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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1156 matches for " Kazuko Hasegawa "
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Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease: Benefits of quantitative odorant examination
Yuji Kawase, Kazuko Hasegawa, Noriko Kawashima, et al
International Journal of General Medicine , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S12048
Abstract: ctory dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease: Benefits of quantitative odorant examination Original Research (3607) Total Article Views Authors: Yuji Kawase, Kazuko Hasegawa, Noriko Kawashima, et al Published Date June 2010 Volume 2010:3 Pages 181 - 185 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S12048 Yuji Kawase1, Kazuko Hasegawa2, Noriko Kawashima3, Emiko Horiuchi2, Ken Ikeda1 1Department of Neurology, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Tokyo; 2Department of Neurology, Sagamihara National Hospital, Kanagawa; 3Kawashima Neurology Clinic, Kanagawa, Japan Abstract: Olfactory involvement is well recognized in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to examine smell function quantitatively, using different types and concentrations of odorants in PD patients. We aimed to elucidate whether a specific odor can affect the severity and duration of PD patients. A total of 89 nondemented PD patients and 20 age-matched controls participated in the study. Quantitative evaluation of smell function was performed using the T and T olfactometer test. This test contains five kinds of odorants at different concentrations. Recognition threshold (RT) scores for all five odorants and for each individual odorant were measured in five groups of PD patients with Hoehn and Yale (HY) stages I (n = 12), II (n = 24), III (n = 43), and IV (n = 10), as well as in control subjects (n = 20). One-way analysis of variance and Ryan’s method were used for statistical comparison between the five groups. Compared with controls and HY I patients, total RT scores were significantly higher in HY II, III, and IV patients. There were no statistically significant differences in RT scores between HY I patients and controls. However, total RT scores for three HY I patients (25%) were higher than the mean + two standard deviations of controls. On single odorant testing, significant higher RT scores for methylcyclopentenolone and skatol were found in HY II, III, and IV patients, in comparison with controls and HY I patients. The remaining three odorants did not differ statistically between PD patients and control subjects. The present study indicated that hyposmia in PD patients increased from HY II onwards. A single odorant of methyl cyclopentenolone or skatol had benefits for olfactory evaluation in PD patients. Our data also clarified that olfactory deficits occurred in a subset of HY I patients. Further prospective study is needed to elucidate whether a distinct profile of PD exists between HY I patients with and without hyposmia.
Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease: Benefits of quantitative odorant examination
Yuji Kawase,Kazuko Hasegawa,Noriko Kawashima,et al
International Journal of General Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Yuji Kawase1, Kazuko Hasegawa2, Noriko Kawashima3, Emiko Horiuchi2, Ken Ikeda11Department of Neurology, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Tokyo; 2Department of Neurology, Sagamihara National Hospital, Kanagawa; 3Kawashima Neurology Clinic, Kanagawa, JapanAbstract: Olfactory involvement is well recognized in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to examine smell function quantitatively, using different types and concentrations of odorants in PD patients. We aimed to elucidate whether a specific odor can affect the severity and duration of PD patients. A total of 89 nondemented PD patients and 20 age-matched controls participated in the study. Quantitative evaluation of smell function was performed using the T and T olfactometer test. This test contains five kinds of odorants at different concentrations. Recognition threshold (RT) scores for all five odorants and for each individual odorant were measured in five groups of PD patients with Hoehn and Yale (HY) stages I (n = 12), II (n = 24), III (n = 43), and IV (n = 10), as well as in control subjects (n = 20). One-way analysis of variance and Ryan’s method were used for statistical comparison between the five groups. Compared with controls and HY I patients, total RT scores were significantly higher in HY II, III, and IV patients. There were no statistically significant differences in RT scores between HY I patients and controls. However, total RT scores for three HY I patients (25%) were higher than the mean + two standard deviations of controls. On single odorant testing, significant higher RT scores for methylcyclopentenolone and skatol were found in HY II, III, and IV patients, in comparison with controls and HY I patients. The remaining three odorants did not differ statistically between PD patients and control subjects. The present study indicated that hyposmia in PD patients increased from HY II onwards. A single odorant of methyl cyclopentenolone or skatol had benefits for olfactory evaluation in PD patients. Our data also clarified that olfactory deficits occurred in a subset of HY I patients. Further prospective study is needed to elucidate whether a distinct profile of PD exists between HY I patients with and without hyposmia.Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, Hoehn and Yale stage, olfactory dysfunction, odorants
A Branch-and-Bound Based Heuristic Algorithm for Minimizing Makespan in Machining-Assembly Flowshop Scheduling  [PDF]
Kazuko Morizawa
Engineering (ENG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2014.613081
Abstract: This paper proposes a heuristic algorithm, called list-based squeezing branch and bound algorithm, for solving a machine-fixed, machining-assembly flowshop scheduling problem to minimize makespan. The machine-fixed, machining-assembly flowshop consists of some parallel two-machine flow lines at a machining stage and one robot at an assembly stage. Since an optimal schedule for this problem is not always a permutation schedule, the proposed algorithm first finds a promising permutation schedule, and then searches better non-permutation schedules near the promising permutation schedule in an enumerative manner by elaborating a branching procedure in a branch and bound algorithm. The results of numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently provide an optimal or a near-optimal schedule with high accuracy such as mean relative error being less than 0.2% and the maximum relative error being at most 3%.
The Nitric Oxide-Cyclic GMP Pathway Regulates FoxO and Alters Dopaminergic Neuron Survival in Drosophila
Tomoko Kanao, Tomoyo Sawada, Shireen-Anne Davies, Hiroshi Ichinose, Kazuko Hasegawa, Ryosuke Takahashi, Nobutaka Hattori, Yuzuru Imai
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030958
Abstract: Activation of the forkhead box transcription factor FoxO is suggested to be involved in dopaminergic (DA) neurodegeneration in a Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease (PD), in which a PD gene product LRRK2 activates FoxO through phosphorylation. In the current study that combines Drosophila genetics and biochemical analysis, we show that cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent kinase II (cGKII) also phosphorylates FoxO at the same residue as LRRK2, and Drosophila orthologues of cGKII and LRRK2, DG2/For and dLRRK, respectively, enhance the neurotoxic activity of FoxO in an additive manner. Biochemical assays using mammalian cGKII and FoxO1 reveal that cGKII enhances the transcriptional activity of FoxO1 through phosphorylation of the FoxO1 S319 site in the same manner as LRRK2. A Drosophila FoxO mutant resistant to phosphorylation by DG2 and dLRRK (dFoxO S259A corresponding to human FoxO1 S319A) suppressed the neurotoxicity and improved motor dysfunction caused by co-expression of FoxO and DG2. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) also increased FoxO's activity, whereas the administration of a NOS inhibitor L-NAME suppressed the loss of DA neurons in aged flies co-expressing FoxO and DG2. These results strongly suggest that the NO-FoxO axis contributes to DA neurodegeneration in LRRK2-linked PD.
Professional identities of occupational therapy practitioners in Japan  [PDF]
Risa Takashima, Kazuko Saeki
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.56A2010
Abstract:

To aim to inductively clarify the professional identity of occupational therapists who work in a clinical setting, the researchers interviewed the 22 occupational therapists who had a minimum of 5 years or more of practice in the field. The professional identities of the practicing occupational therapists were constructed by the following two core categories: “harmonizing with a client’s life and the characteristic of a client’s disability”, and “giving clients sovereignties as a mission of the occupational therapists”. The occupational therapist can carry the role of coordinator in an interdisciplinary team for the clients with disability by understanding them. This is achieved based on the core category called “giving clients sovereignties as a mission of the occupational therapists”. Furthermore, in order to achieve the clients’ sovereignties, the occupational therapist can be an operational unit by planning practical strategies and practicing them based on the core category called “harmonizing with a client’s life and the characteristic of a client’s disability”. The fact is often difficult for these clients that they are concerned with how he/she lived actively. It is through unique ways of contributing for the clients in a team of professionals that the occupational therapists try to understand the clients not as “patients” but as “human beings”, and try to harmonize with their life and the characteristics of their disability, then try to support and empower them to reach a stage in which they have the sovereignties of their lives.

Reasons for the Creation of New Social Networks by the Elderly after Relocation  [PDF]
Yoshiko Kudo, Kazuko Saeki
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.512A005
Abstract:

It is important for the relocated elderly to create social networks within their new environment for their lives and their health. This research examined the reasons why the relocated elderly create social networks in the neighborhood. The research subject area is one snowfall town in Hokkaido, Japan. The subjects are 20 elderly people, who have been relocated to the town. The public health nurses individually conducted an interview and broke down the verbatim records into qualitative descriptions. The subjects ranged from 68 to 94 years old. Reasons why the elderly create social networks in their neighborhoods are to make their lives easier, to prepare for emergencies, to get rid of their loneliness, and to enjoy their lives. Community health providers should understand the need for neighboring social networks based on the elderly people’s condition, and support and create new networks in their community depending on their situations.

Abnormally High Levels of Virus-Infected IFN-γ+CCR4+CD4+CD25+ T Cells in a Retrovirus-Associated Neuroinflammatory Disorder
Yoshihisa Yamano, Natsumi Araya, Tomoo Sato, Atae Utsunomiya, Kazuko Azakami, Daisuke Hasegawa, Toshihiko Izumi, Hidetoshi Fujita, Satoko Aratani, Naoko Yagishita, Ryoji Fujii, Kusuki Nishioka, Steven Jacobson, Toshihiro Nakajima
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006517
Abstract: Background Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a human retrovirus associated with both HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), which is a chronic neuroinflammatory disease, and adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). The pathogenesis of HAM/TSP is known to be as follows: HTLV-1-infected T cells trigger a hyperimmune response leading to neuroinflammation. However, the HTLV-1-infected T cell subset that plays a major role in the accelerated immune response has not yet been identified. Principal Findings Here, we demonstrate that CD4+CD25+CCR4+ T cells are the predominant viral reservoir, and their levels are increased in HAM/TSP patients. While CCR4 is known to be selectively expressed on T helper type 2 (Th2), Th17, and regulatory T (Treg) cells in healthy individuals, we demonstrate that IFN-γ production is extraordinarily increased and IL-4, IL-10, IL-17, and Foxp3 expression is decreased in the CD4+CD25+CCR4+ T cells of HAM/TSP patients as compared to those in healthy individuals, and the alteration in function is specific to this cell subtype. Notably, the frequency of IFN-γ-producing CD4+CD25+CCR4+Foxp3? T cells is dramatically increased in HAM/TSP patients, and this was found to be correlated with disease activity and severity. Conclusions We have defined a unique T cell subset—IFN-γ+CCR4+CD4+CD25+ T cells—that is abnormally increased and functionally altered in this retrovirus-associated inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system.
Roles of Beta2- and Beta3-Adrenoceptor Polymorphisms in Hypertension and Metabolic Syndrome
Kazuko Masuo
International Journal of Hypertension , 2010, DOI: 10.4061/2010/832821
Abstract: Hypertension, diabetes mellitus (especially type 2 diabetes mellitus), metabolic syndrome and obesity are rapidly growingpublic health problems. Sympathetic nerve activation is observed in obesity, hypertension and diabetes mellitus, which have strong genetic as well as environmental determinants. Reduced energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate are predictive of weightgain, and the sympathetic nervous system participates in regulating energy balance through thermogenesis. The thermogenic effects of catecholamines in obesity have been mainly mediated via the 2- and 3-adrenergic receptors in humans. Further, 2-adrenoceptors importantly influence vascular reactivity and may regulate blood pressure. Genetic polymorphistns of the -adrenoceptor gene have been shown to alter the function of several adrenoceptor subtypes and thus to modify the response to catecholamine. 2-adrenoceptor polymorphisms (Arg16Gly, Gln27Glu, and Thr164Ile) have been studied in relation to hypertension. Genetic variations in the 3-adrenoceptor (i.e. Try64Arg variant) are also associated with both obesity and hypertension. However, the precise relationships of the polymorphisms of 2- and 3-adrenoceptor genes with sympathetic nervous system activity, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome have not been fully clarified. This paper will discuss the current topics involving the influence of the sympathetic nervous system and 2- and 3- adrenoceptor polymorphisms in hypertension and metabolic syndrome.
Roles of Beta2- and Beta3-Adrenoceptor Polymorphisms in Hypertension and Metabolic Syndrome
Kazuko Masuo
International Journal of Hypertension , 2010, DOI: 10.4061/2010/832821
Abstract: Hypertension, diabetes mellitus (especially type 2 diabetes mellitus), metabolic syndrome and obesity are rapidly growing public health problems. Sympathetic nerve activation is observed in obesity, hypertension and diabetes mellitus, which have strong genetic as well as environmental determinants. Reduced energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate are predictive of weight gain, and the sympathetic nervous system participates in regulating energy balance through thermogenesis. The thermogenic effects of catecholamines in obesity have been mainly mediated via the 2- and 3-adrenergic receptors in humans. Further, 2-adrenoceptors importantly influence vascular reactivity and may regulate blood pressure. Genetic polymorphistns of the -adrenoceptor gene have been shown to alter the function of several adrenoceptor subtypes and thus to modify the response to catecholamine. 2-adrenoceptor polymorphisms (Arg16Gly, Gln27Glu, and Thr164Ile) have been studied in relation to hypertension. Genetic variations in the 3-adrenoceptor (i.e. Try64Arg variant) are also associated with both obesity and hypertension. However, the precise relationships of the polymorphisms of 2- and 3-adrenoceptor genes with sympathetic nervous system activity, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome have not been fully clarified. This paper will discuss the current topics involving the influence of the sympathetic nervous system and 2- and 3- adrenoceptor polymorphisms in hypertension and metabolic syndrome. 1. Introduction Obesity, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome (type 2 diabetes mellitus) are major and growing health problems and are known as high-risk factors for subsequent cardiovascular and renal complications [1–3]. Obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are intimately associated [4–6], and sympathetic nervous activation is frequently observed in those conditions. Thus, sympathetic nerve activation may play a major role in the onset and development of hypertension, obesity, and metabolic syndrome (diabetes mellitus) as well as cardiovascular complications in patients with hypertension, diabetes and obesity [2, 7]. The sympathetic nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of energy expenditure. Reduced energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate are predictive of weight gain (obesity). The sympathetic nervous system participates in regulating energy balance through thermogenesis [8]. A large part of the sympathetic nervous system-mediated energy expenditure takes place in skeletal muscle, via the coupling of catecholamines with β2-adrenoceptors.
Liaison conference for adolescent psychosomatic disease in pediatric ward  [PDF]
Takuji Inagaki, Rei Wake, Kazuko Kishi
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2012.21006
Abstract: We held the liaison case conferences for two adolescent cases with psychosomatic disease in the pediatric ward to understand the patient's emotional problems and family situations, and to discuss how approach their psychological problems. We considered that the liaison conference played a useful role in both the clinical diagnosis and treatment. Furthermore, the liaison conference was useful for reducing the staff’s anxieties and for contributing to have a proper understanding for the disease. We suggest that a liaison conference should be implemented in pediatric units, for pediatric patients with emotional and behavioral problems.
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