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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 140202 matches for " Kathryn K. Chadman "
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Microarray Analysis Reveals Higher Gestational Folic Acid Alters Expression of Genes in the Cerebellum of Mice Offspring—A Pilot Study
Subit Barua,Salomon Kuizon,Kathryn K. Chadman,W. Ted Brown,Mohammed A. Junaid
Brain Sciences , 2015, DOI: 10.3390/brainsci5010014
Abstract: Folate is a water-soluble vitamin that is critical for nucleotide synthesis and can modulate methylation of DNA by altering one-carbon metabolism. Previous studies have shown that folate status during pregnancy is associated with various congenital defects including the risk of aberrant neural tube closure. Maternal exposure to a methyl supplemented diet also can alter DNA methylation and gene expression, which may influence the phenotype of offspring. We investigated if higher gestational folic acid (FA) in the diet dysregulates the expression of genes in the cerebellum of offspring in C57BL/6 J mice. One week before gestation and throughout the pregnancy, groups of dams were supplemented with FA either at 2 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg of diet. Microarray analysis was used to investigate the genome wide gene expression profile in the cerebellum from day old pups. Our results revealed that exposure to the higher dose FA diet during gestation dysregulated expression of several genes in the cerebellum of both male and female pups. Several transcription factors, imprinted genes, neuro-developmental genes and genes associated with autism spectrum disorder exhibited altered expression levels. These findings suggest that higher gestational FA potentially dysregulates gene expression in the offspring brain and such changes may adversely alter fetal programming and overall brain development.
Increasing Maternal or Post-Weaning Folic Acid Alters Gene Expression and Moderately Changes Behavior in the Offspring
Subit Barua, Kathryn K. Chadman, Salomon Kuizon, Diego Buenaventura, Nathan W. Stapley, Felicia Ruocco, Umme Begum, Sara R. Guariglia, W. Ted Brown, Mohammed A. Junaid
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101674
Abstract: Background Studies have indicated that altered maternal micronutrients and vitamins influence the development of newborns and altered nutrient exposure throughout the lifetime may have potential health effects and increased susceptibility to chronic diseases. In recent years, folic acid (FA) exposure has significantly increased as a result of mandatory FA fortification and supplementation during pregnancy. Since FA modulates DNA methylation and affects gene expression, we investigated whether the amount of FA ingested during gestation alters gene expression in the newborn cerebral hemisphere, and if the increased exposure to FA during gestation and throughout the lifetime alters behavior in C57BL/6J mice. Methods Dams were fed FA either at 0.4 mg or 4 mg/kg diet throughout the pregnancy and the resulting pups were maintained on the diet throughout experimentation. Newborn pups brain cerebral hemispheres were used for microarray analysis. To confirm alteration of several genes, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analyses were performed. In addition, various behavior assessments were conducted on neonatal and adult offspring. Results Results from microarray analysis suggest that the higher dose of FA supplementation during gestation alters the expression of a number of genes in the newborns’ cerebral hemispheres, including many involved in development. QRT-PCR confirmed alterations of nine genes including down-regulation of Cpn2, Htr4, Zfp353, Vgll2 and up-regulation of Xist, Nkx6-3, Leprel1, Nfix, Slc17a7. The alterations in the expression of Slc17a7 and Vgll2 were confirmed at the protein level. Pups exposed to the higher dose of FA exhibited increased ultrasonic vocalizations, greater anxiety-like behavior and hyperactivity. These findings suggest that although FA plays a significant role in mammalian cellular machinery, there may be a loss of benefit from higher amounts of FA. Unregulated high FA supplementation during pregnancy and throughout the life course may have lasting effects, with alterations in brain development resulting in changes in behavior.
A Selective Review of the Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior across the Transition to Adulthood  [PDF]
Joanne Savage, Stephanie K. Ellis, Kathryn Kozey
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.46A2001

In this paper, we discuss the theory and research on a select set of risk factors for continuity in antisocial behavior across the transition to adulthood. Several risk factors (e.g., early onset, intelligence, marriage, employment) are based on Moffitt’s dual taxonomy and the age-graded theory of social control. In addition, we also review studies of impulsivity, school enrollment, educational attainment, academic achievement, abuse victimization, social support, poverty, deviant peers, drug and alcohol abuse, and criminal justice intervention.

Mental health in a Canadian Old Order Mennonite community  [PDF]
Kathryn Fisher, K. Bruce Newbold, John Eyles, Susan Elliott
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.53A073

This paper presents the results of a 2010 survey exploring the determinants of rural mental health in two farming groups in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada: Old Order Mennonites (OOMs) and non-OOM farmers. Comparing these two groups reduces the likely impact of many contextual features impacting both groups, such as local economic conditions. We explore a comprehensive list of health determinants to assess their relative importance and thus enable policy action to focus on those having the greatest impact. The mental component summary (MCS) of the short- form health survey (SF-12) was used to measure mental health. We compare mental health in the two populations and use multiple regression to determine the relative importance of the determinants in explaining mental health. The results show that OOMs experience better mental health than non-OOMs, in part due to the strong mental health of OOM women. Coping, stress and social interaction shape mental health in both groups, reflecting the broader determinants literature and suggesting these are important across many populations with different life circumstances. Other determinants are important for one group but not the other, underscoring the diversity of rural populations. For example, different social capital measures shape mental health in the two groups, and sense-of-place is associated with mental health in only one group (OOMs). The results are discussed in terms of their implications for future health determinants research and policy action to address rural mental health.

Loving her into well-being one day at a time: Narratives of caring for daughters with eating disorders  [PDF]
Kathryn Weaver
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2012.24059
Abstract: When a child is diagnosed with an eating disorder, parents are expected to help the child recover. Yet, parents often feel under-prepared and alone, their experiences inadequately known to healthcare professionals. The research aim was to examine the meaning to parents of caring for a child with an eating disorder. Qualitative interviews with 29 parents were analyzed and the parents’ experiences were represented by a collective story of loving her into well-being one day at a time which consisted of two themes: Running on nerves and caring through transformational activism. Running on nerves included threads of feeling lost, traumatized, scarred, and disengaged that mitigated as parents engaged in transformational activism processes directed toward helping themselves, their child, and other parents and children. The findings illustrate the importance of hearing parents’ stories in order to create supportive healing environments and to build capacity within families and health care systems.
Integrated Enterprise Risk Management: From Process to Best Practice  [PDF]
Kathryn Cormican
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.54039

There are strong motivating factors for increased awareness and action with regard to Enterprise Risk Management (ERM). Effective ERM policies and practices are lauded to increase stakeholder confidence, competitive advantage and ultimately an organization’s long-term viability. However previous studies suggest that the concept is poorly understood in practice and organizations are failing to implement the intended benefits. Furthermore, insufficient research has been conducted in this area and there are few comprehensive or practical guides available to managers in his domain. This paper attempts to address this deficit and expand the discussion on integrated enterprise risk management practices. The study presents findings from a qualitative study where critical success factors for effective enterprise risk management are identified and categorized. From this analysis an audit tool to assess ERM best practices is presented. The tool acts as an independent validation resource to ensure that an organization’s efforts are proactive and effective against current and emerging threats. The contributions of this research are many. First it enhances knowledge and skills in a neglected but essential multi-disciplinary area. Second the research is grounded in best practice and so adds to academic debate by validating and contradicting previous studies. Third the development of new and innovative tools in enterprise risk management adds bridges the gap from theory to practice.

Valuing the Provisioning Services of Wetlands: Contrasting a Rural Wetland in Lesotho with a Peri-Urban Wetland in South Africa
Kathryn S. M. Lannas,Jane K. Turpie
Ecology and Society , 2009,
Abstract: Given that few studies have valued the provisioning services of temperate southern African wetlands, research on this topic was undertaken in a remote rural wetland, Letseng-la-Letsie, in Lesotho and a peri-urban wetland in Mfuleni, Cape Town. The objectives were to quantify incomes from wetland resources, assess the relative dependency of communities on wetland provisioning services, and estimate the total provisioning value of the wetlands. Data were collected from informal interviews and structured household surveys. Despite the different settings, both wetlands were used mainly for grazing livestock. The estimated total value added during 2007 from grazing was U.S. $180,078 for Letseng-la-Letsie and U.S. $540,286 for Mfuleni. Letseng-la-Letsie and Mfuleni were also used for hunting, and Mfuleni was partially cultivated. Even though the local wetlands were easier to access from Mfuleni, only 13% of households used them, compared with 65% in Letseng-la-Letsie. However, the households around Letseng-la-Letsie derived less of their income (6%) from the wetlands, compared with 82% in Mfuleni. This reflects the more specialized livelihood strategies in the urban compared with the rural setting, in which risk-spreading household production strategies were more prevalent. The loss of the wetland in Letseng-la-Letsie would therefore potentially affect more people but have less of an effect on the finances of individual households than in Mfuleni. It is estimated that U.S. $220/ha and U.S.$1765/ha is derived annually from wetland provisioning services in Letseng-la-Letsie and Mfuleni, respectively. A standard protocol is needed for valuing wetlands in southern Africa.
Initial D2 Dopamine Receptor Sensitivity Predicts Cocaine Sensitivity and Reward in Rats
Kathryn E. Merritt, Ryan K. Bachtell
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078258
Abstract: The activation of dopamine receptors within the mesolimbic dopamine system is known to be involved in the initiation and maintenance of cocaine use. Expression of the D2 dopamine receptor subtype has been implicated as both a predisposing factor and consequence of chronic cocaine use. It is unclear whether there is a predictive relationship between D2 dopamine receptor function and cocaine sensitivity that would enable cocaine abuse. Therefore, we exploited individual differences in behavioral responses to D2 dopamine receptor stimulation to test its relationship with cocaine-mediated behaviors. Outbred, male Sprague-Dawley rats were initially characterized by their locomotor responsiveness to the D2 dopamine receptor agonist, quinpirole, in a within-session ascending dose-response regimen (0, 0.1, 0.3 & 1.0 mg/kg, sc). Rats were classified as high or low quinpirole responders (HD2 and LD2, respectively) by a median split of their quinpirole-induced locomotor activity. Rats were subsequently tested for differences in the psychostimulant effects of cocaine by measuring changes in cocaine-induced locomotor activity (5 and 15 mg/kg, ip). Rats were also tested for differences in the development of conditioned place preference to a low dose of cocaine (7.5 mg/kg, ip) that does not reliably produce a cocaine conditioned place preference. Finally, rats were tested for acquisition of cocaine self-administration and maintenance responding on fixed ratio 1 and 5 schedules of reinforcement, respectively. Results demonstrate that HD2 rats have enhanced sensitivity to the locomotor stimulating properties of cocaine, display greater cocaine conditioned place preference, and self-administer more cocaine compared to LD2 animals. These findings suggest that individual differences in D2 dopamine receptor sensitivity may be predictive of cocaine sensitivity and reward.
Hierarchical Evidence and Belief Functions
Paul K. Black,Kathryn Blackmond Laskey
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Dempster/Shafer (D/S) theory has been advocated as a way of representing incompleteness of evidence in a system's knowledge base. Methods now exist for propagating beliefs through chains of inference. This paper discusses how rules with attached beliefs, a common representation for knowledge in automated reasoning systems, can be transformed into the joint belief functions required by propagation algorithms. A rule is taken as defining a conditional belief function on the consequent given the antecedents. It is demonstrated by example that different joint belief functions may be consistent with a given set of rules. Moreover, different representations of the same rules may yield different beliefs on the consequent hypotheses.
Methodological Considerations for Conducting Qualitative Interviews with Youth Receiving Mental Health Services Methodologische überlegungen zu qualitativen Interviews mit psychisch kranken Jugendlichen Consideraciones metodológicas para la realización de entrevistas cualitativas con jóvenes que reciben servicios de salud mental
Kathryn K. DeRoche,Maria K.E. Lahman
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2008,
Abstract: Use of qualitative interviews with individuals currently receiving mental health services has increased over the last decade in the United States due to the calls for system change that emphasizes individuals' perceptions of their own progress. However, interviews with youth receiving mental health services are rarely encountered. In this article, an overview of methodological considerations when conducting an interview inquiry with youth currently receiving mental health services will be discussed, incorporating suggestions from the published literature and our experiences with previous interview studies. Our theoretical definition of youth receiving mental health services along with six major areas of concern: appropriate interview questions, youth development of cognitive ability, ethical issues, power relationships, cultural competency, and methods of interview inquiry are discussed. Finally, other researchers are encouraged to investigate techniques for gathering rich data through interview research with youth experiencing mental health issues. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0803178 Anschlie end an Ver nderungen im Gesundheitssystem, die immer mehr Wert auf den Einbezug der Perspektive der Betroffenen legen, sind im letzten Jahrzehnt in den USA vermehrt Interviews mit psychisch kranken Menschen durchgeführt worden, die institutionell betreut werden. Dies betrifft aber deutlich weniger Interwies mit psychisch kranken Jugendlichen. In diesem Beitrag werden methodologische Erw gungen für Interviews mit dieser Personengruppe vorgestellt vor dem Hintergrund verfügbarer Literatur und von Forschungserfahrungen im Rahmen rückliegender Interviewstudien. Hierzu werden theoretische Definitionen zur institutionellen Betreuung von psychisch kranken Jugendlichen und sechs Hauptthemenfelder diskutiert: Angemessenheit von Interviewfragen, Entwicklung und Verfügbarkeit kognitiver F higkeiten, Ethik, Macht, kulturelle Kompetenz und Interviewerhebungsverfahren. Abschlie end ermutigen wir andere Forschende, vermehrt Interviews in diesem Feld zu verwenden, um tats chlich reiches Material und dichte Beschreibungen erhalten zu k nnen. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0803178 El uso de entrevistas cualitativas con personas que reciben servicios de salud mental ha aumentado en la última década en los Estados Unidos, debido a las demandas por un cambio de sistema que enfatice las percepciones de los individuos sobre su propio progreso. Sin embargo, raramente se encuentran entrevistas a jóvenes que reciban servicios de salud mental. En este artículo se planteará una visión de conjunto sobre
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