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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1620 matches for " Kathryn Salkield "
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Androgen receptor expression predicts breast cancer survival: the role of genetic and epigenetic events
Kate M Peters, Stacey L Edwards, Shalima S Nair, Juliet D French, Peter J Bailey, Kathryn Salkield, Sandra Stein, Sarah Wagner, Glenn D Francis, Susan J Clark, Melissa A Brown
BMC Cancer , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-12-132
Abstract: The levels of Androgen receptor protein in a cohort of breast tumour samples was determined by immunohistochemistry and the results were compared with clinical characteristics, including survival. The role of defects in the regulation of Androgen receptor gene expression were examined by mutation and methylation screening of the 5' end of the gene, reporter assays of the 5' and 3' end of the AR gene, and searching for miRNAs that may regulate AR gene expression.AR was expressed in 56% of tumours and expression was significantly inversely associated with 10-year survival (P = 0.004). An investigation into the mechanisms responsible for the loss of AR expression revealed that hypermethylation of the AR promoter is associated with loss of AR expression in breast cancer cells but not in primary breast tumours. In AR negative breast tumours, mutation screening identified the same mutation (T105A) in the 5'UTR of two AR negative breast cancer patients but not reported in the normal human population. Reporter assay analysis of this mutation however found no evidence for a negative impact on AR 5'UTR activity. The role of miR-124 in regulating AR expression was also investigated, however no evidence for this was found.This study highlights the potential for AR expression to be an informative biomarker for breast cancer survival and sets the scene for a more comprehensive investigation of the molecular basis of this phenomenon.Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease comprising tumour subtypes associated with variable clinical characteristics [1]. Variables including tumour size, histological subtype and grade, lymph node status and the expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) currently assist routine clinical management [2]. However, these factors are limited in their ability to predict individual survival and response to therapy [2]. This is particularly apparent for patients with advanced b
Loving her into well-being one day at a time: Narratives of caring for daughters with eating disorders  [PDF]
Kathryn Weaver
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2012.24059
Abstract: When a child is diagnosed with an eating disorder, parents are expected to help the child recover. Yet, parents often feel under-prepared and alone, their experiences inadequately known to healthcare professionals. The research aim was to examine the meaning to parents of caring for a child with an eating disorder. Qualitative interviews with 29 parents were analyzed and the parents’ experiences were represented by a collective story of loving her into well-being one day at a time which consisted of two themes: Running on nerves and caring through transformational activism. Running on nerves included threads of feeling lost, traumatized, scarred, and disengaged that mitigated as parents engaged in transformational activism processes directed toward helping themselves, their child, and other parents and children. The findings illustrate the importance of hearing parents’ stories in order to create supportive healing environments and to build capacity within families and health care systems.
Integrated Enterprise Risk Management: From Process to Best Practice  [PDF]
Kathryn Cormican
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.54039

There are strong motivating factors for increased awareness and action with regard to Enterprise Risk Management (ERM). Effective ERM policies and practices are lauded to increase stakeholder confidence, competitive advantage and ultimately an organization’s long-term viability. However previous studies suggest that the concept is poorly understood in practice and organizations are failing to implement the intended benefits. Furthermore, insufficient research has been conducted in this area and there are few comprehensive or practical guides available to managers in his domain. This paper attempts to address this deficit and expand the discussion on integrated enterprise risk management practices. The study presents findings from a qualitative study where critical success factors for effective enterprise risk management are identified and categorized. From this analysis an audit tool to assess ERM best practices is presented. The tool acts as an independent validation resource to ensure that an organization’s efforts are proactive and effective against current and emerging threats. The contributions of this research are many. First it enhances knowledge and skills in a neglected but essential multi-disciplinary area. Second the research is grounded in best practice and so adds to academic debate by validating and contradicting previous studies. Third the development of new and innovative tools in enterprise risk management adds bridges the gap from theory to practice.

Perspectives on Policy/Practice (Dis)Connection—Special Educators Turned Teacher Educators’ Points of View  [PDF]
Kathryn S. Young, Svjetlana Curcic
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.47065

Educational policy and practice have long been disconnected. This paper explores the experiences of two former teachers turned teacher educators as they examine unintended consequences of policy reform. This paper positions No Child Left Behind’s and Individuals with Disabilities Education Act’s “Highly Qualified Teachers,” “Annual Yearly Progress,” and the issues of “evidence-based practices” alongside the authors’ personal school-based examples to demonstrate (dis)connections between policy, schools, and classrooms. The analysis provides a critique of these policies to demonstrate where teacher educators can take an active role in helping future teachers understand implications of these policies.

Regulatory T cells in transplantation - from preclinical models to clinical study
Kathryn Wood
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/ar3408
Abstract: The identification and characterisation of Treg that can control immune responsiveness to alloantigens has opened up exciting opportunities for new therapies in transplantation.
Cross-referencing genes from model organisms and humans
Kathryn Evans
Genome Biology , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2000-1-2-reports2045
Abstract: The database was originally set up to allow searches with named peptides from the fully sequenced genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae against the human EST database. If you select the option 'Cross-referencing Yeast and Human Genes' from the XREFdb home page, you can either search using the name of a yeast open reading frame (ORF) or download a table of all matches between yeast and human genes. If you select XREF2 from the XREFdb homepage, you can then supply a gene name from a large selection of model organisms (specify which one by choosing from a list) that will be used to identify ESTs. If you submit a gene name that does not exist in that organism, there is an option of pasting a protein sequence into a box, and this is used to search the database.If you set up an XREF account, the searches between your query sequences and the evolving EST databases are updated on a quarterly basis. There is, however, no indication of how often the search between the complete yeast sequence and the human EST dataset is carried out. The current data for this option are from searches begun on 12 March 1999, which makes the results very out of date.A third option at the XREFdb homepage is to establish an XREFdb account. With this option, query sequence(s) are checked against human, mouse and rat ESTs on a quarterly basis and a report e-mailed to the user. Extra features with this option include EST mapping information (where available) and suggested cross-references between your gene(s) of interest and mammalian phenotypes, which are generated from studying the map positions of the ESTs.The option of carrying out a search with a protein sequence, rather than a gene name, only becomes apparent if you happen to submit a gene name that does not exist. This search option should be offered from the outset. The different databases interrogated by the various search options are not initially obvious. For example, the original yeast/human cross-reference set presumably does not
Identification of homology in human and mouse genomes
Kathryn Evans
Genome Biology , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2000-1-1-reports242
Abstract: Navigation is very straightforward: select the chromosome of interest, from either the mouse or human, and scroll down the page to the region of interest.The site was last updated on 2 August 1999.There is a link to the Online Mendelian inheritance in man (OMIM) entry for each human locus and to the Mouse genome informatics site for each murine locus.Some sort of graphical display (for example, in the form of colored bars) to indicate different levels of reliability of the described homology relationships would be useful.A gene map of the human genome gives details of the map position of known human transcripts. The Cooperative Human Linkage Center website has further genetic mapping information for human chromosomes. A similar resource is the Mouse Genome Database (MGD) hosted by the Mouse genome informatics website.Human/mouse homology relationshipsOnline Mendelian inheritance in manMouse genome informaticsA gene map of the human genomeThe Cooperative Human Linkage Center
Integrated chromosomal maps
Kathryn Evans
Genome Biology , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2000-1-1-reports238
Abstract: Searching the database is very straightforward and the search options are comprehensive. The initial search is by chromosome number and the search area is then narrowed by specification of cytogenetic band, position (in Mb) or marker interval. It is also possible to search UDB by gene or marker name; this gives the estimated location of the gene as well as links to GeneCards and The Genome Database (GDB). The estimated location was not given for the gene I tried however, despite this being available from both GeneCards and GDB. Finally, you can view the estimated boundaries (in Mb) of the cytogenetic bands of any chromosome.The site was updated on 12 January 2000.This site is a good starting point for anyone constructing a physical or transcript map of a genomic region. It obviates the need to look at a number of different websites and integrate the markers from the different maps.The marker order has been determined by integrating the different maps on a hierarchical system. If a marker is on an RH map, that position is used; if not, then the genetic position, if applicable, is converted into a cR position. If neither of these options is available, the position of the marker on a YAC is used to integrate it with its neighbors, with an equal distance assumed between STSs and a double distance assumed between STSs either side of a gap in the contig. This hierarchical system was presumably used to avoid the inevitable discordances between different maps. But this is not necessarily the best order for integration; in some cases, for example, YAC STS content data may be more accurate than RH data. An algorithm that looked at a variety of different data sources and reached a consensus, while flagging up unresolvable discrepancies, would give a more accurate, if more complicated, result.The limitations of order and distance (the fact that the relationship between cR and physical distance is not uniform, and markers are not necessarily evenly spaced in YAC clones) should b
Repensando o presidencialismo: contesta??es e quedas de presidentes na América do Sul
Hochstetler, Kathryn;
Lua Nova: Revista de Cultura e Política , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-64452007000300002
Abstract: since 1978, forty percent of elected presidents in south america have been challenged by civilian actors trying to force them to leave office early. through impeachment and resignations, twenty three percent have fallen - and been replaced by civilians. it seems that challenged presidents were more likely to pursue neo-liberal policies, be personally implicated in scandal, and lack a congressional majority than their unchallenged counterparts. among challenged presidents, the presence or absence of large street protests demanding they be removed from office is then crucial in determining their fates. these developments confound several core assumptions about presidential regimes: that presidential terms are firmly fixed, that populations cannot withdraw as well as grant presidential mandates, and that the consequences of political conflict in presidentialism are democratic breakdown.
Words in a Cultural Context?
Kathryn Kavanagh
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/10--889
Abstract: : Successful communication is dependent upon an adequate level of cultural as well as linguistic understanding. Language is itself part of culture and reflects social structures and attitudes. lbis paper examines the case for dictionaries to carry cultural as well as lexical information. It reviews the American tradition and purpose of including cultural material in dictionaries, and considers the nature and scope of cultural information contained in a number of modem American and European dictionaries. Various means of presenting cultural information are also examined. The paper concludes by considering the implications for lexicographers developing dictionaries in multicultural South Africa. Keywords: COMMUNICATION, CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION, CULTURAL INFORMATION, CULTURE, CURRICULUM, DICTIONARIES FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES, DICTIONARY, DICTIONARY DESIGN, ENCYCLOPEDIA, ENCYCLOPEDIC DICTIONARIES, LANGUAGE, LEXICOGRAPHY, MULTICULTURAL SOCIETY, SOUTH AFRICA Opsomming: W oorde binne In kulturele konteks. Suksesvolle kommunikasie berusop 'n voldoende vlak van kulturele sowel as taalkundige begrip. Taal self is deeJ van kuJtuur enweerspieiH sosiale strukture en houdings. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die insluiting van sowel kultureleas leksikale inIigting in woordeboeke. Dit beoordeel die Amerikaanse tradisie en doel daarmeeom kulturele materiaal in woordeboeke in te sluit, en oorweeg die aard en omvang van kultureleinIigting vervat in 'n aantal moderne Amerikaanse en Europese woordeboeke. Verskillendemaniere om kulturele inIigting aan te bied, word ook ondersoek. Die artikel sluit af deur die implikasiesvir leksikograwe te oorweeg wat woordeboeke saamstel in multikulturele Suid-Afrika. Sleutelwoorde: KOMMUNIKASIE, INTERKULTURELE KOMMUNIKASIE, KULTURELEINLIGTlNG, KULTUUR, KURRIKULUM, WOORDEBOEKE MET SPESIALE OOGMERKE,WOORDEBOEK, WOORDEBOEKONTWERP, ENSIKLOPEDIE, ENSIKLOPEDIESE WOORDEBOEKE,TAAL, LEKSIKOGRAFIE, MULTIKULTURELE SAMELEWING, SUID-AFRIKA
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