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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 94 matches for " Katsuyoshi Uruno "
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Quantitative Microbiological Evaluation of Salmonella Typhimurium Shed in Diarrhea, Loose, and Normal Stools of Infected Pigs  [PDF]
Tsuyoshi Tanaka, Yasuo Imai, Naosuke Kumagae, Takashi Sasaki, Narutoshi Ochiai, Katsuyoshi Uruno, Haruki Kitazawa, Tadao Saito, Shizuo Sato
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2014.44007
Abstract:

Control of within-herd transmission of Salmonella is important for reducing the prevalence of this organism on pig farms and for preventing Salmonella-contamination of pork. At the farm level, understanding the within-herd transmission of Salmonella can lead to more effective control. Salmonella infection is dependent on the inoculation dose; hence, quantitative evaluation of Salmonella shed in feces would provide useful information for developing effective measures. In this study, to reproduce and evaluate the number of Salmonella shed in diarrhea, loose stools, and normal feces, weaned pigs were inoculated with 3.2 × 109, 3.2 × 107, and 3.2 × 105 cfu of Salmonella Typhimurium, respectively. The number of S. Typhimurium shed in the feces peaked within 1 week post-inoculation in every group and the most amount of diarrhea and loose stools were observed within 2 weeks post-inoculation. Diarrhea occurred 10 times (six pigs), and loose stools were observed 25 times (11 pigs). The average concentration of S. Typhimurium shed in diarrhea, loose stools, and normal feces was 1.0 × 108, 1.6 × 104, and 7.1 × 10

Does the Method of Amalgamation Affect Cost Inefficiency of the New Municipalities?  [PDF]
Katsuyoshi Nakazawa
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2014.44015
Abstract: Municipal amalgamation has been done in many countries in recent years as the result of a push to enlarge the size and coverage of local government units, which in turn is driven mainly by the prospect of economies of scale. However, while municipality amalgamation or boundary reform raises population size, it introduces organizational changes in the local government that might increase administrative inefficiency. The choice for the method of integration of administrative functions before amalgamation might affect to public expenditure after amalgamation. This study uses Japanese municipal-level data and argues for a relation between the choice for the method of integration of administrative functions and cost inefficiency after amalgamation. The results show that the fully distributed facility method is more likely to be adopted in a larger administrative jurisdiction and in one with large differences in finances or political structures between amalgamated sub-regions. Moreover, the results of stochastic frontier regression show that new municipality adopting fully distributed facility method can possibly increase inefficiency by expanding organizational slack because the new administration system will be insufficient integration of administrative functions.
Effect of dioxins on regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression by aryl hydrocarbon receptor: a neurotoxicology study
Eiichi Akahoshi, Seiko Yoshimura, Saeko Uruno, Mitsuko Ishihara-Sugano
Environmental Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-8-24
Abstract: N2a-Rβ cells were established by transfecting murine neuroblastoma Neuro2a with the rat AhR cDNA. TH expression induced by TCDD was assessed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Participation of AhR in TCDD-induced TH gene expression was confirmed by suppressing AhR expression using the siRNA method. Catecholamines including dopamine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. A reporter gene assay was used to identify regulatory motifs in the promoter region of TH gene. Binding of AhR with the regulatory motif was confirmed by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA).Induction of TH by TCDD through AhR activation was detected at mRNA and protein levels. Induced TH protein was functional and its expression increased dopamine synthesis. The reporter gene assay and EMSA indicated that AhR directly regulated TH gene expression. Regulatory sequence called aryl hydrocarbon receptor responsive element III (AHRE-III) was identified upstream of the TH gene from -285 bp to -167 bp. Under TCDD exposure, an AhR complex was bound to AHRE-III as well as the xenobiotic response element (XRE), though AHRE-III was not identical to XRE, the conventional AhR-binding motif.Our results suggest TCDD directly regulate the dopamine system by TH gene transactivation via an AhR-AHRE-III-mediated pathway. The AhR- mediated pathway could have a particular AhR-mediated genomic control pathway transmitting the effects of TCDD action to target cells in the development of dopaminergic disabilities.Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and poly-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) affect human health when they are absorbed by the body. Their effects are predominantly negative, such as oncogenesis, reproductive toxicity, immunosuppression, and neurological dysfunction [1-4]. One of the dioxins, 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), leads to neurobehavioral abnormalities associated with both cognitive and locomotor systems [5,6]. While th
Mitochondrial Dynamics: Functional Link with Apoptosis
Hidenori Otera,Katsuyoshi Mihara
International Journal of Cell Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/821676
Abstract: Mitochondria participate in a variety of physiologic processes, such as ATP production, lipid metabolism, iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis, and calcium buffering. The morphology of mitochondria changes dynamically due to their frequent fusion and division in response to cellular conditions, and these dynamics are an important constituent of apoptosis. The discovery of large GTPase family proteins that regulate mitochondrial dynamics, together with novel insights into the role of mitochondrial fusion and fission in apoptosis, has provided important clues to understanding the molecular mechanisms of cellular apoptosis. In this paper, we briefly summarize current knowledge of the role of mitochondrial dynamics in apoptosis and cell pathophysiology in mammalian cells. 1. Introduction Apoptosis, also called programmed cell death, is a crucial physiologic process in the development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms [1]. Perturbation of this vital process leads to a range of diseases, such as ischemia, cancer, neurodegeneration, and autoimmunity [2]. The mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) serves to coordinate mitochondrial function with extra mitochondrial signaling and participates in the regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis. Mitochondria have a central role in the initiation of apoptosis triggered by intrinsic death signals such as DNA damage (the mitochondrial pathway) by releasing cytochrome and other apoptogenic factors stored in the intermembrane space (IMS) into the cytoplasm [3, 4]. Cytochrome complexed with Apaf-1 activates caspase 9, which leads to the activation of downstream caspases [5]. Mitochondrial morphology changes dynamically by continuous fission and fusion to form small units or interconnected mitochondrial networks, and the balance of these dynamic changes is essential for counteracting deleterious mitochondrial processes. Mitochondrial fusion allows for complementation of damaged mitochondrial DNA and other contents (e.g., lipids, proteins, or metabolites) with the components of healthy mitochondria, thus maintaining normal mitochondrial activity. Mitochondrial fission, on the other hand, plays an important role in the quality control of mitochondria, facilitating the removal of damaged mitochondria to maintain cellular homeostasis [6–10]. Compromise of this quality control system induces cell death, which results in various degenerative disorders [9]. Mitochondrial fission is also essential for the distribution of mitochondria in response to the local demand for ATP or calcium buffering [10]. In addition to these fundamental
Holonomic rank of A-hypergeometric differential-difference equations
Katsuyoshi Ohara,Nobuki Takayama
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: We introduce A-hypergeometric differential-difference equation and prove that its holonomic rank is equal to the normalized volume of A with giving a set of convergent series solutions.
Pfaffian Systems of A-Hypergeometric Systems II --- Holonomic Gradient Method
Katsuyoshi Ohara,Nobuki Takayama
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: We give two efficient methods to derive Pfaffian systems for A-hypergeometric systems for the application to the holonomic gradient method for statistics. We utilize the Hilbert driven Buchberger algorithm and Macaulay type matrices in the two methods.
Symplocosionosides A-C, Three Megastigmane Glycosides, a Neolignan Glucoside, and Symplocosins A and B, Two Triterpene Glycosyl Esters from the Leaves of Symplocos cochinchinensis var. Philippinensis  [PDF]
Wen-Hu Cai, Katsuyoshi Matsunami, Hideaki Otsuka, Yoshio Takeda
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2011.24072
Abstract: From the 1-BuOH-soluble fraction of a MeOH extract of the leaves of Symplocos cochinchinensis var. philippinensis, 12 compounds were isolated. Spectroscopic analyses of compounds 1 - 3 established their structures to be megastig-mane glycosides, named symplocosionosides A-C. The absolute structure of 1 was determined by the modified Mosher’s method. Compound 4 was found to be a neolignan glucoside and named symplocosneolignan. The structures of com-pounds 5 and 6, named symplocosins A and B, were elucidated to be the saponins of hederagenin sugar esters. The structures of the remaining known compounds (7 - 12) were identified by comparison of spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature.
Homology modeling and structural analysis of human γ-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit for antitumor drug development  [PDF]
Hideaki Yamaguchi, Tatsuo Akitaya, Yumi Kidachi, Katsuyoshi Kamiie, Hironori Umetsu
Journal of Biophysical Chemistry (JBPC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbpc.2012.33028
Abstract: Homology modeling and structural analysis of human glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (hGCLC) were performed with a software package the Molecular Operating Environment. A yeast GCLC (yGCLC; PDB code: 3LVV) was selected as a template for the 3D structure modeling of hGCLC. The modeled hGCLC showed significant 3D similarities at the ligand biding site (LBS) to the yGCLC structure. The contact energy profiles of the hGCLC model were in good agreement with those of the yGCLC structure. Ramachandran plots revealed that only 1.4% of the amino acid residues were in the disfavored region for hGCLC. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) map of the hGCLC model exhibited that the model was slightly different from the yGCLC model electrostatically at the LBS. Further, docking simulations revealed the similarity of the ligand-receptor bound location between the hGCLC and yGCLC models. The different binding orientations between the glutathione (GSH)-hGCLC and GSH-yGCLC complexes reflected the different MEP maps at the LBSs between the hGCLC and yGCLC models. These results indicate that the hGCLC model was successfully modeled and analyzed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a hGCLC model with detailed analyses, and our data verify that the model can be utilized for application to target hGCLC for the development of anticancer drugs.
Microtropins J-P: 6’-O-(2”S,3”R)-2”-Ethyl-2”,3”-Dihydroxybutyrates of Phenolic Alcohol ß-D-Glucopyranosides from the Branches of Microtropis japonica  [PDF]
Yuka Uemura, Sachiko Sugimoto, Katsuyoshi Matsunami, Hideaki Otsuka, Yoshio Takeda
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.410242
Abstract:

From the branches of Microtropis japonica (Celastraceae), seven phenolic alcohol glucosides, named microtropins J-P (1-7), were isolated. The 6-position of glucose was esterified with 2-ethyl-2,3-dihydroxybutyric acid. Microtropin K (2) was hydrolyzed under a mild basic condition to give methyl (2S,3R)-2-ethyl-2,3-dihydroxybutyrate, whose absolute structure was determined by the comparison of NMR data and the optical rotation value with that reported.

Acute Obstructive Hydrocephalus Caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Ventriculitis after Transsphenoidal Surgery: Case Report  [PDF]
Yasuhiko Hayashi, Masayuki Iwato, Daisuke Kita, Katsuyoshi Miyashita
Open Journal of Modern Neurosurgery (OJMN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojmn.2015.51001
Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) frequently causes various infections, some of which are serious and require prompt medical detection and appropriate antibiotic selection. Although P. aeruginosa commonly exists within the nasal cavity, meningitis or ventriculitis following transsphenoidal surgery to relieve P. aeruginosa has been reported only occasionally. However, as the endoscopic transnasal approach is more widely utilized for the suprasellar lesions, nosocomical P. aeruginosa infection associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage becomes more common in patients with panhypopituitarism who undergo transsphenoidal surgery. We report a case of a 36-year-old man with an intrasellar craniopharyngioma presenting with an acute obstructive hydrocephalus caused by P. aeruginosa ventriculitis following transsphenoidal surgery. Treatment with optimal antibiotics was initiated immediately after P. aeruginosa was recognized as the pathogen, and was continued for 3 months. After removal of the infected fascia and fat graft used for the closure of CSF leakage and sellar floor reconstruction, endoscopic third ventriculostomy was successfully performed to treat the obstructive hydrocephalus induced by the occlusion of the fourth ventricle outlet, resulting in a positive outcome. Although the obstructive hydrocephalus caused by P. aeruginosa is extremely rare, prompt detection and appropriate treatment should be required once P. aeruginosa ventriculitis happens.
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