with the control and soaking seeds.
At >8% soil moisture content, shoot dry weight obtained with the priming
seeds increased >1.3 times compared with that obtained with the soaking seeds.
Furthermore, at declining soil moisture conditions, the increase in
root dry weight is promoted by seed priming compared with that in the control
seeds. These results suggest that increased root growth affects plant water
absorption under low soil moisture conditions due to priming. This study
demonstrates that seed priming facilitates rapid emergence and seedling vigor,
unless extremely dry or flooded soil moisture conditions are present at
Autistic-like traits are characterized by impaired emotional recognition and proposed to be continuously distributed in the entire population. In the non-clinical population, however, the relationship between the autistic-like traits and the behavioral/physiological patterns of emotion processing ability has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the autistic traits (even including moderate-AQ participants) of typically developing adolescents, measured with the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), and the spectral property of their behavioral and physiological responses during emotion-discrimination tasks. Participants were screened and divided into three groups (high-, moderate-, and low-AQ groups) according to AQ scores. Each group participated in the subsequent emotion-discrimination (using angry, happy and neutral facial expressions) experiment involving event-related potentials (ERPs). The results indicated that high-AQ group displayed significant different patterns (lower late positive potentials) of the emotional processing involved in behavioral and physiological tasks compared with the moderate-AQ group. In contrast, their behavioral and physiological patterns were comparable to those shown in the low-AQ group. Thus, in the non-clinical adolescents, the spectrum of emotion recognition patterns might show a non-linear relationship with AQ scores, even suggesting that AQ could not be considered as a simple index for emotional processing.
We discuss the solution of Laplace’s differential equation by using operational calculus in the framework of distribution theory. We here study the solution of that differential Equation with an inhomogeneous term, and also a fractional differential equation of the type of Laplace’s differential equation.