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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5762 matches for " Ken’ichi Hagiwara "
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A Rapid Bioassay for Classical and L-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathies  [PDF]
Yuichi Matsuura, Yukiko Ishikawa, Robert A. Somerville, Takashi Yokoyama, Kenichi Hagiwara, Yoshio Yamakawa, Tetsutaro Sata, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto, Shirou Mohri
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2013.31013
Abstract:

The rapid detection of infectivity of several agents that cause Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has previously been achieved by assaying for deposits of abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) in follicular dendritic cells in the spleens of transgenic mice carrying the human prion protein gene. In this study, transgenic mice expressing the bovine prion protein were inoculated intraperitoneally with classical (C-type) or atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE). Proteinase-resistant PrPSc were detected in the spleens of all transgenic mice at 75 days after inoculation with both types of BSE. Infectivity in PrPSc-positive spleens of the transgenic mice revealed that prions of C- and L-type BSE replicated. These results suggest that bioassay system by the transgenic mice could be useful for the rapid detection of BSE infectivity with discriminating between C- and L-type BSEs.

Solving the neutrino parameter degeneracy by measuring the T2K off-axis beam in Korea
Kaoru Hagiwara,Naotoshi Okamura,Ken-ichi Senda
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1016/j.physletb.2006.09.003
Abstract: The T2K neutrino oscillation experiment will start in 2009. In this experiment the center of the neutrino beam from J-PARC at Tokai village will go through underground beneath Super-Kamiokande, reach the sea level east of Korean shore, and an off-axis beam at $0.5^{\circ}$ to $1.0^{\circ}$ can be observed in Korea. We study physics impacts of putting a 100 kt-level Water \cerenkov detector in Korea during the T2K experimental period. For a combination of the $3^{\circ}$ off-axis beam at SK with baseline length L = 295 km and the $0.5^{\circ}$ off-axis beam in the east coast of Korea at L = 1000 km, we find that the neutrino mass hierarchy (the sign of $m^2_{3} - m^2_1$) can be resolved and the CP phase of the MNS unitary matrix can be constrained uniquely at 3-$\sigma$ level when \sin^2 2\theta_{\rm rct} $ \ge 0.06 $.
The earth matter effects in neutrino oscillation experiments from Tokai to Kamioka and Korea
Kaoru Hagiwara,Naotoshi Okamura,Ken-ichi Senda
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/JHEP09(2011)082
Abstract: We study the earth matter effects in the Tokai-to-Kamioka-and-Korea experiment (T2KK), which is a proposed extension of the T2K (Tokai-to-Kamioka) neutrino oscillation experiment between J-PARC at Tokai and Super-Kamiokande (SK) in Kamioka, where an additional detector is placed in Korea along the same neutrino beam line.By using recent geophysical measurements, we examine the earth matter effects on the oscillation probabilities at Kamioka and Korea. The average matter density along the Tokai-to-Kamioka baseline is found to be 2.6 g/cm^3, and that for the Tokai-to-Korea baseline is 2.85, 2.98, and 3.05 g/cm^3 for the baseline length of L = 1000, 1100, and 1200 km, respectively. The uncertainty of the average density is about 6%, which is determined by the uncertainty in the correlation between the accurately measured sound velocity and the matter density. The effect of the matter density distribution along the baseline is studied by using the step function approximation and the Fourier analysis. We find that the nu_mu -> nu_e oscillation probability is dictated mainly by the average matter density, with small but non-negligible contribution from the real part of the first Fourier mode. We also find that the sensitivity of the T2KK experiment on the neutrino mass hierarchy does not improve significantly by reducing the matter density error from 6% to 3%, since the measurement is limited by statistics for the minimum scenario of T2KK with SK at Kamioka anda 100 kt detector in Korea considered in this report. The sensitivity of the T2KK experiment on the neutrino mass hierarchy improves significantly by splitting the total beam time into neutrino and anti-neutrino runs, because the matter effect term contributes to the oscillation amplitudes with the opposite sign.
Identification and structural analysis of C-terminally truncated collapsin response mediator protein-2 in a murine model of prion diseases
Fumiko Shinkai-Ouchi, Yoshio Yamakawa, Hideyuki Hara, Minoru Tobiume, Masahiro Nishijima, Kentaro Hanada, Ken'ichi Hagiwara
Proteome Science , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1477-5956-8-53
Abstract: In a proteomic analysis of soluble proteins in the brains of mice challenged intracerebrally with scrapie prion (Obihiro I strain), we found that the amount of the full-length form of collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2; 61 kDa) decreased in the late stages of the disease, while the amount of its truncated form (56 kDa) increased to comparable levels observed for the full-length form. Detailed analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry showed that the 56-kDa form (named CRMP-2-ΔC) lacked the sequence from serine518 to the C-terminus, including the C-terminal phosphorylation sites important for the regulation of axonal growth and axon-dendrite specification in developing neurons. The invariable size of the mRNA transcript in Northern blot analysis suggested that the truncation was due to post-translational proteolysis. By overexpression of CRMP-2-ΔC in primary cultured neurons, we observed the augmentation of the development of neurite branch tips to the same levels as for CRMP-2T514A/T555A, a non-phosphorylated mimic of the full-length protein. This suggests that the increased level of CRMP-2-ΔC in the brain modulates the integrity of neurons, and may be involved in the pathogenesis of the neuronal abnormalities observed in the late stages of the disease.We identified the presence of CRMP-2-ΔC in the brain of a murine model of prion disease. Of note, C-terminal truncations of CRMP-2 have been recently observed in models for neurodegenerative disorders such as ischemia, traumatic brain injury, and Wallerian degeneration. While the structural identity of CRMP-2-ΔC in those models remains unknown, the present study should provide clues to the molecular pathology of degenerating neurons in prion diseases in connection with other neurodegenerative disorders.Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases, are fatal neurodegenerative disorders that include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Str?ussler-Schein
Thiol-reactive reagents inhibits intracellular trafficking of human papillomavirus type 16 pseudovirions by binding to cysteine residues of major capsid protein L1
Yoshiyuki Ishii, Kazunari Kondo, Tamae Matsumoto, Keiko Tanaka, Fumiko Shinkai-Ouchi, Ken'ichi Hagiwara, Tadahito Kanda
Virology Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-4-110
Abstract: HPV type16-pseudovirions (16PVs) were found to lose their infectivity after incubation with thiol-reactive reagents [biotin polyethyleneoxide iodoacetamide (BPEOIA), 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB), N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), 4-(N-maleimido)benzyl-trimethylammonium iodide (MBTA), and [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl] methanethiosulfonate bromide (MTSET)]. A labelled streptavidin was detected to bind to the complex of BPEOIA and L1 of the 16PVs incubated with BPEOIA. The analysis of molecular mass of trypsin-fragments derived from the complex of the BPEOIA and L1 indicated that BPEOIA bound to at least C146, C225, and C229. No appreciable change of the 16PVs carrying DTNB or NEM was detected by sedimentation analysis or electron microscopy. The 16PVs carrying DTNB or NEM were able to bind to and enter HeLa cells but degraded before they reached the perinuclear region.HPV16 L1 C146, C225, and C229 have free thiol, which are accessible to BPEOIA, DTNB, NEM, MBTA, and MTSET. Binding of DTNB or NEM to the thiols may cause conformational changes that result in the inhibition of the entry and trafficking of the 16PVs.Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a non-enveloped icosahedral particle (55 nm in diameter) containing an 8-kb double-strand circular DNA [1]. An HPV-capsid is composed of 360 molecules of major capsid protein L1 and 12 molecules of minor capsid protein L2 [2]. To date more than 100 HPV genotypes, which are classified by DNA homology, have been cloned and are grouped into mucosal and cutaneous types from the tissue tropism [3]. Among mucosal types 15 HPVs detected in cervical cancer, the second most frequent gynaecological malignancy in the world, are called as high-risk types and those detected in benign lesions, such as condyloma, are called as low-risk types [4]. HPV type 16 (HPV16) is believed to account for 50% of cervical cancer [4].HPVs infect basal cells of the epithelium through microlesions and replicate only in the differentiating cells [5]. These cel
International Outsourcing and Long-Run Growth in a Variety Expansion Model  [PDF]
Ken-ichi Hashimoto
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.24072
Abstract: We develop a North-South trade model including the opportunity for outsourcing in a variety expansion framework and derive the effect of an increase in outsourcing on long-run growth. We find that the effect of increased outsourcing on the growth rate of product variety is contingent on the labor size of the Northern and Southern economy. In particular, if the relative labor size of South to North is smaller, outsourcing the production of intermediate goods to Southern economy can have negative effects on economic growth.
Effects of Seed Hydropriming on Germination and Seedling Vigor during Emergence of Rice under Different Soil Moisture Conditions  [PDF]
Ken-Ichi Matsushima, Jun-Ichi Sakagami
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.48191
Abstract:

Seed priming is a physiological seed enhancement method. Hydro- or osmotic priming can advance germination under adequate moisture conditions. During direct seeding on well-drained paddy and upland fields, rice seeds occasionally encounter low soil moisture conditions. Under these conditions, rice seeds need to undergo rapid germination and secure emergence through improved water absorption capacity and seed bioactive. This study aims to clarify the effects of seed hydropriming on germination and seedling vigor in rice under different soil moisture conditions. The study employed three hydration conditions such as priming, soaking, and control. The seeds to be primed and soaked were submerged in tap water at 30℃ for 12 h. For priming, the seeds were subsequently dried to attain their initial seed weight, but the seeds for soaking were not dried before sowing, and the control seeds were untreated. In addition, different soil moisture conditions, such as 3%, 6%, 8%, 11%, 15%, and 20%, were set. Therefore, emergence time shortened with seed priming at 3%-11% soil moisture contents. In particular, at 8% soil moisture content, priming and soaking decreased emergence time by 26.8 h and 21.7 h, respectively compared with that of the control. At 8%-15% soil moisture contents, shoot elongation rate obtained with the priming seeds increased >1.2 times compared with that obtained with the control and soaking seeds. At >8% soil moisture content, shoot dry weight obtained with the priming seeds increased >1.3 times compared with that obtained with the soaking seeds. Furthermore, at declining soil moisture conditions, the increase in root dry weight is promoted by seed priming compared with that in the control seeds. These results suggest that increased root growth affects plant water absorption under low soil moisture conditions due to priming. This study demonstrates that seed priming facilitates rapid emergence and seedling vigor, unless extremely dry or flooded soil moisture conditions are present at seeding.

Molecular Dynamics Study on Mechanical Properties in the Structure of Self-Assembled Quantum Dot  [PDF]
Tatsuya Yamaguchi, Ken-ichi Saitoh
World Journal of Nano Science and Engineering (WJNSE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjnse.2012.24025
Abstract: Stress and strain in the structure of self-assembled quantum dots constructed in the Ge/Si(001) system is calculated by using molecular dynamics simulation. Pyramidal hut cluster composed of Ge crystal with {105} facets surfaces observed in the early growth stage are computationally modeled. We calculate atomic stress and strain in relaxed pyramidal structure. Atomic stress for triplet of atoms is approximately defined as an average value of pairwise (virial) quantity inside triplet, which is the product of vectors between each two atoms. Atomic strain by means of atomic strain measure (ASM) which is formulated on the Green’s definition of continuum strain. We find the stress (strain) relaxation in pyramidal structure and stress (strain) concentration in the edge of pyramidal structure. We discuss size dependency of stress and strain distribution in pyramidal structure. The relationship between hydrostatic stress and atomic volumetric strain is basically linear for all models, but for the surface of pyramidal structure and Ge-Si interface. This means that there is a reasonable correlation between atomic stress proposed in the present study and atomic strain measure, ASM.
An ERP Study of Autistic Traits and Emotional Recognition in Non-Clinical Adolescence  [PDF]
Kenichi Nixima, Maiko Fujimori, Kazuo Okanoya
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.46073
Abstract:

Autistic-like traits are characterized by impaired emotional recognition and proposed to be continuously distributed in the entire population. In the non-clinical population, however, the relationship between the autistic-like traits and the behavioral/physiological patterns of emotion processing ability has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the autistic traits (even including moderate-AQ participants) of typically developing adolescents, measured with the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), and the spectral property of their behavioral and physiological responses during emotion-discrimination tasks. Participants were screened and divided into three groups (high-, moderate-, and low-AQ groups) according to AQ scores. Each group participated in the subsequent emotion-discrimination (using angry, happy and neutral facial expressions) experiment involving event-related potentials (ERPs). The results indicated that high-AQ group displayed significant different patterns (lower late positive potentials) of the emotional processing involved in behavioral and physiological tasks compared with the moderate-AQ group. In contrast, their behavioral and physiological patterns were comparable to those shown in the low-AQ group. Thus, in the non-clinical adolescents, the spectrum of emotion recognition patterns might show a non-linear relationship with AQ scores, even suggesting that AQ could not be considered as a simple index for emotional processing.


Remarks on the Solution of Laplace’s Differential Equation and Fractional Differential Equation of That Type  [PDF]
Tohru Morita, Ken-ichi Sato
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.411A1003
Abstract:

We discuss the solution of Laplace’s differential equation by using operational calculus in the framework of distribution theory. We here study the solution of that differential Equation with an inhomogeneous term, and also a fractional differential equation of the type of Laplace’s differential equation.

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