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Professional identities of occupational therapy practitioners in Japan  [PDF]
Risa Takashima, Kazuko Saeki
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.56A2010

To aim to inductively clarify the professional identity of occupational therapists who work in a clinical setting, the researchers interviewed the 22 occupational therapists who had a minimum of 5 years or more of practice in the field. The professional identities of the practicing occupational therapists were constructed by the following two core categories: “harmonizing with a client’s life and the characteristic of a client’s disability”, and “giving clients sovereignties as a mission of the occupational therapists”. The occupational therapist can carry the role of coordinator in an interdisciplinary team for the clients with disability by understanding them. This is achieved based on the core category called “giving clients sovereignties as a mission of the occupational therapists”. Furthermore, in order to achieve the clients’ sovereignties, the occupational therapist can be an operational unit by planning practical strategies and practicing them based on the core category called “harmonizing with a client’s life and the characteristic of a client’s disability”. The fact is often difficult for these clients that they are concerned with how he/she lived actively. It is through unique ways of contributing for the clients in a team of professionals that the occupational therapists try to understand the clients not as “patients” but as “human beings”, and try to harmonize with their life and the characteristics of their disability, then try to support and empower them to reach a stage in which they have the sovereignties of their lives.

Reasons for the Creation of New Social Networks by the Elderly after Relocation  [PDF]
Yoshiko Kudo, Kazuko Saeki
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.512A005

It is important for the relocated elderly to create social networks within their new environment for their lives and their health. This research examined the reasons why the relocated elderly create social networks in the neighborhood. The research subject area is one snowfall town in Hokkaido, Japan. The subjects are 20 elderly people, who have been relocated to the town. The public health nurses individually conducted an interview and broke down the verbatim records into qualitative descriptions. The subjects ranged from 68 to 94 years old. Reasons why the elderly create social networks in their neighborhoods are to make their lives easier, to prepare for emergencies, to get rid of their loneliness, and to enjoy their lives. Community health providers should understand the need for neighboring social networks based on the elderly people’s condition, and support and create new networks in their community depending on their situations.

Development of a Social Activities Scale for Community-Dwelling Older Men Requiring Support in Japan  [PDF]
Michiyo Hirano, Kazuko Saeki, Izumi Ueda
Health (Health) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.101001
Abstract: Aim: We developed a scale to measure the social activities of community-dwelling older men requiring support. Methods: The participants were a group of 134 men, ≥65 years old, who required support and were living in Hokkaido, Japan. An anonymous questionnaire was administered through individual interviews. Valid responses were obtained from 121/134 interviewees. The construct validity of the resulting scale was assessed by exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Criterion-related validity was tested with Spearman’s rank correlation test based on the Social Activities Index for Elderly People (SAI-E). Reliability was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha. Results: A Social Activities Scale for Community-dwelling Older Men Requiring Support (SASOMS) scale was created, comprised of the following three subscales: daily interactions with familiar people; intimate relationships with family members; and interactions with others through activity programs (e.g., exercise, games, recreation, etc.). The created SASOMS scale correlated with the SAI-E (r = 0.557), and its criterion-related validity was confirmed. The alpha coefficient of the new scale was 0.791, and its internal consistency was confirmed. Conclusions: The reliability and validity of the developed SASOMS scale was confirmed, demonstrating that it can be used to assess social activities specifically in older men requiring support. Our results suggest that the scale can be used effectively by care providers who support older men requiring care. The usability of the SASOMS should continue to be improved, and it is necessary to verify its validity in longitudinal studies.
Psychosocial Characteristics of Fathers Who Have Abused Their Children as Seen by Public Health Nurses  [PDF]
Izumi Ueda, Hisako Izumi, Kazuko Saeki, Kyoko Namikawa, Mizue Shiromaru
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.49071

This study aims to identify details of the psychosocial characteristics of fathers who have abused children as they appear to public health nurses (PHNs). In this study a qualitative descriptive design was applied to the data analysis. Interviewees were 10 public health nurses (PHNs), in charge of maternal and child health services for 5 or more years at public health centers. The study analyzed 13 cases reported in the PHNs interviews. The characteristics of the fathers who had abused children as seen by the PHNs were the psycho-social characteristics of ‘weak suppression and control of impulsiveness’, ‘cognitive dissonance in the fatherhood role’, ‘poor social sensitivity’, ‘unbalanced relationship with other members of the family’ and ‘weak relationships with people around the father’. The father’s impulsiveness and cognitive dissonances in the fatherhood role are associated with weaknesses in the family relationships and social adaptation. Conversely, the weakness in the strength of family relationships and social adaptation affects the father’s ability to control impulsiveness and give rise to the cognitive dissonance in the fatherhood role. These in turn interact to create a negative downward spiral, a steadily worsening situation. The findings of this study suggest the necessity for PHNs to focus on the background to the cognitive dissonance in the fatherhood

The Effectiveness of Hyperlipidemia Prevention Intervention Designed to Affect Behavior Change: Focus on Changes in Health Behavior  [PDF]
Hisako Izumi, Michiko Mastubara, Kazuko Saeki, Hiromi Imuta, Mitsuru Mori
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.413103
Hyperlipidemia prevention intervention for behavior change was conducted on subjects in their 30s and 40s to evaluate changes in health behavior and investigate the effectiveness of these changes, with respect to early prevention and improvement of disease. Subjects were middle-aged individuals aged 30 - 49, suffering from serum lipid abnormalities. Intervention designed to affect behavior change was implemented for 3 weeks in 11 employees (nine males, two females) at five workplaces. Intervention mainly consisted of improving self-efficacy. The study’s purpose was explained and the written consent was obtained from subjects. Subjects filled questionnaires (characteristics, history of present illness, health behavior, self-efficacy scale for prevention of hyperlipidemia, etc.) both before and after intervention. Subjects recorded their physical activity using accelerometers and dietary intake photographically. Each subject created realistic behavior goals and recorded their progress using self-monitoring charts. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics; therefore, pre- and post-intervention data were compared. Physical activity and achievement rate of goals during the first week and over the next 2 - 3 weeks were compared. Health behavior scores showed modification of behavior in a desirable direction after intervention compared with those before intervention. No significant difference in self-efficacy before and after intervention was observed. However, the subscale for diet was significantly higher after intervention compared with that before intervention. Steps, total calories, and activity calories were increased in the second and third weeks compared with those in the first week. Three weeks of intervention resulted in health behavior changing in a desirable direction. We infer that intervention in the form of self-monitoring using accelerometers that make physical activity visible was effective in leading to behavior change.
Evaluation of the effects of a leader-training program on public health nurse leadership for staff in Japan  [PDF]
Izumi Ueda, Kazuko Saeki, Mariko Kawaharada, Michiyo Hirano, Miyuki Seki, Hisako Izumi
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2012.23038
Abstract: This paper is a report of a study of the effects of a leader-training program, focusing on how public health nurse (PHN) leaders manage staff. In Japan, a system of training after graduation or training after acquisition of the PHN license has not been established. At present, PHN leaders are unable to devote as much time as they previously could to in-service education, and this has made it difficult to establish a suitable full-fledged in-service education system. Therefore, it is paramount for PHN leaders to acquire the necessary competence to train staff efficiently and, ultimately, play a more prominent role in the in-service education of novice PHNs. The effecttiveness of this program was evaluated before and after conducting the program over a 1-year period. A total of 145 leaders working for local government agencies in Japan participated in the program, and data from 87 participants were analyzed. Before the training program, Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle activities were less frequent than after the program. Intervention using a leader-training program that combines group and on-the-job training is effective for PHN leaders.
Factors that affect the process of professional identity formation in public health nurses  [PDF]
Mika Okura, Miyoko Uza, Hisako Izumi, Masami Ohno, Hidenori Arai, Kazuko Saeki
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.31002
Objective: The aim of this study was to elucidate the process of professional identity formation and the factors that affect the process in public health nurses (PHNs). Methods: We performed an inductive qualitative analysis based on semi-structured interviews and focus group interviews of 65 PHNs. Results: At years 1 - 5, PHNs did not have a professional self-identity. Therefore, it was important for them to recognize the significance of their own work. At years 6 - 10, PHNs acquired self-assurance as a practitioner through feedback from residents. It was important for them to have a better understanding, broader viewpoints and more affection for their own community. At years 11 - 20, PHNs felt ambivalent toward the challenges and heavy responsibilities based on the objective assessment of their jobs and roles. PHNs felt embarrassed by role changes when they became a manager or an expert. It was important for them to become aware of their new role through managerial education and training. However, some PHNs who were unable to establish a clear PHN identity experienced setbacks at each developmental stage. Conclusions: Our data suggest that a differential approach dependent on the stage and level of confidence in an individual’s PHN identity is required for the formation of PHN identity.
A Branch-and-Bound Based Heuristic Algorithm for Minimizing Makespan in Machining-Assembly Flowshop Scheduling  [PDF]
Kazuko Morizawa
Engineering (ENG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2014.613081
Abstract: This paper proposes a heuristic algorithm, called list-based squeezing branch and bound algorithm, for solving a machine-fixed, machining-assembly flowshop scheduling problem to minimize makespan. The machine-fixed, machining-assembly flowshop consists of some parallel two-machine flow lines at a machining stage and one robot at an assembly stage. Since an optimal schedule for this problem is not always a permutation schedule, the proposed algorithm first finds a promising permutation schedule, and then searches better non-permutation schedules near the promising permutation schedule in an enumerative manner by elaborating a branching procedure in a branch and bound algorithm. The results of numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently provide an optimal or a near-optimal schedule with high accuracy such as mean relative error being less than 0.2% and the maximum relative error being at most 3%.
Japanese Pupils’ Attribution of their Perceived Mathematics Performance and the Relationships Between their Attribution of Mathematics Performance and their Affective Attitudes Promoted by Different Teaching Methods
Tomomi Saeki
Educate~ , 2006,
Abstract: This research used a questionnaire survey to explore the relationship between pupils’ attribution of their perceived mathematics performance and their affective attitudes towards mathematics learning as promoted by the different teaching methods they were exposed to in their mathematics classes. Both 5th and 8th graders attributed their success in learning mathematics to effort, although support from the teacher and support at home were also perceived as important factors in their success. The 5th graders and 8th graders overall gave effort-based attributions in the case of failure, while for 5th graders, ability was regarded as being as important as effort, in attributing failure in mathematics learning. Pupils who attributed their success in mathematics learning to effort, support at school and home, preferred teacher explanation and reading a textbook as learning strategies, while those attributing it to their ability preferred Individual work. Where pupils attributed success to luck, this seemed to have a negative effect on their affective attitudes towards mathematics learning as promoted by different teaching methods, while attributing failure to luck seemed to have positive effect. Attributing failure to poor teaching seemed to have a negative effect on their perception of teacher explanation. The relationships between pupil effort or ability based attributions of failure and their preference for different teaching methods were not clear. Adopting various teaching methods in mathematics classes would seem to support pupils who have different attribution styles.
W mass measurement at LEP
Takayuki Saeki
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: In 1998, the four experiments of LEP, i.e. ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL, collected data of about 175 /pb per experiment at the center-of-mass energy of 189 GeV. Using these data, the mass of W boson was directly measured by reconstructing the decay products of two W bosons from the e+e- collisions. The W mass measurement was combined personally with the results obtained from data at 161, 172, and 183 GeV. This yielded the private LEP2 average of Mw = 80.350 +/- 0.056 GeV.
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