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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 300596 matches for " Kelly J. Hunt "
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Analysis of dendritic cells in tumor-free and tumor-containing sentinel lymph nodes from patients with breast cancer
Nancy J Poindexter, Aysegul Sahin, Kelly K Hunt, Elizabeth A Grimm
Breast Cancer Research , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/bcr808
Abstract: Fifty paraffin-embedded SLN sections, 25 tumor-free and 25 tumor-containing, from patients with breast cancer were analyzed by immunohistochemistry to determine the immune maturation state of their DCs. In addition, 12 lymph nodes from noncancer-containing breasts were analyzed. Tissues were stained with antibodies against CD3, MHC class II, CD1a, CD83, IL-10, and IL-12. Mature DCs were defined by CD83 expression and immature DCs by CD1a expression.We found a trend toward higher numbers of mature CD83-positive DCs in tumor-free SLNs than in tumor-containing SLNs (P = 0.07). In addition, tumor-free SLNs were more likely to contain cells expressing IL-10 (P = 0.02) and, to a lesser extent, IL-12 (P = 0.12). In contrast, when all SLNs, both tumor-free and tumor-containing, were compared with uninvolved lymph nodes, the numbers of mature and immature DCs were similar.Our results suggest tumor-free SLNs are immunologically competent and potentially a site of tumor-specific T-cell activation, as evidenced by the presence of greater numbers of mature DCs and cytokine-producing cells in tumor-free SLNs.Tumor-specific T-cell activation begins in the primary tumor when dendritic cells (DCs) encounter antigens in the form of apoptotic or necrotic tumor cells. The DCs engulf dying tumor cells and process their antigens into peptides that are presented in the context of MHC class I and class II molecules [1,2]. The function of a DC is highly influenced by its level of maturation. Immature DCs are capable of antigen uptake and processing but cannot, unless given the proper cytokine signals, present antigen to T cells [1,3,4]. After receiving the correct cytokine signals, the mature, peptide-loaded DCs migrate from the tumor to the first draining lymph node, referred to as the sentinel lymph node (SLN). In the SLN, na?ve T cells are activated by the peptide-loaded mature DCs. These T cells then undergo clonal expansion, gain effector function, and circulate back to the tumor, wher
Simulated Estimates of Pre-Pregnancy and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in the US: 1980 to 2008
Maria E. Mayorga, Odette S. Reifsnider, David M. Neyens, Mulugeta G. Gebregziabher, Kelly J. Hunt
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073437
Abstract: Purpose To simulate national estimates of prepregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in non-Hispanic white (NHW) and non-Hispanic black (NHB) women. Methods Prepregnancy diabetes and GDM were estimated as a function of age, race/ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI) using South Carolina live singleton births from 2004–2008. Diabetes risk was applied to a simulated population. Age, natality and BMI were assigned to women according to race- and age-specific US Census, Natality and National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) data, respectively. Results From 1980–2008, estimated GDM prevalence increased from 4.11% to 6.80% [2.68% (95% CI 2.58%–2.78%)] and from 3.96% to 6.43% [2.47% (95% CI 2.39%–2.55%)] in NHW and NHB women, respectively. In NHW women prepregnancy diabetes prevalence increased 0.90% (95% CI 0.85%–0.95%) from 0.95% in 1980 to 1.85% in 2008. In NHB women from 1980 through 2008 estimated prepregnancy diabetes prevalence increased 1.51% (95% CI 1.44%–1.57%), from 1.66% to 3.16%. Conclusions Racial disparities in diabetes prevalence during pregnancy appear to stem from a higher prevalence of prepregnancy diabetes, but not GDM, in NHB than NHW.
Quantifying the Impact of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Maternal Weight and Race on Birthweight via Quantile Regression
Caitlyn N. Ellerbe, Mulugeta Gebregziabher, Jeffrey E. Korte, Jill Mauldin, Kelly J. Hunt
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065017
Abstract: Background Quantile regression, a robust semi-parametric approach, was used to examine the impact of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) across birthweight quantiles with a focus on maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). Methods Using linked birth certificate, inpatient hospital and prenatal claims data we examined live singleton births to non-Hispanic white (NHW, 135,119) and non-Hispanic black (NHB, 76,675) women in South Carolina who delivered 28–44 weeks gestation in 2004–2008. Results At a maternal BMI of 30 kg/m2 at the 90th quantile of birthweight, exposure to GDM was associated with birthweights 84 grams (95% CI 57, 112) higher in NHW and 132 grams (95% CI: 104, 161) higher in NHB. Results at the 50th quantile were 34 grams (95% CI: 17, 51) and 78 grams (95% CI: 56, 100), respectively. At a maternal GWG of 13.5 kg at the 90th quantile of birthweight, exposure to GDM was associated with birthweights 83 grams (95% CI: 57, 109) higher in NHW and 135 grams (95% CI: 103, 167) higher in NHB. Results at the 50th quantile were 55 grams (95% CI: 40, 71) and 69 grams (95% CI: 46, 92), respectively. Summary Our findings indicate that GDM, maternal prepregnancy BMI and GWG increase birthweight more in NHW and NHB infants who are already at the greatest risk of macrosomia or being large for gestational age (LGA), that is those at the 90th rather than the median of the birthweight distribution.
Breaking the Adhesive Bond between Dialyll Phthlate, Barco Bond 185 and PBX 9501  [PDF]
Matt Jackson, Benton Allen, Trent Kelly, Courtney Waddell, Emily M. Hunt, Stephanie Steelman, Neil Koone
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2015.37026
Abstract:

Use of epoxy as an adhesive is a common practice. The most common applications are permanent sealants. Epoxies have a wide range of operating temperatures, and are very resistance to adhesive failure. When a need to remove this adhesive arises, it is not always easily accomplished especially if the part has excessive adhesive. To maintain fidelity of the parts attached by epoxy, a project evaluating several methods of epoxy removal was conducted. Methods evaluated included low wavelength, near-ultraviolet radiation, solvent dissolution, and thermal cycling. The UV method failed to demonstrate a repeatable dissociation. The solvent study did result in dissociation of bonds, but introduced chemicals that could make subsequent chemical analysis of parts suspect. Thermal cycling showed a high repeatability for dissociation of bonds and may prove to be relatively inexpensive to implement.

Palliative care; what do you really mean?
J Mackriell, J Hunt
Malawi Medical Journal , 2008,
Abstract: ‘Palliative Care' was unknown in Malawi until Dr. Anne Merriman visited in 2002 and introduced the concept. HIV/AIDS care and treatment services gradually grasped this philosophy of care, palliative care champions studied for post-graduate qualifications, health care workers gained extra skills, and a national voice for stakeholders was established in 2005. Malawi Medical Journal Vol. 20 (4) 2008: pp. 109-111
Correlation between CpG methylation profiles and hormone receptor status in breast cancers
Weiwei Feng, Lanlan Shen, Sijin Wen, Daniel G Rosen, Jaroslav Jelinek, Xin Hu, Shaoyi Huan, Miao Huang, Jinsong Liu, Aysegul A Sahin, Kelly K Hunt, Robert C Bast, Yu Shen, Jean-Pierre J Issa, Yinhua Yu
Breast Cancer Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/bcr1762
Abstract: We used a pyrosequencing methylation analysis to study the methylation of 12 known growth-suppressor genes in 90 pairs of malignant/normal breast tissues. We also examined the expression of ERs and PRs in those specimens by immunohistochemistry. Mutations of p53 in tumor cells were detected by direct sequencing.Twelve tumor-suppressor genes: ARHI, RASSF1A, HIN-1, RARβ2, hMLH1, 14-3-3 σ, RIZ1, p16, E-cadherin, RIL, CDH13, and NKD2 were selected for this methylation study. Five of them (RIL, HIN-1, RASSF1A, CDH13, and RARβ2) were frequently methylated in breast cancers (57%, 49%, 58%, 44%, and 17%, respectively) but not the normal breast (0–4%). Two panels of methylation profiles were defined. The methylation of the HIN-1/RASSFIA panel strongly correlated to the expression of ERs, PRs, and hormone receptors (HRs; which were defined as 'positive' if ERs and/or PRs were positive; p < 0.001). Conversely, the methylation of the RIL/CDH13 panel strongly correlated to negative ER, PR, and HR expression (p = 0.001, 0.025, and 0.001, respectively). The subset of triple-negative breast cancers (in other words, those with negative ER, PR, and HER-2/neu status) was positively associated with the methylation of the RIL/CDH13 panel and negatively associated with the HIN-1/RASSF1A panel. Mutations of p53 were found in nine breast tumors (11%), seven of which lacked methylation in both panels.We have defined two panels (HIN-1/RASSFIA, and RIL/CDH13) of methylation profiles, which correlated, either positively or negatively, to HR status.Over the past ten years, aberrant DNA methylation has been recognized as one of the most common molecular abnormalities in breast cancer [1,2]. A large body of evidence implicates potential hypermethylation of CpG islands in the loss of expression of a variety of crucial genes. Tumor-suppressor genes with aberrant methylation in breast cancers include ARHI [3,4], RASSF1A [5], HIN-1 [6], the retinoic acid receptor II gene (RARβ2) [7], hMLH1 [8], 14-3-
Fitting parametric random effects models in very large data sets with application to VHA national data
Gebregziabher Mulugeta,Egede Leonard,Gilbert Gregory E,Hunt Kelly
BMC Medical Research Methodology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-12-163
Abstract: Background With the current focus on personalized medicine, patient/subject level inference is often of key interest in translational research. As a result, random effects models (REM) are becoming popular for patient level inference. However, for very large data sets that are characterized by large sample size, it can be difficult to fit REM using commonly available statistical software such as SAS since they require inordinate amounts of computer time and memory allocations beyond what are available preventing model convergence. For example, in a retrospective cohort study of over 800,000 Veterans with type 2 diabetes with longitudinal data over 5 years, fitting REM via generalized linear mixed modeling using currently available standard procedures in SAS (e.g. PROC GLIMMIX) was very difficult and same problems exist in Stata’s gllamm or R’s lme packages. Thus, this study proposes and assesses the performance of a meta regression approach and makes comparison with methods based on sampling of the full data. Data We use both simulated and real data from a national cohort of Veterans with type 2 diabetes (n=890,394) which was created by linking multiple patient and administrative files resulting in a cohort with longitudinal data collected over 5 years. Methods and results The outcome of interest was mean annual HbA1c measured over a 5 years period. Using this outcome, we compared parameter estimates from the proposed random effects meta regression (REMR) with estimates based on simple random sampling and VISN (Veterans Integrated Service Networks) based stratified sampling of the full data. Our results indicate that REMR provides parameter estimates that are less likely to be biased with tighter confidence intervals when the VISN level estimates are homogenous. Conclusion When the interest is to fit REM in repeated measures data with very large sample size, REMR can be used as a good alternative. It leads to reasonable inference for both Gaussian and non-Gaussian responses if parameter estimates are homogeneous across VISNs.
The patchy Method for the Infinite Horizon Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman Equation and its Accuracy
Thomas Hunt,Arthur J. Krener
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: We introduce a modification to the patchy method of Navasca and Krener for solving the stationary Hamilton Jacobi Bellman equation. The numerical solution that we generate is a set of polynomials that approximate the optimal cost and optimal control on a partition of the state space. We derive an error bound for our numerical method under the assumption that the optimal cost is a smooth strict Lyupanov function. The error bound is valid when the number of subsets in the partition is not too large.
Simplicial Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis
Thomas Hunt,Arthur J. Krener
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: We present a new manifold learning algorithm that takes a set of data points lying on or near a lower dimensional manifold as input, possibly with noise, and outputs a simplicial complex that fits the data and the manifold. We have implemented the algorithm in the case where the input data can be triangulated. We provide triangulations of data sets that fall on the surface of a torus, sphere, swiss roll, and creased sheet embedded in a fifty dimensional space. We also discuss the theoretical justification of our algorithm.
GPS- vs. DEM-Derived Elevation Estimates from a Hardwood Dominated Forest Watershed  [PDF]
L. Chris Kiser, J. Michael Kelly
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2010.23021
Abstract: Topographic attributes are often used as explanatory variables when providing spatial estimates of various environmental attribute response variables. Elevation of sampling locations can be derived from global positioning systems (GPS) or digital elevation models (DEM). Given the potential for differences in elevation among these two data sources, especially in response to forest canopy cover, our objective was to compare GPS and DEM-derived elevation values during the dormant season. A non-parametric Wilcoxon test indicated GPS elevation was higher than DEM elevation with a mean difference of 6 m. Linear regression analysis indicated that GPS and DEM elevation were well correlated (R2 = 0.71, r = 0.84, p < 0.0001). Although elevation among the two data sources differed, the strong linear relationship allows for correction of elevation values in a predictable manner.
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