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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 915 matches for " Kazuichi Sakamoto "
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Fermented Brown Sugar Residue Prolongs the Caenorhabditis elegans Lifespan via DAF-16  [PDF]
Takumi Satoh, Kazuichi Sakamoto
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2017.89061
Abstract: Purification of biomass ethanol from the products of brown sugar yeast-fermentation produces a large amount of residue. This fermentation residue contains abundant brown sugar-derived nutrients and is mainly used as compost or livestock feed. However, the in vivo physiological effects of oral residue ingestion are not known. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the physiological action and molecular mechanism of fermented brown sugar residue in nematode stress tolerance, aging, and lifespan using Caenorhabditis elegans. Fermented brown sugar residue was divided into two layers, supernatant and precipitate, and each was given to nematodes. Analysis of motility and survival rate under thermal stress revealed reduced mobility and increased survival rate following treatment with fermented brown sugar residue. The survival rate of nematodes under 1% H2O2 was markedly increased by the residue and mitochondrial membrane depolarization was induced and mitochondrial radical oxygen species levels increased. Furthermore, aging dependent reduction of motility was suppressed, and the average life span of nematodes was extended by treatment with fermented brown sugar residue. Moreover, the effects of fermented brown sugar residue on stress tolerance, lifespan elongation, and decreased aging dependent momentum reduction were lost in the daf-16 mutant. Taken together, our results show that the various physiological actions of fermented brown sugar residue, including stress tolerance and lifespan extension, occur via DAF-16.
(–)-Epigallocatechingallate Interferes RANKL/RANK Signal Pathway and Induces Apoptosis during Osteoclastogenesis in RAW264 Cell  [PDF]
Ran Zhao, Masayoshi Kamon, Kazuichi Sakamoto
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.52014

Green tea catechin, (–)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate [(–)-EGCG], was found to increase osteogenic functioning in mesenchymal stem cells. This study qualified EGCG, the strongest inhibitory efficiency for receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-activated osteoclastogenesis among other green tea catechins for RAW264, a murine preosteoclast cell line. Moreover, EGCG inhibited tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cell formation dose dependently in both single culture and co-culture systems, the expression of transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) and some osteoclastic genes. Especially, EGCG exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on the expression levels of RANK, the receptor of RANKL, and OSCAR, a key co-stimulator of the RANKL/RANK signal. Simultaneously, apoptotic genes expression and Hoechst staining revealed that EGCG induced apoptosis in RAW264. Taken together, these data suggest that the inhibitory effect of EGCG to osteoclastogenesis is associated with a down regulation of RANKL/RANK signal, and increased apoptosis of preosteoclasts.

α-Mangostin Promotes DAF-16-Mediated Thermotolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans  [PDF]
Nattapong Thammawong, Haruka Takahashi, Takaya Sugawara, Kazuichi Sakamoto
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2018.96053
Abstract: Garcinia mangostana, commonly known as mangosteen, is a tropical fruit with a reddish-purple pericarp. In Southeast Asia, the pericarp has traditionally been used as a medicine to treat various diseases, including inflammation, wounds, and bacterial infections, as well as aging. α-mangostin is an abundant xanthone in the pericarp, and is thought to play a critical role in the medicinal effects of mangosteens. Previous studies have demonstrated numerous beneficial effects of α-mangostin, such as cytotoxicity in cancer cells. However, the effects of this xanthone in in vivo have not yet been studied. In the current study, C. elegans was used to test the in vivo effects of α-mangostin using several bioassays, including fat accumulation, pharyngeal movement (pumping) and heat-stress assays. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) was also used to examine the expression of heat shock proteins. The results revealed that α-mangostin appeared to cause an increase in fat accumulation, which correlated with an increase in pharyngeal movement. The thrashing movement of the worms after heat stress also showed a correlation with an increase in heat shock protein mRNA expression.
Colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis) Flesh Extract Suppresses Adipogenesis by Down-Regulating Adipogenic Transcription Factors and Their Target Genes in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes  [PDF]
Raoua Jemai, Riadh Drira, Hamadi Fetoui, Mohamed Makni, Kazuichi Sakamoto
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2018.98074
Abstract: Citrullus colocynthis, a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, is widely distributed in North Africa. The fruits are recognized for their wide range of medicinal uses and promising pharmaceutical potential. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-obesity effect of the ethanol extract of colocynth flesh (FCEE) in 3T3-L1 cells following treatment at different doses. The viability of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was analyzed via MTT assay and triglycerides were stained with Oil red O to assess lipid accumulation. Additionally, adipogenesis-related gene expression was quantified via qRT-PCR. FCEE (0 - 150 μg/mL) dose-dependently suppressed intracellular triglyceride accumulation during the adipogenesis by 23% and 66% at 100 and 150 μg/mL, respectively, but did not affect cell viability. Analysis of the time-dependence of the effect of FCEE demonstrated that the greatest anti-adipogenic activity was observed during the early stages of differentiation. FCEE also decreased GPDH activity in a dose-dependent manner, with 98% decrease observed at 150 μg/mL. In addition, at same range of FCEE concentrations, the main transcription factors, including CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), were downregulated by 90%, 89%, and 89%, respectively at 150 μg/mL. As these are the master regulators of adipogenesis. The inhibition of their downstream target genes was also observed. Colocynth may be useful in the treatment of obesity owing to its powerful effects on fat, which result in changes to adipocyte differentiation and fat mobilization.
Physiological Effects of Salmon Milt Nucleoprotein on Movement, Stress Tolerance and Lifespan of C. elegans  [PDF]
Hiroaki Shintani, Tsubasa Furuhashi, Hiroyuki Hano, Masaji Matsunaga, Koji Usumi, Norimasa Shudo, Kazuichi Sakamoto
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.31009
Abstract: In recent years, various physiological functions of salmon milt extract, which consists of nucleic acid and nucleoprotein, have been reported. The objective of this study is to analyze the physiological function and its mechanism of salmon milt extract (NG) on nematodes (C. elegans). The wild type nematode N2 strain was bred on the plate containing of NG for four days, and its body length increased depending on NG concentration. When nematodes were bred with NG for a longer period, average lifespan was increased, and survival rate was increased by up to 20%. Generally, the movement of nematodes decreases with longer breeding period (i.e. aging). Analysis of movement (both gross thrashing movement and local pumping movement) showed that NG suppressed this decrease f movement with aging. Furthermore, the deease of survival rate by heat stress and oxidative stress was suppressed by NG administration. Nile Red staining analysis showed that fat accumulation varied depending on the concentration of NG. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA expression levels of the stress resistance genes sod-3 and sod-4 were increased. These results indicated that NG administration increased the expression of stress-tolerance-related genes, promoted stress tolerance, increased movement and prolonged lifespan in nematode.
Are Classification Criteria for IgG4-RD Now Possible? The Concept of IgG4-Related Disease and Proposal of Comprehensive Diagnostic Criteria in Japan
Kazuichi Okazaki,Hisanori Umehara
International Journal of Rheumatology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/357071
Abstract: Recent studies suggest simultaneous or metachronous lesions in multiorgans characterized by elevated serum levels of IgG4 and abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells with various degrees of fibrosis. Two Japanese research committees for IgG4-RD, one from fibrosclerosis (Okazaki team) and the other from lymph proliferation (Umehara team) supported by the “Research Program for Intractable Disease” of the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare of Japan, have agreed with the unified nomenclature as “IgG4-RD” and proposed the comprehensive diagnostic criteria (CDC) for IgG4-RD. Validation of the CDC demonstrated satisfactory sensitivity for the practical use of general physicians and nonspecialists but low sensitivity in the organs to be difficult in taking biopsy specimens such as type1 autoimmune pancreatitis (IgG4-related AIP), compared with IgG4-related sialadenitis/dacryoadenitis (Mikulicz's disease) and IgG4-related kidney disease. Although the diagnostic criteria covering all IgG4-RD are hard to be established, combination with the CDC and organ-specific diagnostic criteria should improve sensitivity. 1. Introduction Recent studies have suggested simultaneous or metachronous lesions in multiorgans characterized by elevated serum levels of IgG4 and abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells with various degrees of fibrosis, which lead us to propose the concept of a systemic disease [1, 4, 10, 23, 24]. However, there are many synonyms suggesting a systemic disease, such as IgG4-related autoimmune disease [1], IgG4-related sclerosing disease [4], IgG4-related plasmacytic syndrome (SIPS) [23], IgG4-related multiorgan lymphoproliferative syndrome (IgG4-MOLPS) [10], and systemic IgG4-related disease, all of which may refer to the same conditions [24, 25] (Table 1). To simplify these conditions, members of two Japanese research committees for IgG4-related disease, one from view of fibrosclerosis (Chaired by Prof. Okazaki) [24] and the other from lymph proliferation (Chaired by Professor. Umehara H) [25], both of which are supported by the “Research for Intractable Disease” Program from the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare of Japan, have agreed with unification of different nomenclatures as “IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD)” and proposed the comprehensive diagnostic criteria (CDC) for IgG4-RD [15]. As it still remains unclear whether pathogenetic mechanisms in each involved organ-are same or not, the term IgG4-RD was appointed as minimally reflecting these conditions to avoid misdiagnosis of malignancy as much as possible. Table 1:
Transmedullary Decompression for Humeral Diaphysis Solitary Bone Cysts  [PDF]
Akio Sakamoto
Open Journal of Orthopedics (OJO) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2013.32015

Solitary bone cysts are benign, fluid-filled cavities that most often occur in childhood. Several minimally invasive decompression methods have been proposed; however, performing a surgical procedure through the thinned overlying cortex raises the risk of pathological fracture and neurovascular damage, especially in lesions located in the bone diaphysis. We describe a new technique that circumvents these problems: tunneling through the normal cortex and medullary space with a flexible reamer, placing a retrograde medullary nail for cyst decompression.

A Method to Evaluate an Urban Area by Using the Model That Calculates a Number of Facilities from an Area and a Population  [PDF]
Noriaki Sakamoto
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2016.44028
Abstract: This paper presents 1) a new mathematical model improved from a conventional model that calculates a number of facility from an area and a population in a town and, 2) by using this model, a method to evaluate the enrichment (in other words, convenience or enough) of facilities in the town where many high-rise apartments have been built (the area is hereinafter referred to as the high-rise apartment town). The conventional model uses only a nighttime population, but this paper considers a daytime population in addition to the nighttime population. Also, there has not been the method to evaluate the enrichment of facilities in a town, but we can evaluate it using this model. We apply this method to 23 special wards in Tokyo and the highrise apartment towns, the results prove the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Characterization of a Tos17 Insertion Mutant of Rice Auxin Signal Transcription Factor Gene, OsARF24  [PDF]
Tomoaki Sakamoto, Yoshiaki Inukai
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.41013
Abstract: Auxin signaling plays a key role in the regulation of various growth and developmental processes in higher plants. Auxin response factors (ARFs) are transcription factors that regulate the expression of auxin-response genes. The osarf24-1 mutant contains a truncation of domain IV in the C-terminal dimerization domain of a rice ARF protein, OsARF24. This mutant showed auxin-deficient phenotypes and reduced sensitivity to auxin. However, OsARF24 protein contains an SPL-rich repression domain in its middle region and acts as a transcriptional repressor. These results imply that the C-terminal dimerization domain, especially the C-terminal half of domain IV, is essential for the proper regulation of OsARF24 function as a transcriptional repressor in rice.
Performance of Thermal Energy Storage Unit Using Solid Ammoniated Salt (CaCl2-NH3 System)  [PDF]
Yuki Sakamoto, Hideki Yamamoto
Natural Resources (NR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.58031
The exothermic chemical reaction of CaCl2 (calcium chloride) with NH3 (ammonia) can be utilized as an energy storage system. Since this reaction is a typical gas-solid reaction, the reaction rate is controlled by the heat transfer rate. In order to improve the low heat transfer rate of the ammoniation and the deammoniation of CaCl2, the influence of a heat transfer media (Ti: titanium) on the heat transfer rate of the solid ammoniated salt (CaCl2.mNH3) was studied and tested experimentally. The performance tests were carried out under the conditions of various weight ratios of Ti. No decrease of the activation of chemical reaction and no corrosion of experimental apparatus were observed on the repeated runs (≥30 times each). The heat transfer rate of ammoniated salt was greatly improved by adding Ti under the constant pressure (0.5 MPa). The reaction time required for the ammoniation of CaCl2 mixed with Ti was approximately 16% - 54% shorter than that of CaCl2 alone, and the reaction time required for the deammoniation was also approximately 19% - 59% shorter than that of CaCl2 alone.
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