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Effect of Crop Root on Soil Water Retentivity and Movement  [PDF]
Kozue Yuge, Keiki Shigematsu, Mitsumasa Anan, Shinogi Yoshiyuki
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.312A218

The objective of this study was to clarify the effect of crop root on soil water retentivity and movement to improve the crop growth environment and irrigation efficiency. To simulate soil water movement considering the crop root effect on the physical properties of soil, a numerical model describing the soil water and heat transfers was introduced. Cultivation experiments were conducted to clarify the effect of the crop root on soil water retentivity and verify the accuracy of the numerical model. The relationship between soil water retentivity and the root content of soil samples was clarified by soil water retention curves. The soil water content displayed a high value with increasing crop root content in the high volumetric water content zone. The experimental results indicated that the saturated water content increased with the crop root content because of the porosity formed by the crop root. The differences of the soil water retentivity became smaller when the value of the matric potential was over pF 1.5. To verify the accuracy of the numerical model, an observation using acrylic slit pot was also conduced. The temporal and spatial changes of the volumetric water content and soil temperature were measured. Soil water and heat transfers, which considered the effect of the crop root on the soil water retentivity clarified by the soil water retention curves, were simulated. Simulated volumetric water content and temperature of soil agreed with observed data. This indicated that the numerical model used to simulate the soil water and heat transfer considering the crop root effect on soil water retentivity was satisfactory. Using this model, spatial and temporal changes of soil water content were simulated. The soil water condition of the root zone was relatively high compared with the initial conditions. This indicated that the volumetric water condition of the root zone increased with the soil water extraction and high soil water

Radial keratotomy
Mehta Keiki
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1990,
Abstract: Radial keratotomy has always produced ambivalent feelings in the Ophthalmologist. The severe complications produced by the Sato procedure has been an unforgettable episode. The work of Fyodorov and Durney (1979) and their American counterparts, Bores (1981) and Hoffer (1981) have done a great service to radial keratotomy in having it established as an acceptable procedure. The controversy really only abated with the work of the National Institute of Health Funded Prospective Evaluation of Radial Keratotomy (PERK) study which suggested that the procedure has a low initial risk and was effective in decreasing myopic correction. Over the last 3 years a series of cases where evaluated and followed up in detail in an effort to gain a perspective on the one problem which has bugged the radial keratotomy programme from the beginning-its predict-ability.
Long-term clinical efficacy of ostial stenting to the left anterior descending artery with deep caudal projection  [PDF]
Kenji Sadamatsu, Yuya Yoshidomi, Keiki Yoshida
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2013.38077
Abstract: Purpose: Overlapping and foreshortening on conventional coronary angiography is one reason why the presence of ostial lesions in the left anterior descending artery (LAD) is an independent predictor of insegment restenosis. Our previous study using 3-dimensional reconstruction coronary angiography demonstrated the superiority of a deeper caudal projection in clearly showing the ostium of the LAD compared to the standard right or left anterior oblique caudal view. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the short-and long-term efficacy of the ostial stenting technique using a deep caudal projection angle. Methods: A total of 30 consecutive patients who underwent stent deployment to treat LAD lesions positioned at the proximal edge of the stent in the ostium with a deep caudal projection were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The projection of right anterior oblique caudal 40° was used in 26 patients and that of left anterior oblique caudal 40° was used in four patients. Intravascular ultrasound examinations showed complete coverage of the ostium by the stent in 29 patients. In one patient, the stent did not cover the ostium. The mean protrusion of the stent over the ostium was 0.66 ± 0.85 mm. During the follow-up period (1203.5 [982-1329] days), the rate of target lesion failure was 16.7%, and there were no cases with in-stent restenosis of the main branch in which a drug-eluting stent covering the ostium of the LAD was successfully deployed. Conclusions: Focal stent placement using a deep caudal projection is a feasible and effective therapeutic strategy for treating ostial lesions in the LAD.
High frequency limit for gravitational perturbations of cosmological models in modified gravity theories
Keiki Saito,Akihiro Ishibashi
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: In general relativity, it has been shown that the effective gravitational stress-energy tensor for short-wavelength metric perturbations acts just like that for a radiation fluid, and thus, in particular, cannot provide any effects that mimic dark energy. However, it is far from obvious if this property of the effective gravitational stress-energy tensor is a specific nature held only in the Einstein gravity, or holds also in other theories of gravity. In particular, when considering modified gravity theories that involve higher order derivative terms, one may expect to have some non-negligible effects arising from higher order derivatives of short-wavelength perturbations. In this paper, we argue this is not the case at least in the cosmological context. We show that when the background, or coarse-grained metric averaged over several wavelengths has FLRW symmetry, the effective gravitational stress-energy tensor for metric perturbations of a cosmological model in a simple class of f(R) gravity theories, as well as that obtained in the corresponding scalar-tensor theory, takes a similar form to that in general relativity and is in fact traceless, hence acting again like a radiation fluid.
Costos de atención médica de las enfermedades atribuibles al consumo de tabaco en América: revisión de la literatura
Reynales-Shigematsu,Luz Myriam;
Salud Pública de México , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342006000700023
Abstract: the objective of this study was to compile information from published scientific literature about health care costs attributable to tobacco consumption and evaluate the different methodological strategies used in calculating estimations. sources included medline, bibliographical references from books published by the world bank, the world health organization, the panamerican health organization, the interdisciplinary health research group of canada, as well as technical documenation used by the state of minnesota, united states of america, in litigation against the tobacco industry. all of the studies published about this issue over the last 25 years or more were included. information was obtained with respect to the study population, the cost perspective, the type of analysis used for estimating health care costs and methodology for attributing costs to tobacco consumption. in addition, comments with regard to the relevant findings and the limitations of each of the studies were added. annual health care costs attributable to tobacco use vary between 6 and 14% of personal health expenses. in the period between the first publication and today, progress has been seen in the methodology used for calculating estimations, not only from the epidemiological perspective which improves the accuracy of the attribution of costs to risk factors, but from the economic perspective which broadens the estimation of costs from a social perspective. it is concluded that tobacco consumption leads to high health care costs, involves a cost to employers due to productivity losses and worker disability, and represents a high social cost resulting from the occurrence of premature deaths in the society.
El control del tabaco, estrategia esencial para reducir las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles
Reynales-Shigematsu,Luz Myriam;
Salud Pública de México , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342012000300015
Abstract: nearly two-thirds of all deaths globally are caused by noncommunicable diseases (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory diseases and diabetes). the un general assembly approved political declaration of the high-level meeting on the prevention and control of non communicable diseases and recommending five priority interventions: 1. tobacco control (the most urgent and immediate), 2. salt reduction, 3. improved diet and physical activity, 4 reduction of hazardous alcohol intake, 5. access to essential drugs and technologies. the assembly recognizes the fundamental conflict of interest between tobacco industry and public health and recommends the implementation of who framework convention on tobacco control (fctc) and mpower strategies. the full implementation of fctc could prevent 5.5 million of death in the next 10 years in low and middle income countries. all these recommendations are feasible to implement considering the willingness of governments, the infrastructure available, the capacity building existing and the participation of all sectors, including civil society and the community as a whole.
Excerpt from Militarized Currents: Toward a Decolonized Future in Asia and the Pacific
Setsu Shigematsu,Keith L. Camacho
Journal of Transnational American Studies , 2011,
Abstract: Foregrounding indigenous and feminist scholarship, this collection analyzes militarization as an extension of colonialism from the late twentieth to the twenty-first century in Asia and the Pacific. The contributors theorize the effects of militarization across former and current territories of Japan and the United States, demonstrating that the relationship between militarization and colonial subordination shapes bodies of memory, knowledge, and resistance.
Changes in Temperatures in Okayama Area Compared with Different Urbanization Areas, Japan  [PDF]
Noriko Sakano, Nobuyuki Miyatake, Shoko Murakami, Takeshi Suzue, Tomohiro Hirao, Keiki Ogino
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.22018
Abstract: To investigate the changes in temperatures in Okayama area compared with different levels of three urbanization areas such as Tsuyama, Tokyo areas and Hachijo island in Japan. Data of temperatures in Okayama (1891-2009), Tsuyama (1943-2009), Tokyo areas (1876-2009) and Hachijo Island (1907-2009) in Japan was obtained from Japan Meteorological Agency. Changes in temperatures in 4 areas in Japan were analyzed and compared. By using data from 1943 to 2009, some parameters of temperatures were significantly correlated with years. The change in parameters of temperatures in Hachijo Island was calmest among 4 areas. The changes in mean temperature in August and in a year in Okayama area for 50 years were the highest (August: 1.55?C, Year: 2.05?C) among 4 areas. In addition, correlation coefficient rate between years and the number of days over 35?C in August in Okayama area was highest (r = 0.407, p = 0.0037). Parameters of temperatures were gradually increased with years in Okayama area, especially in recent years. However, those associations were not clearly noted in Hachijo Island. In conclusion, global warming in Okayama might be accelerated more rapidly than that in Tokyo area in recent 50 years.
A pilot study in relationship among changes in visceral fat area, waist circumference and body weight in Japanese freshmen students  [PDF]
Da-Hong Wang, Nobuyuki Miyatake, Michiko Kogashiwa, Takeyuki Numata, Keiki Ogino
Health (Health) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/health.2011.32013
Abstract: We investigated the relationship among delta (delta represents changes in parameters) visceral fat area, waist circumference and body weight in Japanese freshmen students. Visceral fat was measured at the umbilical level using computerized tomography scanning at baseline study and 6 months later. Body weight and height, as well as waist circumference were also measured. We found that visceral fat area, waist circumference, and body weight significantly correlated with each other at baseline, and 6 months later, delta visceral fat area and changes in % visceral fat area significantly correlated with delta waist circumference and delta body weight in female and in total subjects. In addition, based on the predictive linear equations from the regression analysis, we found that 1kg of delta body weight corresponded to 0.83 cm of delta waist circumference, and 1kg of delta body weight and 1cm of delta waist circumference corresponded to 9.41% and 7.80% of changes in visceral fat area, respectively, in total subjects. The present results suggest that delta visceral fat area is closely related to delta body weight and delta waist circumference in Japanese freshmen students.
Biomarkers of oxidative/nitrosative stress: an approach to disease prevention.
Acta Medica Okayama , 2007,
Abstract: Oxidative/nitrosative stress is responsible for a variety of degenerative processes in some human diseases. Measurement of oxidatively/nitrosatively modified DNA, proteins, lipids, and sugars in biological samples has been expected to detect appropriate biomarkers for diseases in which reactive oxygen/nitrogen species are involved. Recently, the application of these biomarkers to epidemiological studies has resulted in a new discipline, molecular epidemiology, which provides the opportunity for better understanding of their causal relation with disease outcomes in a population level. In this brief review, we cover some specific biomarkers of oxidative/nitrosative stress with regard to the commonly used analytical methods for these biomarkers, their integration with epidemiology, and their application in antioxidant intervention trials, with an emphasis on those applicable to human studies and their potentialities for disease prevention.
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