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Dutch-Book Arguments against using Conditional Probabilities for Conditional Bets  [PDF]
Keith Hutchison
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.23030
Abstract: We consider here an important family of conditional bets, those that proceed to settlement if and only if some agreed evidence is received that a condition has been met. Despite an opinion widespread in the literature, we observe that when the evidence is strong enough to generate certainty as to whether the condition has been met or not, using traditional conditional probabilities for such bets will NOT preserve a gambler from having a synchronic Dutch Book imposed upon him. On the contrary (I show) the gambler can be Dutch-Booked if his betting ratios ever depart from a rather different probability, one that involves the probability of the agreed evidence being provided. We note furthermore that this same alternative probability assessment is necessary if the evidence is weaker (i.e. if it fails to provide knowledge whether or not the condition has been met.) By contrast, some of the (rather different) probability assessments proposed by Jeffrey, precisely for such situations, still expose the gambler to a Dutch-Book.
In-Motes EYE: A Real Time Application for Automobiles in Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Dimitrios Georgoulas, Keith Blow
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2011.35018
Abstract: Wireless sensor networks have been identified as one of the key technologies for the 21st century. In order to overcome their limitations such as fault tolerance and conservation of energy, we propose a middleware solution, In-Motes. In-Motes stands as a fault tolerant platform for deploying and monitoring applications in real time offers a number of possibilities for the end user giving him in parallel the freedom to experiment with various parameters, in an effort the deployed applications to run in an energy efficient manner inside the network. The proposed scheme is evaluated through the In-Motes EYE application, aiming to test its merits under real time conditions. In-Motes EYE application which is an agent based real time In-Motes application developed for sensing acceleration variations in an environment. The application was tested in a prototype area, road alike, for a period of four months.
Wireless Sensor Network Management and Functionality: An Overview  [PDF]
Dimitrios GEORGOULAS, Keith BLOW
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2009.14032
Abstract: Sensor networks are dense wireless networks of small, low-cost sensors, which collect and disseminate en-vironmental data. Wireless sensor networks facilitate monitoring and controlling of physical environments from remote locations with better accuracy. They have applications in a variety of fields such as environ-mental monitoring; military purposes and gathering sensing information in inhospitable locations. Sensor nodes have various energy and computational constraints because of their inexpensive nature and adhoc method of deployment. Considerable research has been focused at overcoming these deficiencies through more energy efficient routing, localization algorithms and system design. Our survey presents the funda-mentals of wireless sensor network, thus providing the necessary background required for understanding the organization, functionality and limitations of those networks. The middleware solution is also investigated through a critical presentation and analysis of some of the most well established approaches.
Sub-Optimal Generation Portfolio Variance with Rate of Return Regulation  [PDF]
Stanley Keith Berry
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2010.12014
Abstract: This paper demonstrates that continuation of traditional rate-of-return electric utility regulation of transmission and distribution assets will impede the ability of customers to optimize their generation portfolios. Under linear price regulation, with increasing (decreasing) returns to scale customers will choose a more (less) risky generation portfolio than they would with no transmission and distribution asset rate-of-return regulation. Similar problems arise under non-linear (two-part) pricing of transmission and distribution assets. When the per-unit price is set at marginal cost, with increasing (decreasing) marginal cost, customers will choose a more (less) risky generation portfolio than they would with no transmission and distribution asset regulation. With price caps the optimal generation portfolio is chosen.
A randomized controlled trial of ketorolac for prevention of headache related to electroconvulsive therapy  [PDF]
Keith G. Rasmussen
Pain Studies and Treatment (PST) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/pst.2013.12002
Abstract: Background and Purpose: Headache is one of the most common side effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), with a reported prevalence as high as 45%. Typical pharmacologic measures include aspirin, acetaminophen, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications. Among the latter, ketorolac may be especially advantageous in that it can be administered intravenously right before a treatment. The primary aim of this study was to measure the efficacy of intravenous ketorolac administration for the prevention of post-ECT headache at the first treatment session. Methods: Sixteen patients were assigned to the control group, while eight patients were assigned to the ketorolac treatment group (8 males, 16 females; mean age ± standard deviation = 46 ± 13.5 years). Statistical analysis consisted of a one-way analysis of variance using the two-sample test. We utilized a post-ECT headache severity scale from zero (no headache) to 3 (severe headache). Results:The mean score for the control group was 1.3 (±1.1), while the mean score for the ketorolac treatment group was 1.2 (±1.1), p = 0.86 (not significant). Conclusions: Ketorolac administration does not decrease the incidence of post ECT headache at the first treatment session. It is possible that ketorolac may be effective at subsequent treatments for patients with particularly bothersome headaches after the first treatment. Implications: Ketorolac should not be routinely used at the first treatment session to prevent headache associated with ECT.
Investigating the minimally important difference of the Diabetes Health Profile (DHP-18) and the EQ-5D and SF-6D in a UK diabetes mellitus population  [PDF]
Brendan Mulhern, Keith Meadows
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.56140

Objectives: It is important to know what patient reported outcome measure (PROM) scores relate to a meaningful change in health status across time. The aim of this study was to investigate the minimally important difference (MID) of the Diabetes Health Profile (DHP-18), EQ-5D and SF-6D in a Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes patient sample. Methods: A longitudinal dataset including a UK community sample of people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes was used for the analysis. A combination of anchor and distribution methods was used to investigate the MID. For the anchor based method, a global health change indicator was used if it correlated with the PROM scores at baseline and follow up. To calculate the anchor based MID, the change in PROM score for those reporting no change on the anchor was subtracted from those reporting small change. For the distribution based estimation, the 1 Standard Error of Measurement, 0.5 and 0.33 standard deviation methods were used. Results: The anchor was not correlated with the DHP-18 dimensions so was only used to estimate MID values for the EQ-5D and SF-6D. For the DHP-18, MID estimates for the Psychological Distress domain range from 6.99 to 10.59, the Barriers to Activity domain range from 6.48 to 9.89, and the Disinhibited Eating domain range from 7.52 to 11.39. The EQ-5D estimations range from 0.058 to 0.158, and the SF-6D estimations range from 0.038 to 0.081. The 0.5 SD and 1SEM estimations are of a similar magnitude across the three measures. Conclusions:This study has derived a range of values for each measure that may correspond to an important change in health status. The MID values may guide researchers who are using the measures as part of their assessment of both Type 1 and Type 2 patients with diabetes mellitus.

The Potential of Adaptive Mentorship©: Experts’ Perspectives  [PDF]
Edwin Ralph, Keith Walker
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.28013
Abstract: In recent years, global interest in the processes of mentorship and coaching has expanded across all disciplinary fields. Educational institutions, commercial enterprises, and other organizations have integrated mentorship processes into their educational programs to help prepare/train protégés for entry into a specific professions or occupations and/or to upgrade their related skills/knowledge. Over the past quarter century, in partial response to the popularity of mentoring, the authors have developed a mentoring model called Adaptive Mentorship© (AM). Research conducted by the authors and others has affirmed AM’s value in improving mentoring practice in a variety of disciplines. In the present article, the authors summarize assessments of the model that they solicited during the past five years from 49 multi-disciplinary groups or panels of experts. The experts’ positive statements regarding AM outweighed their cautionary comments by a ratio of 2:1. The strengths that they identified were that AM conceptualized the entire mentorship process in an understandable manner, and that it helped reveal potential interpersonal conflicts as well as practical solutions for them. The caveats identified by the experts were that personnel employing the AM model must apply it sensibly, sensitively, and flexibly—especially in cross-cultural contexts.
Back to Basics: Is Civic Agriculture the Solution to Food Deserts in Texas?  [PDF]
Faye Anderson, Keith Burau
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.35012
Abstract: Fair access to fresh fruits and vegetable is an important aspect of a healthy civil society. This study investigates the potential of farmers markets to transform food deserts of Texas into oases. Data for age, sex, race, income, grocery store access, and farmers markets in Texas were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Economic Research Service Food Environment Atlas and the US Census Bureau, in order to investigate the association between civic agriculture in the form of farmers markets and food insecurity in Texas. Data were statistically analyzed and spatially investigated. Spatial analysis of the distance to nearest farmers market suggests a strong inverse correlation between the distribution of civic agriculture activities and food deserts. These results encourage non-farmers transition to farming careers and help local farmers in Texas improve their competitiveness, preserve their farming traditions, and contribute to their societal and economic development.
Dark Matter: The Source of Space and Time  [PDF]
Keith G. Lyon
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.79084
Abstract: A simple assumption for dark matter leads to magnetic-monopole-like terms to Maxwell’s Equations, a photon model with wave-particle duality, nuclear stability, a decelerating expansion of the universe, and a dark-matter relativity that defines the origin of space and time.
Cooking Perfect Cupcakes: Freeing Curricula Context Gives Student-Centred Pedagogy for Course on Experimental Design  [PDF]
Keith Joiner, Amy Brewster
Creative Education (CE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2017.812126
Abstract: A new subject in postgraduate coursework at UNSW Australia at the Australian Defence Force Academy campus provided a curricula opportunity to allow students to do structured collaborative learning and to choose their own context for an investigative research. The student-centred investigation is necessary to reinforce formative knowledge of advanced optimization and test techniques. The course developer knew from his own educational research?[1]?that such pedagogy should be inherently inclusive of diverse abilities, interests, learning styles, cultures, prior studies and genders; however, the positive effect on this inaugural course was well beyond the expectations of both the teachers and learners. This paper presents the research of just one of the 15 students to exemplify the inclusiveness of such pedagogy in tertiary curriculum development, in this case for gender-inclusion, however other students benefitted who had less ability for such tertiary concepts, and in one student’s case the pedagogy helped overcome significant cultural barriers. The context chosen by the showcased student’s work was to optimize the baking of cupcakes.?Ever wondered how to bake the perfect cupcake? Ever wondered if the recipe you are following is actually correct? How did they come up with the temperature and time for cooking??Her normal work is in highly classified and compartmentalized electronic warfare and so she opted instead for a topic that could be shared with her military colleagues and the public; itself an inclusive and possibly reciprocating gesture. Many people who ordinarily do not associate with Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) subjects, either through gender, academic ability or culture, can relate to trying to perfect baking of a recipe such as cupcakes. As such, this case study offers a timely and interesting reminder of the inclusive benefits of student-centred context in curricula development, particularly for STEM subjects, reinforcing previous research from the literature
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