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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1641 matches for " Katsuta Kan "
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Investigation of β-Cryptoxanthin Fatty Acid Ester Compositions in Citrus Fruits Cultivated in Japan  [PDF]
Yusuke Wada, Atsuki Matsubara, Takato Uchikata, Yugo Iwasaki, Satoshi Morimoto, Katsuta Kan, Tetsuya Ookura, Eiichiro Fukusaki, Takeshi Bamba
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.49A1016

In this study, a catalog of β-cryptoxanthin (βCX) and its fatty acid esters (βCXFAs) in citrus fruits were constructed. The peel and pulp of citrus fruits from nine Japanese cultivars and one foreign cultivar were surveyed by supercritical fluid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (SFC/QqQMS). In each citrus sample, the major components were βCX and its laurate ester, myristate ester, palmitate ester, and oleate ester. However, the composition ratio of βCXFA varied with the citrus breed and between the pulp and the peel of the fruit in most cultivars. The SFC/QqQMS system could be used to obtain new information about βCXs and carry out further discussion on the feature and tendency of each citrus variety.

On an Expression of Extraction Constants without the Interfacial Equilibrium-Potential Differences for the Extraction of Univalent and Divalent Metal Picrates by Crown Ethers into 1,2-Dichloroethane and Nitrobenzene  [PDF]
Yoshihiro Kudo, Shoichi Katsuta
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2015.64034
Abstract: An idea on interfacial equilibrium-potential differences (\"\") which are generated for the extraction of univalent metal picrate (MPic) and divalent ones (MPic2) by crown ethers (L) into high-polar diluents was improved. These potentials were clarified with some experimental extraction-data reported before on the M = Ag(I), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) extraction with 18-crown-6 ether (18C6) and benzo-18C6 into 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) and nitrobenzene (NB). Consequently, it was demonstrated that the?\"\" values from the extraction-experimentally obtained logKD,Pic ones are in agreement with or close to those calculated from charge balance equations in many cases, where the symbol, KD,Pic, denotes an individual distribution constant of Pic into the DCE or NB phase. Also, it was experimentally shown that extraction constants based on the overall extraction equilibria do not virtually contain the?\"\" terms in their functional expressions.
An Electrochemical Understanding of Extraction of Silver Picrate by Benzo-3m-Crown-m Ethers (m = 5, 6) into 1,2-Dichloroethane and Dichloromethane  [PDF]
Yoshihiro Kudo, Marina Ogihara, Shoichi Katsuta, Yasuyuki Takeda
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2014.57052
Abstract: Two extraction constants (Kex± and Kex) for extraction of silver picrate (AgPic) by benzo-15-crown-5 ether (B15C5) and benzo-18-crown-6 one (B18C6) into 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) and dichloromethane (DCM) were determined at 298 K and given values of ionic strength. Here, Kex± and Kex were expressed as [AgL]o[Pic]o/[Ag][L]o[Pic] and [AgLPic]o/[Ag][L]o[Pic], respectively: L symbolizes B15C5 or B18C6 and the subscript “o” denotes the organic phase composed of DCE or DCM. Individual distribution constants (KD,Pic) of picrate ion, Pic, into the two diluents were also determined with the determination of Kex. From comparison of these KD,Pic values with those standardized, interfacial potential differences (\"\") at extraction equilibria were evaluated. Then, using these \"\" values, relations of the experimentally-determined logKex± or logKex values with their electrochemically-standardized ones were precisely discussed. Consequently, it was indicated that logKex± should be expressed as a function of \"\".
Design and Performance of Brushless Doubly-fed Machine Based on Wound Rotor with Star-polygon Structure  [PDF]
Chaohao Kan
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2013.54B015
Abstract: The star-polygon brushless doubly-fed machine (SPBDFM) is a new type of wound-rotor machine and is attractive for variable-speed constant-frequency shaft generation system. The structure of rotor for the machine may be improving the conductor availability of the rotor windings. The kirchhoff laws is employed to illuminate the principle and some combinations of different slots and poles are presented as the examples. Harmonic analysis is also employed to analyze the magnetic motive force (MMF) waveform of rotor winding with the structure of star- polygon. Finally, the results are used to reveal that the SPBDFM is attractive for shaft generation system.
Elucidation of Abnormal Potential Responses of Cation-Selective Electrodes with Solid-State Membranes to Aqueous Solutions of CuCl2 and CdI2  [PDF]
Yoshihiro Kudo, Daisuke Todoroki, Nobukazu Suzuki, Naoki Horiuchi, Shoichi Katsuta, Yasuyuki Takeda
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2011.21002
Abstract: An empirical solution to abnormal potential responses, showing peaks of emf, of commercial Cu2+- and Cd2+-selective electrodes with solid-state membranes was proposed for aqueous solutions of CuCl2 and CdI2. The two-step processes of Mn+ + Yn? (s: solid phase) MY(s) and MY(s) + 2X? X2MY2?(s) (n = 1, 2) at a test solution/electrode-interface were considered as a model. Here, Mn+, Yn?, and X? refer to a divalent or univalent cation, functional groups of electrode materials, and a halide ion (X? = Cl?, Br?, I?), respectively. By applying electrochemical potentials to these processes at n = 2, we derived an equation. Regression analyses based on the equation reproduced well the plots of emf versus log 2(*[M]t) for the Cd(II) and Cu(II) systems: *[M]t denotes a total concentration of species relevant to M2+ in a bulk of the aqueous solution. Also, we obtained log Ks(CdBr2) = 4.28 ? 0.22, log Ks(CdI2) = 6.98 ? 0.05, log Ks(CuCl2) = 3.96 ? 0.09, and log Ks(CuBr2) = 11.4 at 25?C. The magnitude in ?log Ks reflected that in the logarithmic solubility product, log {*[M2+](*[X?])2}, for bulk water, where *[M2+] or *[X?] denotes a molar concentration of the bulk solu-tion of M2+ or X? at equilibrium, respectively. Moreover, a mixture of CuSO4 with NaCl at the molar ratio of 1:1 yielded a plot similar to that of CuCl2.
Characterization of Genotypic Mutations and Antiretroviral Resistance among Viremic HIV-Infected Patients in a High HIV Prevalence Area: Treatment Challenge and Transmission Risk  [PDF]
AliAsad Arastu, Virginia Kan
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2011.13011
Abstract: There have been few reports evaluating the prevalence of genotypic mutations and antiretroviral resistance among chronic HIV-infected Veterans within the United States. This retrospective cross-sectional study characterizes the rates and changes in HIV genotypic mutations and antiretroviral resistance among viremic patients from 2001 to 2006 at the VA Medical Center located in Washington, DC. The District of Columbia is the metropolitan area with the highest HIV prevalence within the United States. De-identified, linked HIV RNA, genotypic reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (Pr) mutations and antiretroviral resistance results were assessed for changes during the 6-year period. Aggregated clinic and antiretroviral utilization, and HIV acquisition risk data were evaluated for patients in care during this time. Among 990 viremic samples, the rate of any detected RT or Pr mutation fell from 100% in 2001 to 95% in 2006. This was primarily attributable to the 15% - 20% decrease seen for RT gene mutations against nucleoside/nucleotide class and non-nucleoside class during this period. Resistance to didanosine, stavudine, zidovudine, nevirapine and efavirenz decreased, and tenofovir resistance increased. Despite stable rates of Pr gene mutations, atazanavir resistance increased by 22% from 2003 to 2006. Some but not all changes in genotypic mutations and resistance patterns reflected our patients’ antiretroviral drug utilization. As sexual contacts (77%) and injection drug use (22%) were the leading acquisition risks disclosed by our HIV-infected patients, the high prevalence and changing patterns of HIV genotypic mutations and drug resistance among these patients have had pivotal impacts not only on HIV treatment but potential transmission into our community.
An Optimization Technique for Inverse Crack Detection  [PDF]
H?kan Wirdelius
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.513121

Any attempts to apply techniques that are based on indirect measurements of parameters that are believed to correlate to any material properties (or state) in an in-line situation must by necessity identify a mathematical model of this relationship. The most conventional approach is to use some empirically based model. If the analysis instead is based on an analytical model of a physical explanation, this trainee period can be minimized and the system is more dynamic and less sensitive to changes within the chain of production. A numerical solution to the inverse problem of ultrasonic crack detection is in this case investigated. This solution is achieved by applying optimization techniques to a realistic model of the ultrasonic defect detection situation. This model includes a general model of an ultrasonic contact probe working as transmitter and/or receiver and its interaction with the defect. The inverse problem is reduced to minimization of a nonlinear least squares problem and is performed with a quasi-Newton algorithm consisting of a locally convergent SVD-Newton method combined with a backtracking line search algorithm. The set of synthetic data the model is fitted with are generated both by numerical integration and with the two-dimensional stationary-phase method while the forward solver in the optimization procedure is based on the latter. In both these cases, the convergence, in terms of numbers of iterations, is sufficient when the initial guess is reasonably close.

Successful Painful Treatment of the Painful Achilles Was the Start for Research Providing New Knowledge about Tendon Pain and New Treatment Methods  [PDF]
H?kan Alfredson
Pain Studies and Treatment (PST) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pst.2014.22013

Successful treatment with painful eccentric training for patients with chronic painful midportion Achilles tendinosis started research on pain mechanisms involving ultrasound + Doppler investigations and immunohistochemical analyses of tendon tissue specimens. This research has resulted in a better understanding of the pain mechanisms involved in the chronic painful Achilles and patellar tendon, and based on these findings new non tendon-invasive treatment methods beneficial for the patients have been invented. This is a mini review showing the background and research that resulted in the highly successful mini surgical treatments for mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy and proximal patellar tendinopathy.

The Relationship between Self-Directed Learning Skills and Science Achievement among Qatari Students  [PDF]
Ashraf Kan’an, Kamisah Osman
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.68082
Abstract: This study is aimed to investigate the relationship between students’ self-directed learning readiness and their science achievement. 83 students were randomly selected from a secondary school in Qatar. The students’ self-directed learning readiness was measured by the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) and their science achievement was determined by the science subject National Exam (NE) scores. The findings of the study showed that SDLRS total score significantly predicted the National Exam science subject score (p = .049). It was suggested that self-directed learning is essential for students to be academically successful to their fullest potential. Therefore, attention should be given to possible causal factors of self-directed learning.
The Confusion and Countermeasures of Green Accounting in China  [PDF]
Xinyang Kan, Qingjun Meng
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2015.63014
Abstract: Green accounting is a new accounting field whose main function is to balance the development on both economy and environment through effective value management and combining accounting and environmental economy. Owing to the lack of relative regulation and the absence of governmental supervisory, there are some obstructions impeding its practice. In order to solve those problems, relatively well-established laws, governmental intervention and training young accountants are required in this process.
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