Abstract:
Background: Community pharmacists should be involved in diabetes care, while there has been less evidence about whether a brief lifestyle intervention is effective for diabetes care in community pharmacies. Objectives: To examine the effects of brief lifestyle intervention on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) by using a coaching style, provided by community pharmacists. Methods: A prospective, cluster-randomized, controlled trial was conducted in 50 groups of community pharmacies in Japan. In all, 132 patients with T2D (age, 20 - 75 years, ≥8.0% of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)) were assigned to the intervention group (n = 90) or the usual care group (n = 42). The intervention group (IG) underwent brief lifestyle coaching for self-care of T2D for 6 months. The standard care group (CG) received usual care by pharmacists and was given a
general newsletter. The primary outcome was changes in HbA1c levels. Results: After 6 months, the IG had significantly improved HbA1c (IG: -0.6 ± 0.9 vs. CG: -0.2% ± 0.9%; p = 0.021 using the last observation carried forward analysis). Although the number of drugs reduced from 2.3 ± 0.8 to 2.0 ± 1.2 in the IG, the number increased from 2.3 ± 1.1 to 2.5 ± 1.1 in the CG (-0.2 ± 0.9 in IG vs. 0.2 ± 0.6 in CG; p = 0.023). Conclusions: The brief lifestyle intervention by community pharmacists improved glycemic control in patients with T2D. Community pharmacists may more positively participate as lifestyle coaches for diabetes care.

Abstract:
Background Bevacizumab, a humanized antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), shows clinical activity against human cancer, with its addition to standard chemotherapy having been found to improve outcome in patients with advanced nonsquamous non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, there have been no evidence-based studies to support the continued use of bevacizumab beyond disease progression in such patients treated with the drug in first-line therapy. We have now designed a randomized phase II trial to examine the clinical benefit and safety of continued bevacizumab treatment in patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC whose disease has progressed after first-line treatment with bevacizumab plus a platinum-based doublet. Methods/Design WJOG 5910L was designed as a multicenter, open-label, randomized, phase II trial by the West Japan Oncology Group of docetaxel (arm A) versus docetaxel plus bevacizumab (arm B) in patients with recurrent or metatstatic nonsquamous NSCLC whose disease has progressed after first-line treatment with bevacizumab plus a platinum-based doublet. Patients in arm A will receive docetaxel at 60 mg/m2 and those in arm B will receive docetaxel at 60 mg/m2 plus bevacizumab at 15 mg/kg, with each drug administered on day 1 every 21 days until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint of the study is progression-free survival, with secondary endpoints including response rate, overall survival, and safety, for patients treated in either arm. Trial registration UMIN (University Hospital Medical Information Network in Japan) 000004715

Abstract:
The rare earth metal praseodymium (Pr) transforms from the d-fcc crystal structure (Pr-III) to {$\alpha$}-U one (Pr-IV) at 20 GPa with a large volume collapse (${\rm\Delta} V/V$ = 0.16), which is associated with the valence change of the Pr ion. The two 4{\it f} electrons in the Pr ion is supposed to be itinerant in the Pr-IV phase. In order to investigate the electronic state of the phase IV, we performed the high pressure electrical resistance measurement using the diamond anvil cell up to 32 GPa. In the Pr-IV phase, the temperature dependence of the resistance shows an upward negative curvature, which is similar to the itinerant 5{\it f} electron system in actinide metals and compounds. This suggests the narrow quasiparticle band of the 4{\it f} electrons near the Fermi energy. A new phase boundary is found at $T_{0}$ in the Pr-IV phase. From the temperature and magnetic field dependences of the resistance at 26 GPa, the ground state of the Pr-IV phase is suggested to be magnetic. Several possibilities for the origin of $T_{0}$ are discussed.

Gemcitabine and cisplatin combination
therapy (GC) is accepted as a standard treatment for advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC). However, little information
is available regarding such treatment in the clinical practice setting in
Japan. We retrospectively examined the clinical data of patients with
unresectable or recurrent BTC who received GC as first-line treatment. The
regimen consisted of cisplatin (25 mg/m^{2}) and gemcitabine (1000 mg/m^{2})
administered intravenously on days 1 and 8 of repeated 3-week cycles. Twenty
patients were analyzed. A total of 148 cycles of GC was administered, with a
median of 8 and a range of 1 to 18 cycles. Treatment delay and dose reduction
were noted in 35 (24%) and 41 (28%) of the 148 cycles, respectively. The major
adverse events of grade 3 or 4 included neutropenia (50%), leukopenia (45%), anemia
(30%), and thrombocytopenia (15%). Nonhematologic toxicities included nausea
(10%), appetite loss (10%), and fatigue (10%). Median progression-free and
overall survival times were 6.9 and 12.3 months, respectively. Gallbladder
cancer showed a significantly higher response rate than did other types of BTC
(chi-squaretest, P = 0.002). GC was
thus effective and well tolerated as first-line chemotherapy for Japanese
patients with advanced BTC in the clinical practice setting.

Abstract:
The diagonal argument is a very famous proof, which has influenced many areas of mathematics. However, this paper shows that the diagonal argument cannot be applied to the sequence of potentially infinite number of potentially infinite binary fractions. First, the original form of Cantor’s diagonal argument is introduced. Second, it is demonstrated that any natural number is finite, by a simple mathematical induction. Third, the concept of potential infinity, created by Aristotle, is presented. Typically, the natural numbers are considered potentially infinite. However, although any natural number is finite, there is also no limit to how large a natural number can be. Fourth, the concept of the potentially infinite decimal is introduced. Fifth, it is easily proven that the diagonal argument cannot be applied to the sequence of all n-bit binary fractions in the interval [0,1). Finally, the diagonal argument is shown to be inapplicable to the sequence of the potentially infinite number of potentially infinite binary fractions, which contains all n-bit binary fractions in the interval [0,1) for any n.

Abstract:
The derivative is a basic concept of differential calculus. However, if we calculate the derivative as change in distance over change in time, the result at any instant is 0/0, which seems meaningless. Hence, Newton and Leibniz used the limit to determine the derivative. Their method is valid in practice, but it is not easy to intuitively accept. Thus, this article describes the novel method of differential calculus based on the double contradiction, which is easier to accept intuitively. Next, the geometrical meaning of the double contradiction is considered as follows. A tangent at a point on a convex curve is iterated. Then, the slope of the tangent at the point is sandwiched by two kinds of lines. The first kind of line crosses the curve at the original point and a point to the right of it. The second kind of line crosses the curve at the original point and a point to the left of it. Then, the double contradiction can be applied, and the slope of the tangent is determined as a single value. Finally, the meaning of this method for the foundation of mathematics is considered. We reflect on Dehaene’s notion that the foundation of mathematics is based on the intuitions, which evolve independently. Hence, there may be gaps between intuitions. In fact, the Ancient Greeks identified inconsistency between arithmetic and geometry. However, Eudoxus developed the theory of proportion, which is equivalent to the Dedekind Cut. This allows the iteration of an irrational number by rational numbers as precisely as desired. Simultaneously, we can define the irrational number by the double contradiction, although its existence is not guaranteed. Further, an area of a curved figure is iterated and defined by rectilinear figures using the double contradiction.

Abstract:
What is number? This question is difficult to answer. Because the number is one of the most basic concepts, it is difficult to define the natural number with other concepts. Still, this problem is worth trying to answer. Now, everything is digitized and processed on computer. The importance of the number is increasing day by day. Now is time to consider what number is. Throughout the history of humankind, the ancient Greeks considered this question most profoundly. In particular, Plato defined the natural number one. The natural number one is equal, invariable and indivisible. These properties are intuitively acceptable. However, we have never seen or touched the natural number one itself. How can we know it? Socrates said that we know it before birth. This claim is called anamnesis. In this paper, we use a method, in which Socrates’ anamnesis is studied by the contemporary science. From a modern viewpoint, we could take Socrates’ anamnesis to mean that the natural number one is written in our genes. This article considers whether there is a biological entity corresponding to the natural number one. As a result, we find that a life itself is the prototype of the natural number one, and then properties of life make a critical base of DNA similar to the natural number one through natural selection. A life is an integrated and indivisible system, which resists the law of entropy. Furthermore, the basic properties of life enable natural selection, which conserves genetic information despite the law of entropy. The source of the power, which enables life to resist the law of entropy, is the genetic information. In conclusion, a life is a prototype of the natural number one. Furthermore, a life recognizes nature using natural numbers and resists the law of entropy using natural numbers.

Abstract:
This paper examines optimal consumption/portfolio choices under stochastic habit formation in which it is uncertain how deep consumers would become in the habit of consuming in future. By extending Shroder and Skiadas [1] to stochastic habit formation, the optimization problem with stochastic habit forming preferences is transformed into that with simple time-additive preferences. Optimal portfolios are composed of the tangency portfolio and habit hedging portfolio. Resulting risk premia are characterized by consumption beta, which is proportionate to the covariance with consumption changes, and habit beta, defined by using the covariance with habit.

Abstract:
A random walk Metropolis-Hastings algorithm has been widely used in sampling the parameter of spatial interaction in spatial autoregressive model from a Bayesian point of view. In addition, as an alternative approach, the griddy Gibbs sampler is proposed by [1] and utilized by [2]. This paper proposes an acceptance-rejection Metropolis-Hastings algorithm as a third approach, and compares these three algorithms through Monte Carlo experiments. The experimental results show that the griddy Gibbs sampler is the most efficient algorithm among the algorithms whether the number of observations is small or not in terms of the computation time and the inefficiency factors. Moreover, it seems to work well when the size of grid is 100.

Abstract:
It is controversial whether or not Japanese manufacturing is already in decline and the Japanese model of manufacturing that drove past decades of the industrial and economic growth has lost the power. It is though true that Japan needs to develop a new and innovative business model for manufacturing in the years ahead. The present paper aims at (1) arguing that Japanese manufacturing requires transformation from integral-technology-based to modular-technology-based as well as their co-existence and (2) visualizing strategies for supporting them in practical terms. We in particular claim that in the transformation Machine-Tool Trading (MTT) companies should play a crucial role in getting servitizatized and functioning as project producers. We discuss roles and functions to be expected from servitized MTT companies by using the value orchestration platform model with quality control 7 tools as a reference. We also illustrate a roadmap for an MTT company to be servitized based on some real observations as well as the authors’ experiences.