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Comparative in Vitro Studies of the Metabolism of Six 4-Substituted Methamphetamines and Their Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 2D6 by GC-MS with Trifluoroacetyl Derivatization  [PDF]
Masashi Taniguchi, Yoshio Yamamoto, Katsuji Nishi
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2013.44022

Use of new amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) as designer drugs is a serious problem worldwide. ATS are used in tablet, capsule, and powder forms, and can be mixed with other drugs. There is little information available on how these new drugs are metabolized or their ability to inhibit the metabolism of co-administered drugs. This study aimed to investigate the metabolism of six 4-substituted analogs of methamphetamine (MA), and their potential inhibition of MA metabolism. The metabolism of MA and the 4-substituted MAs was examined in vitro using human metabolic enzymes. Metabolite analyses were performed using trifluoroacetyl derivatization and GC-MS. The experiments showed that cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) was involved in the major metabolic pathway of MA, where it catalyzed N-demethylation of 4-fluoromethamphetamine (4-FMA), 4-chloromethamphetamine (4-CMA), 4-bromomethamphetamine (4-BMA), 4-iodomethamphetamine (4-IMA) and 4-nitromethamphetamine (4-NMA), and O-demethylation of 4-methoxymethamphetamine (4-MMA). The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for CYP2D6 using MA as substrate were different for each of the 4-substituted MAs. The strongest inhibitors of amphetamine production from MA were, in order, 4-IMA, 4-BMA, 4-CMA, 4-MMA, 4-FMA, and 4-NMA. The same order was observed for the IC50 values for inhibition of p-hydroxymethamphetamine production from MA, except for the IC50 of 4-MMA. The IC50

Variation of blood vessels in the cranial-cervical legion  [PDF]
Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Hayato Okunaga, Lisa Wingenfeld, Katsuji Nishi
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research (FMAR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fmar.2013.14016
Abstract: The blood vessels in the head and neck have several main roots for supplying blood to the brain and returning of blood to the heart. It was well known that each artery and vein in the head and neck has its variation. The variation of the vessels some times gives rise to unexpectable findings, which are not described in the textbook. In this study we like to show the morphological variations observed at routine autopsy cases and some forensic pathological findings caused by those variations.
A Case and Review of Death Associated with Ingestion of Detergent  [PDF]
Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research (FMAR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fmar.2014.24015
Abstract: We experienced an autopsy case of a death associated with ingestion of liquid detergent. The deceased was an 82-year-old woman who was found dead in her bed room. Autopsy revealed corrosive changes of the mucosal surfaces of the lung. The larynx, trachea and stomach contained mucoid matter with abundant froth. Toxicological investigations detected polyethylene glycol in the bronchus, blood and gastric contents using headspace-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Surfactants generally have low toxicity but can cause damage to the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract. We report here an autopsy case of death by suicidal ingestion of liquid detergent with special regard to the histochemical findings of the case study.
Autopsy-Based Study of Abdominal Traffic Trauma Death after Emergency Room Arrival  [PDF]
Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research (FMAR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fmar.2015.33013
Abstract: We experienced the autopsy cases that the deceased was alive in emergency room on arrival. Bleeding is the leading cause of preventable death after injury. This retrospective study aimed to characterize opportunities for performance improvements identified in patients who died from traffic trauma and were considered by the quality improvement of education system. We focused the abdominal traffic trauma injury. An autopsy-based cross-sectional study was conducted. A purposive sampling technique was applied to select the study sample of 41 post-mortems of road traffic accident. 16 patients (39.0%) were abdominal trauma injury. The mean period of survival after meeting with accident was 13.5 hours, and compared abdominal trauma death was 27.4 hours longer. In road traffic accidents, the most injured abdominal organs were the liver followed by mesentery. We thought that delayed treatment was associated with immediate diagnostic imaging, and so expected to expand trauma management examination.
Dopamine Neurons in the Ventral Tegmental Area: An Autopsy Case of Disorganized Type of Schizophrenia
Keiko Ikemoto,Tatsuro Oda,Akiyoshi Nishimura,Katsuji Nishi
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/381059
Abstract: The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system has been associated with the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Here, we examined DA-containing neuronal structures of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of an autopsy case of disorganized type of schizophrenia (75-year-old female), using tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry. A free floating method using 50-μm cryostat sections and three-dimensional imaging analyzer AxioVision were applied to observe the wide range structures of TH-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons. TH-ir neuronal cell bodies in the VTA of the present case had irregular shape and various size, and TH-ir neuronal processes had irregular thickness and straightened shape or curved shape having many corners, when compared to a control autopsy case with no detectable neurological and psychiatric diseases (64-year-old male). The mechanisms underlying the morphological characteristics of DA neurons of the brains with schizophrenia should be elucidated epigenetically as well as genetically.
Flavor-Nonconservation and CP-Violation with Singlet Quarks
Katsuji Yamamoto
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: Some aspects are considered on the flavor-nonconservation and $ CP $-violation arising from the quark mixings with singlet quarks. In certain models incorporating the singlet quarks, the contributions of the quark couplings to the neutral Higgs fields may become more significant than those of the neutral gauge interactions. Then, they would provide distinct signatures for new physics beyond the standard model in various flavor-nonconserving and $ CP $-violating processes such as the neutron electric dipole moment, $ D^0 $-$ {\bar D}^0 $, $ K^0 $-$ {\bar K}^0 $, $ B^0 $-$ {\bar B}^0 $, $ b \to s \gamma $, and so on.
X-Ray Observations on the Galactic Center Region
Katsuji Koyama
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: This paper reports on the early Chandra view of the Galactic center (GC) activities. The massive black hole Sgr A* is extremely faint, while more bright diffuse X-ray emission is prevailing in the circumnuclear disk. Another high temperature plasma is found in the Sgr A East shell. This may indicate that Sgr A East is a supernova remnant, although no clear X-ray shell is found. A hint of non-thermal X-ray filaments is found, suggesting the presence of an acceleration site of extremely high-energy cosmic rays. The giant molecular cloud Sgr B2 is established to be an X-ray reflection nebula, possibly arising from the past Sgr A activities. Chandra further discovered high temperature shells, suggesting multiple supernova explosions near the GC region.
Chandra Observations of Embedded Young Stellar Objects
Katsuji Koyama
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: This paper reviews the Chandra deep exposure observations of star forming regions, rho-Ophiuchi, Orion Molecular Clouds 2 and 3, Sagittarius B2 and Monoceros R2. The results are; (1) class I protostars are found to exhibit higher temperature plasma than those of T Tauri stars, (2) heavily absorbed X-rays are discovered from the candidates of class 0 protostars, (3) hard and highly variable X-rays are observed from high-mass young stars, and (4) young brown dwarfs emit X-rays similar to those of low-mass young stars.
A VAR Analysis for the Growth Regime and Demand Formation Patterns of the Japanese Economy Une analyse par autorégression vectorielle pour le régime de croissance et de formation de demande sur l’économie japonaise Un análisis por autoregresión vectorial para el régimen de crecimiento y de formación de la demanda sobre la economía japonesa
Hiroshi Nishi
Revue de la Régulation : Capitalisme, Institutions, Pouvoirs , 2011,
Abstract: This study examines the income distribution and demand formation pattern of the Japanese economy using the VAR model. The post-Keynesian model is used for theoretical reference. The VAR model in this paper includes income distribution, consumption growth rate, export demand, GDP, and capital accumulation. The results of this study indicate that between 1985 and 2008, the profit-led demand formation pattern was dominant in the Japanese economy. In this regime, both domestic and external demands have a positive relationship with GDP growth. In the bubble period, favourable macroeconomic performance was sustained by active consumption and investments realized from the rise in asset prices and improvement in economic outlook. However, after the bubble burst, a rise in wage share did not maintain consumption demand, and investment demand stagnated due to the deterioration of profitability, stock adjustments, and a credit crunch. Hence, the Japanese economy has failed to realize a domestic demand-led growth sincethe 1990s. After 2002, export demand expanded and profit share recovered, which induced investment expansion. Consequently, there was an improvement in the Japanese macroeconomic performance, led by external demand, until the subprime shock occurred. Cet article examine le régime de croissance et de formation de la demande dans l’économie japonaise avec un modèle VAR. Le modèle post-keynésien est utilisé comme référence théorique. Le modèle VAR inclut la distribution du revenu national, le taux de croissance de la consommation, des exportations, du PIB et le taux d’accumulation du capital. Nos résultats montrent que le régime de formation de la demande tiré par le profit a été dominant de 1985 à 2008 dans l’économie japonaise. Dans ce régime, la croissance des demandes domestiques et externes a une relation croissante avec le PIB. Dans la période de bulle, la bonne performance macroéconomique a été soutenue par le dynamisme de la consommation et de l’investissement entretenu par la hausse des prix des actifs et l’optimisme des anticipations sur l’économie. Cependant, après l’éclatement de la bulle, la hausse de la part des salaires n’a pas permis de stabiliser la consommation, et l’investissement a stagné à cause de la détérioration de la rentabilité, de l’ajustement des surcapacités, et de la contraction du crédit. Depuis les années 1990, l’économie japonaise n’a pas pu s’engager dans un régime de croissance tiré par la demande. Après 2002, les exportations ont progressé, et la part des profits s’est reconstituée, ce qui a entra né la croissance des i
Indian Investor's Perception towards Mutual Funds
Nishi Sharma
Business Management Dynamics , 2012,
Abstract: The concept of mutual fund emerged in Netherlands in 18th century and introduced in India by Unit Trust of India in1960s. As the mutual fund industry provides an option of diversified investment structure with varying degree of risk, it was supposed to be the most lucrative market for Indian investors. It was believed that it will surely tap the savings of common man. But in practice it failed to become a primary choice for investment to Indian investor. During almost six decades (1965-2011) the value of assets under management of mutual fund industry experienced great swings. As against the developed countries where almost every second investor is a mutual unit holder, the product could not get much popularity in India. In this reference, the present paper attempts to investigate the reasons responsible for lesser recognition of mutual fund as a prime investment option. It examines the investor's perception with reference to distinct features provided by mutual fund companies to attract them for investing in specific funds/schemes. The study uses principal component analysis as a tool for factor reduction. The paper explored three factors named as fund/scheme related attributes, monetary benefits and sponsor's related attributes (having respectively six, four and four variables) which may be offered to investors for securing their patronage. The results are expected to provide fruitful insight to mutual fund companies for tailoring their offers suitable to cater the needs and expectations of Indian investors.
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