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Rising Thyroid Cancer Incidence Proximate to a New York City-Area Nuclear Power Plant  [PDF]
Joseph Mangano, Janette Sherman
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2017.812089
Abstract: Thyroid cancer incidence has risen steadily in the US for several decades. While any cause of this trend has yet to be clearly identified, most analyses have concluded that there are factors other than improved detection accounting for the increase. Since exposure to radioactive iodine is the only acknowledged root cause of thyroid cancer, a review of temporal trends in incidence since the late 1970s near the Indian Point nuclear power plant, just 23 miles from the New York City border, was conducted. Rates in the four counties closest to Indian Point, where virtually the entire population resides within 20 miles of the plant, were compared with national trends in the US. The relative ratio in the local area was 0.778 in the period 1976-1981, or 22.2 percent lower than the national rate. This ratio increased steadily, to 1.579 (57.9 percent greater than the US) by the period 2000-2004, which slightly declined to 1.515 (51.5 percent greater) in the latest period available (2010-2014). Significant increases occurred for both males and females, and in each of the four counties. Annual new cases diagnosed among residents of the four counties increased from 51 to 412 between 1976-1981 and 2010-2014. Because the two large reactors at Indian Point began operations in 1973 and 1976, and exposures to radioiodine isotopes can manifest as cancer from five years to several decades after exposure, iodine emissions from Indian Point emissions should be considered as a potential factor in these trends. More studies near Indian Point and other nuclear installations should be conducted to further explore this potential association.
Increases in Mortality for All Causes and All Cancers Combined before and after Startup of a Nuclear Power Plant in New Jersey, USA  [PDF]
Joseph Mangano, Janette Sherman
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2019.104028
Abstract: The Salem/Hope Creek nuclear plant in southern New Jersey is one of just four U.S. plants with three large reactors (all others consist of one or two). These reactors started operations in 1976, 1980, and 1986 and routinely released toxic radioactive gases and particles into the environment. Only a single study has been performed by federal officials on cancer near nuclear plants—a study now 30 years old. A review of official mortality data using four-year periods shows the Salem County cancer death rate was consistently just below that of other New Jersey counties up to the mid-1980s. However, from 1983-1986 to 2015-2017, the county rate soared from -5.4% below the rest of the state to +32.6% above. The county/state mortality ratio for all causes also increased rapidly in these periods, from +0.6% above to +28.4% above the state. Salem now has the highest cancer death rate, and the 2nd highest total death rate of any New Jersey county. Had the 1983-1986 county-state ratios not changed in the following 31 years, 3493 fewer deaths (1018 of them from cancer) would have occurred among Salem County residents. The lack of any apparent etiologies that could have caused such a dramatic and unexpected change, plus the fact that the Salem/Hope Creek reactors are aging, corroding, and more prone to leaking radionuclides, emphasizes the immediate need for more studies of this type, and the inclusion of local health as a crucial factor in public decisions on the plant’s future.
Changes in Congenital Anomaly Incidence in West Coast and Pacific States (USA) after Arrival of Fukushima Fallout  [PDF]
Joseph Mangano, Janette D. Sherman
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2015.51013

Radioactive fallout after the March 2011 Fukushima nuclear meltdown entered the U.S. environment within days; levels of radioactivity were particularly elevated in the five western states bordering on the Pacific Ocean. The particular sensitivity of the fetus to radiation exposure, and the ability of radioisotopes to attach to cells, tissues, and DNA raise the question of whether fetuses/newborns with birth defects with the greater exposures suffered elevated harm during the period after the meltdown. We compare rates of five congenital anomalies for 2010 and 2011 births from April-November. The increase of 13.00% in the five western states is significantly greater than the 3.77% decrease for all other U.S. states combined (CI 0.030 - 0.205, p < 0.008). Consistent patterns of elevated increases are observed in the west (20 of 21 comparisons, 6 of which are statistically significant/borderline significant), by state, type of birth defect, month of birth, and month of conception. While these five anomalies are relatively uncommon (about 7500 cases per year in the U.S.), sometimes making statistical significance difficult to achieve, the consistency of the results lend strength to the analysis, and suggest fetal harm from Fukushima may have occurred in western U.S. states.

There’s a World Going on Underground—Infant Mortality and Fracking in Pennsylvania  [PDF]
Christopher Busby, Joseph J. Mangano
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2017.84028
Abstract: Background: There has been a rapid global development of the horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing process termed fracking. This involves the dispersion of “produced water” which contains naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) which may contaminate surface water and pose a health risk. Objectives: To investigate association between early (0-28 days) infant mortality by county in Pennsylvania and fracking. Methods: We compared early infant mortality for 2007-2010 after fracking developed with a control period 2003-2006, contrasting a group of the 10 most heavily fracked counties with the rest of Pennsylvania. Results: Whilst early infant deaths decreased by 2.4% in the State over the period, in the 82,558 births in the 10 fracked counties there was a significant increase in mortality (238 vs 193; RR = 1.29; 95% CI 1.05, 1.55; p = 0.011). For the five north east fracked counties Bradford, Susquehanna, Lycoming, Wyoming and Tioga the combined early infant mortality increased from 34 deaths to 60 (RR 1.66; 1.05, 2.51; p = 0.014), whereas in the south western 5 counties Washington, Westmoreland, Fayette, Butler and Greene the increase was modest, 157 to 178 (RR 1.18; 0.95, 1.46; p = 0.13). Increased risk was associated with exposure to groundwater, expressed as the county ratio of water wells divided by the number of births. Conclusions: Fracking appears to be associated with early infant mortality in populations living in counties where the process is carried out. There is some evidence that the effect is associated with private water well density and/or environmental law violations.
5-Androstenediol Ameliorates Pleurisy, Septic Shock, and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Mice
Ferdinando Nicoletti,Dominick L. Auci,Katia Mangano,Jaime Flores-Riveros,Sonia Villegas,James M. Frincke,Christopher L. Reading,Halina Offner
Autoimmune Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.4061/2010/757432
Abstract: Androstenediol (androst-5-ene-3 ,17 -diol; 5-AED), a natural adrenal steroid, has been shown to suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in female SJL/J mice. We here report that 5-AED limits inflammation and proinflammatory cytokines including TNF in murine models of carrageenan-induced pleurisy and lippopolysaccaride- (LPS) induced septic shock. 5-AED binds to and transactivates sex steroid receptors with the same general rank order of potency (ERβ > ERα ? AR). 5-AED provides benefit in EAE in a dose-dependent fashion, even when treatment is delayed until onset of disease. The minimally effective dose may be as low as 4?mg/kg in mice. However, benefit was not observed when 5-AED was given in soluble formulation, leading to a short half-life and rapid clearance. These observations suggest that treatment with 5-AED limits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in these animal models and, ultimately, when formulated and administered properly, may be beneficial for patients with multiple sclerosis and other Th1-driven autoimmune diseases. 1. Introduction Nonglucocorticoid steroids are subjects of intense scientific investigation as perturbations are associated with various diseases including the pathogenesis of autoimmunity [1]. The “gender gap” [2] with respect to incidence and severity of autoimmune disease has been the focus of efforts to uncover new therapies. For example, estrogens [3] and androgens [4, 5] are protective in several autoimmune disease models, including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent work has dissociated the anti-inflammatory effect from the neuroprotective effect of estrogen treatment in EAE and has shown that its neuroprotective effects do not necessarily depend on anti-inflammatory properties [6]. Specifically, an estrogen receptor (ER) agonist reduced central nervous system inflammation, whereas an ER agonist treatment did not, but instead, was neuroprotective. Preliminary clinical results were encouraging. In a pilot trial, oral estriol treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis patients caused significant decreases in enhancing lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging [7]. However, sex steroid therapy involves serious risks. For example, estrogen treatment involves increased risk for breast cancer in women [8]. Because such estrogen-related toxicities are mediated almost exclusively through ER , ER ligand treatment has been suggested as a potentially safer neuroprotective strategy in multiple sclerosis and other
HE3286, an oral synthetic steroid, treats lung inflammation in mice without immune suppression
Douglas Conrad, Angela Wang, Raymond Pieters, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Katia Mangano, Anna M van Heeckeren, Steven K White, James M Frincke, Christopher L Reading, Dwight Stickney, Dominick L Auci
Journal of Inflammation , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1476-9255-7-52
Abstract: In mice, oral treatment with HE3286 (40 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased neutrophil counts and exudate volumes (~50%) in carrageenan-induced pleurisy, and myeloperoxidase in lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury. HE3286 (40 mg/kg) was not found to be profoundly immune suppressive in any of the classical animal models of immune function, including those used to evaluate antigen specific immune responses in vivo (ovalbumin immunization). When mice treated for two weeks with HE3286 were challenged with K. pneumoniae, nearly identical survival kinetics were observed in vehicle-treated, HE3286-treated and untreated groups.HE3286 represents a novel, first-in-class anti-inflammatory agent that may translate certain benefits of β-AET observed in rodents into treatments for chronic inflammatory pulmonary disease.Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a term most often used to describe chronic bronchitis and emphysema [1,2] is an inflammatory disease of the lungs marked by a loss of elastic recoil, an increased resistance to airflow and decreased expiratory flow rate leading to dyspnea [3]. Chronic bronchitis, emphysema and cystic fibrosis (CF), all forms of COPD, share many features including a progressive airway remodeling driven by chronic inflammation [4-7]. COPD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries and novel treatments are urgently needed because many patients respond poorly to conventional therapies [8-10]. Even in responders, narrow therapeutic windows and a myriad of unwanted side effects, including immune suppression are treatment limiting [9-12]. We have suggested that suitable agents may be found within the adrenal metabolome [13].Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an abundant adrenal steroid and a precursor in the biosynthesis of androgens, estrogens and other anti-inflammatory immune regulating steroids [14,15]. From studies reporting aberrant metabolism of adrenal steroids in CF patients [16,17] we surmised that
I depositi a vertebrati continentali del pleistocene della Calabria
Mangano, G
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti : Classe di Scienze Fisiche, Matematiche e Naturali , 2007, DOI: 10.1478/c1a0701010
Abstract: The inventory of Pleistocene mammal-bearing deposits of Calabria is reported, on the basis of the data available in the literature. Most of the deposits are represented by open-air sites, while cave deposits, always containing human artifacts too, are very scarce; this is to be referred to the lithology of the region, having few outcrops of carbonatic rocks. In many cases, precise informations on the stratigraphy and the composition of the faunal assemblages are lacking. A revision of the faunal assemblages is needed, also to better define times and modalities of the dispersal of the taxa to Sicily.
Recent Progress in the Theory of Heavy Flavor Production
Michelangelo MANGANO
Physics , 1993,
Abstract: We review some recent results on heavy quark production in high energy hadronic collisions. We will discuss in particular the status of production cross sections for bottom quarks and charmonium states and will present some studies on the production of bottom and charm jets, at the inclusive level and in association with electroweak gauge bosons.
On the B and J/Psi Cross Section Measurements at Ua1 and CDF
Michelangelo MANGANO
Physics , 1993, DOI: 10.1007/BF01553026
Abstract: We analise the implications of the measurement of $B$ and $J/\psi$ inclusive \pt\ distributions performed in $p\bar p$ collisions by the UA1 and CDF experiments.
Shadows of trans-planckian physics on cosmology and the role of the zero-point energy density
Gianpiero Mangano
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.82.043519
Abstract: We consider the role of the zero-point energy of a quantum field in cosmology and show that the flow of trans-planckian momenta due to redshift acts as a source for this energy, regularized with a cut-off Lambda in physical momenta. In order to fulfill Bianchi identity, we generalize Einstein equations, and discuss the corresponding Friedmann homogeneous and isotropic models. In case of a de Sitter phase, such as during inflation, the solution shows a logarithmic behaviour of the Hubble parameter, and a primordial spectrum of scalar perturbations characterized by the spectral index ns= 1- Lambda2/(3 pi mP2) with mP the Planck mass. We also discuss possible implications of the scenario on late accelerating stage of the Universe at small redshifts, and the emergence of a fluid characterized by an equation of state w=P/rho= -1+ Lambda2/(9 pi mP2). Primordial perturbation spectrum and dark energy parameter w are thus, predicted to be connected by the simple relation w=-(2+ns)/3.
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