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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401992 matches for " Kaushik M. Desai "
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Increased Methylglyoxal Formation with Upregulation of Renin Angiotensin System in Fructose Fed Sprague Dawley Rats
Indu Dhar, Arti Dhar, Lingyun Wu, Kaushik M. Desai
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074212
Abstract: The current epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is attributed to a high carbohydrate diet, containing mainly high fructose corn syrup and sucrose. More than two thirds of diabetic patients have hypertension. Methylglyoxal is a highly reactive dicarbonyl generated during glucose and fructose metabolism, and a major precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Plasma methylglyoxal levels are increased in hypertensive rats and diabetic patients. Our aim was to examine the levels of methylglyoxal, mediators of the renin angiotensin system and blood pressure in male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with a high fructose diet (60% of total calories) for 4 months. The thoracic aorta and kidney were used for molecular studies, along with cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). HPLC, Western blotting and Q-PCR were used to measure methylglyoxal and reduced glutathione (GSH), proteins and mRNA, respectively. Fructose treated rats developed a significant increase in blood pressure. Methylglyoxal level and protein and mRNA for angiotensin II, AT1 receptor, adrenergic α1D receptor and renin were significantly increased, whereas GSH levels were decreased, in the aorta and/or kidney of fructose fed rats. The protein expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) and NF-κB were also significantly increased in the aorta of fructose fed rats. MG treated VSMCs showed increased protein for angiotensin II, AT1 receptor, and α1D receptor. The effects of methylglyoxal were attenuated by metformin, a methylglyoxal scavenger and AGEs inhibitor. In conclusion, we report a strong association between elevated levels of methylglyoxal, RAGE, NF-κB, mediators of the renin angiotensin system and blood pressure in high fructose diet fed rats.
Clinical utility of valsartan in treatment of children and adolescents with high blood pressure
Kaushik M, Mohiuddin SM
Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AHMT.S13772
Abstract: ical utility of valsartan in treatment of children and adolescents with high blood pressure Review (4696) Total Article Views Authors: Kaushik M, Mohiuddin SM Published Date September 2011 Volume 2011:2 Pages 97 - 103 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AHMT.S13772 Manu Kaushik1, Syed M Mohiuddin2 1Division of Cardiology, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA Abstract: The incidence of hypertension in the pediatric population has been increasing secondary to lifestyle changes in children and adolescents. Recent studies have enhanced our understanding of the treatment of pediatric hypertension. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have traditionally been the most commonly used class of medication in children with hypertension. This is partly due to the important role of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system pathway in the mediation of pediatric hypertension. Angiotensin receptor blockers provide a reasonable alternative to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The need for better tolerated antihypertensives had led to development of many new antihypertensives. Valsartan is a relatively novel angiotensin receptor blocker that has been shown to be effective in the treatment of pediatric hypertension. Two recent trials have demonstrated the efficacy of valsartan monotherapy in the pediatric population aged 1–16 years. Once-daily oral preparations of valsartan achieve adequate blood pressure control in the pediatric population. Lack of generic formulations is an important disadvantage. Plasma levels are predictable and clearance is primarily by the liver. Valsartan should be prescribed cautiously for sexually active adolescent females due to concern about angiotensin receptor blocker fetopathy. Otherwise, the drug has infrequent side effects. In summary, valsartan is a new and useful alternative to conventional antihypertensive therapy in pediatric population.
Clinical utility of valsartan in treatment of children and adolescents with high blood pressure
Kaushik M,Mohiuddin SM
Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics , 2011,
Abstract: Manu Kaushik1, Syed M Mohiuddin21Division of Cardiology, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USAAbstract: The incidence of hypertension in the pediatric population has been increasing secondary to lifestyle changes in children and adolescents. Recent studies have enhanced our understanding of the treatment of pediatric hypertension. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have traditionally been the most commonly used class of medication in children with hypertension. This is partly due to the important role of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system pathway in the mediation of pediatric hypertension. Angiotensin receptor blockers provide a reasonable alternative to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The need for better tolerated antihypertensives had led to development of many new antihypertensives. Valsartan is a relatively novel angiotensin receptor blocker that has been shown to be effective in the treatment of pediatric hypertension. Two recent trials have demonstrated the efficacy of valsartan monotherapy in the pediatric population aged 1–16 years. Once-daily oral preparations of valsartan achieve adequate blood pressure control in the pediatric population. Lack of generic formulations is an important disadvantage. Plasma levels are predictable and clearance is primarily by the liver. Valsartan should be prescribed cautiously for sexually active adolescent females due to concern about angiotensin receptor blocker fetopathy. Otherwise, the drug has infrequent side effects. In summary, valsartan is a new and useful alternative to conventional antihypertensive therapy in pediatric population.Keywords: valsartan, angiotensin receptor blockers, pediatrics, children, adolescents, hypertension, safety, efficacy
Queuing Methodology Based Power Efficient Routing Protocol for Reliable Data Communications in Manets
Giddaluru Madhavi,M. K. Kaushik
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a wireless network that uses multi-hop peer-to- peer routing instead of static network infrastructure to provide network connectivity. MANETs have applications in rapidly deployed and dynamic military and civilian systems. The network topology in a MANET usually changes with time. Therefore, there are new challenges for routing protocols in MANETs since traditional routing protocols may not be suitable for MANETs. In recent years, a variety of new routing protocols targeted specifically at this environment have been developed, but little performance information on each protocol and no realistic performance comparison between them is available. This paper presents the results of a detailed packet-level simulation comparing three multi-hop wireless ad hoc network routing protocols that cover a range of design choices: DSR, NFPQR, and clustered NFPQR. By applying queuing methodology to the introduced routing protocol the reliability and throughput of the network is increased.
A Method of Cognitive Training of Medical Students and Residents  [PDF]
Bobby Desai, Alpa Desai
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.99102
Abstract: Beginning learners in medicine face a daunting challenge of utilizing information gained in the first two years of medical school in a clinical setting in the latter half of their medical school and into residency. Constant interruptions and lack of knowledge are but two of the factors that may hamper the early clinician’s ability to safely and efficiently care for patients. Thus, a system that organizes thought into specific compartments—compartmentalization may benefit the learner by separating tasks into smaller, more specific objectives to complete prior to moving on in the diagnostic algorithm. Developing a system that utilizes compartmentalization may ease the transition into clinical practice using simple and effective tools that allow the beginning physician to mitigate the invariable distractions and interruptions that occur daily to allow for the safe practice of medicine.
Aldolase B Knockdown Prevents High Glucose-Induced Methylglyoxal Overproduction and Cellular Dysfunction in Endothelial Cells
Jianghai Liu, Timothy Chun-Ping Mak, Ali Banigesh, Kaushik Desai, Rui Wang, Lingyun Wu
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041495
Abstract: We used cultured endothelial cells as a model to examine whether up-regulation of aldolase B and enhanced methylglyoxal (MG) formation play an important role in high glucose-induced overproduction of advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGEs), oxidative stress and cellular dysfunction. High glucose (25 mM) incubation up-regulated mRNA levels of aldose reductase (an enzyme converting glucose to fructose) and aldolase B (a key enzyme that catalyzes MG formation from fructose) and enhanced MG formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and HUVEC-derived EA. hy926 cells. High glucose-increased MG production in EA. hy926 cells was completely prevented by siRNA knockdown of aldolase B, but unaffected by siRNA knockdown of aldolase A, an enzyme responsible for MG formation during glycolysis. In addition, inhibition of cytochrome P450 2E1 or semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase which produces MG during the metabolism of lipid and proteins, respectively, did not alter MG production. Both high glucose (25 mM) and MG (30, 100 μM) increased the formation of N(ε)-carboxyethyl-lysine (CEL, a MG-induced AGE), oxidative stress (determined by the generation of oxidized DCF, H2O2, protein carbonyls and 8-oxo-dG), O-GlcNAc modification (product of the hexosamine pathway), membrane protein kinase C activity and nuclear translocation of NF-κB in EA. hy926 cells. However, the above metabolic and signaling alterations induced by high glucose were completely prevented by knockdown of aldolase B and partially by application of aminoguanidine (a MG scavenger) or alagebrium (an AGEs breaker). In conclusion, efficient inhibition of aldolase B can prevent high glucose-induced overproduction of MG and related cellular dysfunction in endothelial cells.
Hydrogen Sulfide Releasing Aspirin, ACS14, Attenuates High Glucose-Induced Increased Methylglyoxal and Oxidative Stress in Cultured Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells
Qian Huang, Anna Sparatore, Piero Del Soldato, Lingyun Wu, Kaushik Desai
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097315
Abstract: Hydrogen sulfide is a gasotransmitter with vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Aspirin is an irreversible cyclooxygenase inhibitor anti-inflammatory drug. ACS14 is a novel synthetic hydrogen sulfide releasing aspirin which inhibits cyclooxygenase and has antioxidant effects. Methylglyoxal is a chemically active metabolite of glucose and fructose, and a major precursor of advanced glycation end products formation. Methylglyoxal is harmful when produced in excess. Plasma methylglyoxal levels are significantly elevated in diabetic patients. Our aim was to investigate the effects of ACS14 on methylglyoxal levels in cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. We used cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells for the study. Methylglyoxal was measured by HPLC after derivatization, and nitrite+nitrate with an assay kit. Western blotting was used to determine NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression. Dicholorofluorescein assay was used to measure oxidative stress. ACS14 significantly attenuated elevation of intracellular methylglyoxal levels caused by incubating cultured vascular smooth muscle cells with methylglyoxal (30 μM) and high glucose (25 mM). ACS14, but not aspirin, caused a significant attenuation of increase in nitrite+nitrate levels caused by methylglyoxal or high glucose. ACS14, aspirin, and sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS, a hydrogen sulfide donor), all attenuated the increase in oxidative stress caused by methylglyoxal and high glucose in cultured cells. ACS14 prevented the increase in NOX4 expression caused by incubating the cultured VSMCs with MG (30 μM). ACS14, aspirin and NaHS attenuated the increase in iNOS expression caused by high glucose (25 mM). In conclusion, ACS14 has the novel ability to attenuate an increase in methylglyoxal levels which in turn can reduce oxidative stress, decrease the formation of advanced glycation end products and prevent many of the known deleterious effects of elevated methylglyoxal. Thus, ACS14 has the potential to be especially beneficial for diabetic patients pending further in vivo studies.
Giant pelvi-ureteric diverticulum presenting as ascites : (a case report).
Desai M,Kamdar M,Patel M,Desai S
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 1981,
Abstract:
Open Journal of Applied Biosensor: Point-of-Care Biosensing and Environment Monitoring  [PDF]
Ajeet Kaushik
Open Journal of Applied Biosensor (OJAB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojab.2013.24012
Abstract: Open Journal of Applied Biosensor: Point-of-Care Biosensing and Environment Monitoring
Knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among women attending a tertiary care hospital in India
Sunita TH,Rathnamala M Desai
International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/2320-1770.ijrcog20130612
Abstract: It’s a cross sectional observational study conducted in outpatient clinic of OBG, SDMCMS&H, Dharwad between July-December 2012. 200 married women between 20-45 yrs were interviewed with predesigned questionnaire. Effort was made to identify reasons for wide gap between knowledge and practice of contraception. All women knew atleast one method of contraception but 48% were using some sort of contraception. Most known method was female sterilization, least known were injectables and male sterilization. Common method chosen was female sterilization (70.8%). None adopted male sterilization. Reasons for not using contraception were desire to have child (25%), desire for boys (13.4%), worried about side effect (16.3%), opposition from family members (11.5%), felt pregnancy was naturally spaced (11.5%), no specific reasons (10.5%), couldn’t avail contraceptive facilities (5.7%), inconvenient to use (5.7%). Educational and motivational activities from doctors and health workers is needed to promote the use of contraception. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000): 172-176]
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