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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1598 matches for " Kazuo Ishizuka "
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Feasibility Study to Evaluate Lattice-Space Changing of a Step-Graded SiGe/Si (110) Using STEM Moiré  [PDF]
Junji Yamanaka, Mai Shirakura, Chiaya Yamamoto, Kei Sato, Takane Yamada, Kosuke O. Hara, Keisuke Arimoto, Kiyokazu Nakagawa, Akimitsu Ishizuka, Kazuo Ishizuka
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2018.67002
A moiré between crystal lattice planes and scanning electron beam-lines formed in a scanning transmission electron microscope includes the information of the lattice spacing. We apply these phenomena to a compositionally graded SiGe thin film deposited onto a Si substrate by molecular beam epitaxy method. The results of the experiments and image analysis show the potential of this technique to analyze a slight change of the lattice spacing according to a compositional change.
An Empirical Analysis of Women’s Promotion in Japanese Companies: Comparison with Chinese and Korean Cases  [PDF]
Hiromi Ishizuka
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.63063
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to contribute to the economic revitalization of Japan by learning from other countries through a consideration of diversity. From Chinese urban areas, we study an example of a fluid labor market, and a firmly rooted movement of women into the workplace. From Korea, even though the male-female disparities are greater than those in Japan, we study a concrete case in terms of the rapid speed of the changing workplace. The framework includes not only promotion at the company level, but also lifestyle at the household level. The study uses the numerical values and analysis is through the Negative Binominal Regression Model. Findings include: 1) in Japan, there is “slow promotion” in the both case of men and women and a “glass ceiling” for women; 2) in China, the decisive male-female disparity is the difference in the “age of fixed retirement”. Gender gaps in working conditions are uncommon. Home factors slightly disturb promotions. Tenure is short and there is a fluid labor market. There is a “sticky floor” for women; 3) in Korea, the gender gap of graduate’s with more than a bachelor’s degree is small. Men with no official title are concentrated in the low rank, and have long tenures. There is a “sticky floor” for men. There are two years of compulsory military service for young men. Despite this, many men are promoted to higher managerial positions in their lifetimes.
An Empirical Analysis of Substitution and Complementarity of Gender Labor Demand of Enterprises in Japan, Korea, and China: With a Factor Decomposition of Gender Wage Differentials  [PDF]
Hiromi Ishizuka
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.810125
Abstract: The purpose of this study is the effect of expansion of female labor demand on male labor demand for labor market reform to facilitate Japanese economic development. Firstly, the estimates using Hicks’ (1970) partial elasticity of complementarity and Allen’s (1938) partial elasticity of substitution revealed an increase in male labor demand when female labor demand increased in all three countries. The results were a relationship of complementarity in labor demand between male and female regular employees in the order of China, South Korea, Japan. However, a push factor or a pull factor is assumed to make up a complementarity relationship. Therefore secondly, the factor decomposition analysis of wage gap is used to investigate which factors are applicable. The gender wage gap consists of economic rationality and economic irrational discriminatory [Neumark (1988); Oaxaca and Ransom (1994)]. The gap was confirmed in all three countries. Although the actual gender average wage difference was small in China, “discriminatory preference theory” was suggested that there is underpayment of women in Japan and Korea. In Japan, as women have a high potential labor force participation rate, expansion of female labor demand seems promising as an economic policy, not least because of the declining population. Labor-related economic policies are needed, such as the creation of a fluid labor market in China, or the implementation of effective
Non-motor signs and symptoms in Parkinson’s disease  [PDF]
Kazuo Abe
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.431171
Abstract: Motor symptoms are cardinal clinical features of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Progress in drug therapy and rehabilitation has been presenting beneficial effect for motor symptoms. However, non-motor symptoms and signs in PD have been accumulated growing attentions and its amelioration may also give beneficial effect for PD patients’ and their care givers’ quality of life. In this mini-review, I overviewed non-motor symptoms and signs in PD.
A Revival of Little Black Sambo in Japan  [PDF]
Kazuo Mori
Advances in Literary Study (ALS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/als.2014.21003

In the late 1980s, a popular children’s book “Little Black Sambo”(hereafter,LBS) disappeared from all bookstores in Japan.The book was alleged to have racist characteristics such as the name of the boy, the way the illustrations caricatured blacks, etc. Mori (1997) revised the original story by changing the protagonist from a black boy to a black Labrador puppy, with eliminating the word “Sambo”,which had a historically pejorative connotation in the US. Mori (2005) conducted an experiment to compare the entertainment value of the two versions of LBS using four-year-old children and found no difference. Mori (2005) also casted a suspicion that the real reason why the book was withdrawnin Japan was a matter of piracy rather than racism. All Japanese publishers at that time had not properly obtained the copyright. Nowadays there are several versions of LBS available in bookstores all over Japan.

Getting Rid of the Horizontal-to-Vertical Strategy: A Case Report of a Japanese Research Psychologist  [PDF]
Kazuo Mori
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.24040
Abstract: Most Japanese research psychologists have used “Horizontal-to-Vertical Conversion Strategy” for their research, simply replicating experimental studies published in Western journals with Japanese participants and publishing papers only in Japanese (the traditional orthography of the Japanese language is vertical). This short article criticized this prevailing research strategy among Japanese psychologists and reported a series of studies resulted from an invention of new experimental procedure. It showed an example of a Japanese researcher who had got rid of the inadequate approach by inventing a new experimental method. It also aimed to encourage Japanese psychologists to conduct innovative research and publish their studies in English journals.
Assessment of the Implicit Attitude of Japanese People toward Blacks and Little Black Sambo  [PDF]
Kazuo Mori
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.61001
We examined whether Japanese people, 47 junior high school students, 49 undergraduates, and 52 older adults, possessed negative attitudes against blacks and the picture book Little Black Sambo. We assessed the implicit attitude toward the target word pairs, “black/white” and “Sambo/Heidi,” by utilizing a paper-based Implicit Association Test and found that both black and Sambo were associated more negatively than white and Heidi. However, the implicit attitudes assessed with a single-target IAT showed that 67 Japanese students showed positive implicit scores for blacks but with smaller valences. A post hoc analysis revealed that the reading experience of Little Black Sambo did not show a significant difference between the implicit attitudes of those who had and had not read the book.
Automatic & Safe Oxytocin Induction of Labor  [PDF]
Kazuo Maeda
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2018.89084
Abstract: Aims: To prevent fetal damage by excess oxytocin administration of manually controlled infusion, by automatic and safe increasing infusion setting with monitoring uterine contraction and fetal heart rate. Methods: Starting infusion level was 2 milliU/ml, as oxytocin sensitivity of a pregnant uterus is unknown, to avoid hyper contraction and fetal bradycardia caused by unexpected excess oxytocin sensitivity. The infusion automatically increased with automatic monitoring of uterine contraction curve, then the increasing stopped when contraction reached to normal labor level, where the infusion level maintained, which continued until delivery, if there is no trouble. However, the infusion continued until expiring all fluid in case of insensitive uterus, where the induction was performed in another day. The infusion stopped automatically when contraction was too strong, or fetal heart rate is abnormal. Thus, oxytocin sensitive case is protected from excess contraction and fetal asphyxia. Results: Normal vaginal delivery was achieved in 28/33 cases (85%), which was more than manually controlled infusion. No case was abnormal in successful oxytocin infusion. Conclusion: The automated technique will be applied to oxytocin labor induction.
Prevalence of asthma symptoms based on the European Community Respiratory Health Survey questionnaire and FENO in university students: gender differences in symptoms and FENO
Tamotsu Ishizuka, Shinichi Matsuzaki, Haruka Aoki, Masakiyo Yatomi, Yosuke Kamide, Takeshi Hisada, Takahiro Tsuburai, Kunio Dobashi, Kihachi Ohshima, Kazuo Akiyama, Masatomo Mori
Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1710-1492-7-15
Abstract: The information about asthma symptoms was obtained from answers to the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) questionnaire, and FENO was measured by an offline method in 640 students who were informed of this study and consented to participate.The prevalence of asthma symptoms on the basis of data obtained from 584 students (266 men and 318 women), ranging in age from 18 to 24 years, was analyzed. Wheeze, chest tightness, an attack of shortness of breath, or an attack of cough within the last year was observed in 13.2% of 584 students. When 38.0 ppb was used as the cut-off value of FENO to make the diagnosis of asthma, the sensitivity was 86.8% and the specificity was 74.0%. FENO was ≥ 38.0 ppb in 32.7% of students. FENO was higher in men than in women. The prevalence of asthma symptoms estimated by considering FENO was 7.2%; the prevalence was greater in men (9.4%) than women (5.3%). A FENO ≥ 38.0 ppb was common in students who reported wheeze, but not in students, especially women, who reported cough attacks.The prevalence of asthma symptoms in university students age 18 to 24 years in Japan was estimated to be 7.2% on the basis of FENO levels as well as subjective symptoms. Gender differences were observed in both FENO levels and asthma symptoms reflecting the presence of eosinophilic airway inflammation.UMIN000003244Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by reversible airway limitation and airway hyper-reactivity. Clinically, patients with asthma have repeated symptoms, such as wheeze, shortness of breath, or cough, especially at night or early morning. When we make a diagnosis of asthma, it is helpful to expect that the patients have eosinophilic airway inflammation although asthma is not always associated with eosinophilic inflammation. In recent years, the fractional concentration of nitric oxide in exhaled air (the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide, FENO) has been used as a biomarker of eosinophilic inflammation in the
Japan Diabetes Outcome Intervention Trial-1(J-DOIT1), a nationwide cluster randomized trial of type 2 diabetes prevention by telephone-delivered lifestyle support for high-risk subjects detected at health checkups: rationale, design, and recruitment
Naoki Sakane, Kazuhiko Kotani, Kaoru Takahashi, Yoshiko Sano, Kokoro Tsuzaki, Kentaro Okazaki, Juichi Sato, Sadao Suzuki, Satoshi Morita, Kazuo Izumi, Masayuki Kato, Naoki Ishizuka, Mitsuhiko Noda, Hideshi Kuzuya
BMC Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-81
Abstract: The Japan Diabetes Outcome Intervention Trial-1 (J-DOIT1) is a cluster randomized controlled trial to test whether goal-focused lifestyle coaching delivered by telephone can prevent the development of T2DM in high-risk individuals in a real-world setting. This paper describes the study design and recruitment of the study subjects.For the recruitment of study subjects and their follow-up annually over 3 years, we employed health checkups conducted annually at communities and worksites. Health care divisions recruited from communities and companies across Japan formed groups as a cluster randomization unit. Candidates for the study, aged 20-65 years with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of 5.6-6.9 mmol/l, were recruited from each group using health checkups results in 2006. Goal-focused lifestyle support is delivered by healthcare providers via telephone over a one-year period. Study subjects will be followed-up for three years by annual health checkups. Primary outcome is the development of diabetes defined as FPG≥7.0 mmol/l on annual health checkup or based on self-report, which is confirmed by referring to medical cards.Forty-three groups (clusters), formed from 17 health care divisions, were randomly assigned to an intervention arm (22 groups) or control arm (21 clusters) between March 2007 and February 2008. A total of 2840 participants, 1336 from the intervention and 1504 from the control arm, were recruited. Consent rate was about 20%, with no difference between the intervention and control arms. There were no differences in cluster size and characteristics of cluster between the groups. There were no differences in individual characteristics between the study arms.We have launched J-DOIT1, a nation-wide trial to prevent the development of T2DM in high-risk individuals using telephone-delivered intervention. This trial is expected to contribute to evidence-based real-world preventive practices.UMIN000000662.Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rapidly becoming one of
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