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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 466153 matches for " Kelsey A Johnson "
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The Spectral Energy Distributions of Infant Super Star Clusters in Henize 2-10 from 7mm to 6cm
Kelsey E. Johnson,Henry A. Kobulnicky
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/378585
Abstract: We present observations from our continuing studies of the earliest stages of massive star cluster evolution. In this paper, radio observations from the Very Large Array at 0.7cm, 1.3cm, 2cm, 3.6cm, and 6cm are used to map the radio spectral energy distributions and model the physical properties of the ultra-young embedded super star clusters in Henize 2-10. The 0.7cm flux densities indicate that the young embedded star clusters that are powering the radio detected ``ultradense HII regions'' (UDHIIs) have masses greater than \~10^5 Msun. We model the radio spectral energy distributions as both constant density HII regions and HII regions with power-law electron density gradients. These models suggest the UDHIIs have radii ranging between ~2-4pc and average electron densities of ~10^3-10^4 cm^-3 (with peak electron densities reaching values of ~10^5-10^6 cm^-3). The pressures implied by these densities are P/k_B~10^7-10^10 cm^-3 K, several orders of magnitude higher than typical pressures in the Galactic ISM. The inferred HII masses in the UDHIIs are \~2-8x10^3 Msun; these values are <5% of the embedded stellar masses, and anonamously low when compared to optically visible young clusters. We suggest that these low HII mass fractions may be a result of the extreme youth of these objects.
Signatures of the Youngest Starbursts: Optically-thick Thermal Bremsstrahlung Radio Sources in Henize 2-10
Henry A. Kobulnicky,Kelsey E. Johnson
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/308075
Abstract: VLA radio continuum imaging reveals compact (<8 pc) ~1 mJy radio sources in the central 5" starburst region of the blue compact galaxy Henize 2-10. We interpret these radio knots as extremely young, ultra-dense HII regions. We model their luminosities and spectral energy distributions, finding that they are consistent with unusually dense HII regions having electron densities, 1500 cm^-3 < n_e < 5000 cm^-3, and sizes of 3-8 pc. Since these H II regions are not visible in optical images, we propose that the radio data preferentially reveal the youngest, densest, and most highly obscured starforming events. Energy considerations imply that each of the five \HII regions contains ~750 O7V equivalent stars, greater than the number found in 30 Doradus in the LMC. The high densities imply an over-pressure compared to the typical interstellar medium so that such objects must be short-lived (<0.5 Myr expansion timescales). We conclude that the radio continuum maps reveal the very young (<0.5 Myr) precursors of ``super starclusters'' or ``proto globular clusters'' which are prominent at optical and UV wavelengths in He 2-10. If the ultra-dense HII regions are typical of those which we predict will be found in other starbursting systems, then super starclusters spend 15% of their lifetime in heavily-obscured environments, similar to Galactic ultra-compact HII regions. This body of work leads us to propose that massive extragalactic star clusters (i.e. proto globular clusters) with ages <10^6 yr may be most easily identified by finding compact radio sources with optically-thick thermal bremsstrahlung spectral signatures.
Malaria treatment-seeking behaviour and recovery from malaria in a highland area of Kenya
Peter O Sumba, S Lindsey Wong, Hemal K Kanzaria, Kelsey A Johnson, Chandy C John
Malaria Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-7-245
Abstract: To assess treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria in these areas, a questionnaire was administered to 117 randomly selected households in the highland area of Kipsamoite, Kenya. Self-reported episodes of malaria occurred in 100 adults and 66 children.The most frequent initial sources of treatment for malaria in adults and children were medical facilities (66.0% and 66.7%) and local shops (19.0% and 30.3%). Adults and children who initially visited a medical facility for treatment were significantly more likely to recover and require no further treatment than those who initially went to a local shop (adults, 84.9% v. 36.8%, P < 0.0001, and children, 79.6% v. 40.0%, P = 0.002, respectively). Individuals who attended medical facilities recalled receiving anti-malarial medication significantly more frequently than those who visited shops (adults, 100% vs. 29.4%, and children, 100% v. 5.0%, respectively, both P < 0.0001).A significant proportion of this highland population chooses local shops for initial malaria treatment and receives inappropriate medication at these localshops, reslting in delay of effective treatment. Shopkeeper education has the potential to be a component of prevention or containment strategies for malaria epidemics in highland areas.Malaria is a leading cause of death in children under the age of five years in sub-Saharan Africa [1]. The Roll-Back Malaria (RBM) initiative is working to improve prevention efforts in affected countries, through insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), indoor residual spraying (IRS) of pesticides, and intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for pregnant women [2]. RBM also focuses on intervention efforts via effective anti-malarial regimens like artemesinin-based combination therapy (ACT), pre-empting epidemics in epidemic-prone areas, and improving home management of the disease. Rapid, effective treatment response with ACT is currently the most effective treatment option in sub-Saharan Africa, considering the current state
High Resolution Radio and Optical Observations of the Central Starburst in the Low-Metallicity Dwarf Galaxy II Zw 40
Amanda A. Kepley,Amy E. Reines,Kelsey E. Johnson,Lisa May Walker
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/147/2/43
Abstract: The extent to which star formation varies in galaxies with low masses, low metallicities, and high star formation rate surface densities is not well-constrained. To gain insight into star formation under these physical conditions, this paper estimates the ionizing photon fluxes, masses, and ages for young massive clusters in the central region of II Zw 40 -- the prototypical low-metallicity dwarf starburst galaxy -- from radio continuum and optical observations. Discrete, cluster-sized sources only account for half the total radio continuum emission; the remainder is diffuse. The young (<5 Myr) central burst has a star formation rate surface density that significantly exceeds that of the Milky Way. Three of the 13 sources have ionizing photon fluxes (and thus masses) greater than R136 in 30 Doradus. Although isolating the effects of galaxy mass and metallicity is difficult, the HII region luminosity function and the internal extinction in the center of II Zw 40 appear to be primarily driven by a merger-related starburst. The relatively flat HII region luminosity function may be the result of an increase in ISM pressure during the merger and the internal extinction is similar to that generated by the clumpy and porous dust in other starburst galaxies.
Radio continuum observations of local star-forming galaxies using the Caltech Continuum Backend on the Green Bank Telescope
Katie Rabidoux,D. J. Pisano,Amanda A. Kepley,Kelsey E. Johnson,Dana S. Balser
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/780/1/19
Abstract: We observed radio continuum emission in 27 local (D < 70 Mpc) star-forming galaxies with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope between 26 GHz and 40 GHz using the Caltech Continuum Backend. We obtained detections for 22 of these galaxies at all four sub-bands and four more marginal detections by taking the average flux across the entire bandwidth. This is the first detection (full or marginal) at these frequencies for 22 of these galaxies. We fit spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for all of the four-sub-band detections. For 14 of the galaxies, SEDs were best fit by a combination of thermal free-free and nonthermal synchrotron components. Eight galaxies with four-sub-band detections had steep spectra that were only fit by a single nonthermal component. Using these fits, we calculated supernova rates, total number of equivalent O stars, and star formation rates within each ~23 arcsecond beam. For unresolved galaxies, these physical properties characterize the galaxies' recent star formation on a global scale. We confirm that the radio-far-infrared correlation holds for the unresolved galaxies' total 33 GHz flux regardless of their thermal fractions, though the scatter on this correlation is larger than that at 1.4 GHz. In addition, we found that for the unresolved galaxies, there is an inverse relationship between the ratio of 33 GHz flux to total far-infrared flux and the steepness of the galaxy's spectral index between 1.4 GHz and 33 GHz. This relationship could be an indicator of the timescale of the observed episode of star formation.
The Infrared Properties of Super Star Clusters: Predictions from Three-Dimensional Radiative Transfer Models
David G. Whelan,Kelsey E. Johnson,Barbara A. Whitney,Remy Indebetouw,Kenneth Wood
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/729/2/111
Abstract: With high-resolution infrared data becoming available that can probe the formation of high-mass stellar clusters for the first time, models that make testable predictions of these objects are necessary. We utilize a three-dimensional radiative transfer code, including a hierarchically clumped medium, to study the earliest stages of super star cluster evolution. We explore a range of parameter space in geometric sequences that mimic the evolution of an embedded super star cluster. The inclusion of a hierarchically clumped medium can make the envelope porous, in accordance with previous models and supporting observational evidence. The infrared luminosity inferred from observations can differ by a factor of two from the true value in the clumpiest envelopes depending on the viewing angle. The infrared spectral energy distribution also varies with viewing angle for clumpy envelopes, creating a range in possible observable infrared colors and magnitudes, silicate feature depths and dust continua. General observable features of cluster evolution differ between envelopes that are relatively opaque or transparent to mid-infrared photons. The [70]-[160] color can be used to determine star formation efficiency; the Spitzer IRAC/MIPS [8.0]-[24] color is able to constrain Rin and Rout values; and the IRAC [3.6]-[5.8] color is sensitive to the fraction of the dust distributed in clumps. Finally, in a comparison of these models to data of ultracompact HII regions, we find good agreement, suggesting that these models are physically relevant, and will provide useful diagnostic ability for datasets of resolved, embedded SSCs with the advent of high-resolution infrared telescopes like JWST.
Unveiling Extragalactic Star Formation Using Radio Recombination Lines: An EVLA Pilot Study with NGC 253
Amanda A. Kepley,Laura Chomiuk,Kelsey E. Johnson,W. M. Goss,Dana S. Balser,D. J. Pisano
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/739/1/L24
Abstract: Radio recombination lines (RRLs) are powerful, extinction-free diagnostics of the ionized gas in young, star-forming regions. Unfortunately, these lines are difficult to detect in external galaxies. We present the results of EVLA observations of the RRL and radio continuum emission at 33 GHz from NGC 253, a nearby nuclear starburst galaxy. We detect the previously unobserved H58a and H59a RRLs and make simultaneous sensitive measurements of the continuum. We measure integrated line fluxes of $44.3 \pm 0.7$ W m$^{-2}$ and $39.9 \pm 0.8$ W m$^{-2}$ for the H58a and H59a lines, respectively. The thermal gas in NGC 253 is kinematically complex with multiple velocity components. We constrain the density of the thermal gas to $1.4 - 4 \times 10^4$ cm$^{-3}$ and estimate an ionizing photon flux of $1 \times 10^{53}$ s$^{-1}$. We use the RRL kinematics and the derived ionizing photon flux to show that the nuclear region of NGC 253 is not gravitationally bound, which is consistent with the outflow of gas inferred from the X-ray and Halpha measurements. The line profiles, fluxes, and kinematics of the H58a and H59a lines agree with those of RRLs at different frequencies confirming the accuracy of the previous, more difficult, high frequency observations. We find that the EVLA is an order of magnitude more efficient for extragalactic RRL observations than the VLA. These observations demonstrate both the power of the EVLA and the future potential of extragalactic RRL studies with the EVLA.
Finding Signatures of the Youngest Starbursts
Chip Kobulnicky,Kelsey E. Johnson
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: Embedded massive starclusters have recently been identified in several nearby galaxies by means of the radio-wave thermal bremsstrahlung emission from their surrounding HII regions. Energy requirements imply that these optically-obscured starclusters contain 500-1000 O-type stars, making them similar to the ``super starclusters'' observed in many dwarf starbursts and mergers. Based on their high free-free optical depth and visual extinctions of A_V>>10 mag., these massive ``ultra-dense'' HII regions (UDHIIs) are distinct signatures of the youngest, most compact super starclusters. UDHII regions may represent the earliest stages of globular cluster formation. We review the properties of presently-known UDHIIs, and we outline a pictoral evolutionary taxonomy for massive cluster formation which is analogous to the more familiar evolutionary sequence for individual stars.
Plastic Additives Decrease Agrin-Induced Acetylcholine Receptor Clusters and Myotube Formation in C2C12 Skeletal Muscle Cell Culture  [PDF]
Kelsey Neufeld, Kelly Ezell, Wade A. Grow
CellBio (CellBio) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/cellbio.2015.41002
Abstract: Common additives in plastics such as bisphenol A (BPA) or phthalates like di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are environmental estrogens that have been shown to be endocrine disruptors in some experimental animal models. This project used the C2C12 cell culture model to examine how exposure to BPA or DEHP affects two aspects of skeletal muscle development, the fusion of myoblasts into myotubes and agrin-induced clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). During myotube formation AChRs cluster spontaneously. Treatment with motor neuron derived agrin increases the frequency of AChR clusters through an agrin signaling pathway that also clusters other postsynaptic components of the neuromuscular synapse. For this project C2C12 cells were exposed to BPA or DEHP while myoblasts fused into myotubes. After exposure to 10 μM BPA or 100 μM DEHP the frequency of agrin-induced AChR clusters decreased. In addition, myotube formation decreased as a higher percentage of nuclei remained in myoblasts. Furthermore, BPA or DEHP reduced the amount of the myogenic regulatory factor myogenin. This suggests that BPA and DEHP decrease AChR clustering by reducing myogenin. Moreover, plastic additives like BPA and DEHP may pose a risk for skeletal muscle development in humans.
Global Properties of Neutral Hydrogen in Compact Groups
Lisa May Walker,Kelsey E. Johnson,Sarah C. Gallagher,George C. Privon,Amanda A. Kepley,David G. Whelan,Tyler D. Desjardins,Ann I. Zabludoff
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Compact groups of galaxies provide a unique environment to study the evolution of galaxies amid frequent gravitational encounters. These nearby groups have conditions similar to those in the earlier universe when galaxies were assembled and give us the opportunity to witness hierarchical formation in progress. To understand how the compact group environment affects galaxy evolution, we examine the gas and dust in these groups. We present new single-dish GBT neutral hydrogen (HI) observations of 30 compact groups and define a new way to quantify the group HI content as the HI-to-stellar mass ratio of the group as a whole. We compare the HI content with mid-IR indicators of star formation and optical [g-r] color to search for correlations between group gas content and star formation activity of individual group members. Quiescent galaxies tend to live in HI-poor groups, and galaxies with active star formation are more commonly found in HI-rich groups. Intriguingly, we also find "rogue" galaxies whose star formation does not correlate with group HI content. In particular, we identify three galaxies (NGC 2968 in RSCG 34, KUG 1131+202A in RSCG 42, and NGC 4613 in RSCG 64) whose mid-IR activity is discrepant with the HI. We speculate that this mismatch between mid-IR activity and HI content is a consequence of strong interactions in this environment that can strip HI from galaxies and abruptly affect star-formation. Ultimately, characterizing how and on what timescales the gas is processed in compact groups will help us understand the interstellar medium in complex, dense environments similar to the earlier Universe.
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