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A Survey of Control Structures for Reconfigurable Petri Nets  [PDF]
Julia Padberg, Kathrin Hoffmann
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2015.32002
Abstract: Software systems are increasingly executed in dynamic infrastructures. These infrastructures are dynamic as they are themselves subject to change as they support various applications that may or may not share some of the resources. Dynamic software systems become more and more important, but are difficult to handle. Modeling and simulating dynamic systems requires the representation of their processes and the system changes within one model. To that effect, reconfigurable Petri nets consist of a Petri net and a set of rules that can modify the Petri net. Their main feature is the capability to model complex coordination behavior in dynamically adapting infrastructures. The interplay of both levels of dynamic behavior requires a very precise description, so the specification when and which rules are to be applied plays a crucial role for the convenient use of reconfigurable nets. We differentiate several types of reconfigurable Petri nets and present a survey of control structure for these types, reconfigurable Petri nets. These control structures either concern the infrastructure, i.e., the rules and transformations or the system part, i.e., the firing behavior, or both. They are introduced by a short characterization and illustrated by examples. We state the results for various Petri net types and the tools supporting the different control structures.
Modifications of histone cores and tails in V(D)J recombination
Kathrin Muegge
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2003-4-4-211
Abstract: The organization of DNA into chromatin allows dense packaging of the genetic material and protects it against damage. Chromatin packaging also allows functional organization of the genome into active regions of 'open' euchromatin, which are accessible to regulatory factors, and silent regions of condensed heterochromatin [1,2]. The reversible switch from euchromatin to heterochromatin provides a means of controlling processes occurring on the DNA, such as replication and transcription, and has been proposed - in the so-called 'accessibility hypothesis' - to be crucial for regulating V(D)J recombination during immune-system development [3].During V(D)J recombination, gene segments that encode variable receptors within the immune system are recombined and newly assembled to allow expression of distinct immunoglobulins or T-cell receptors (TCRs) [4,5]. The V(D)J recombinase, a dimer of the site-specific recombination proteins RAG1 and RAG2, binds to recombination signal sequences that flank the V, D and J gene segments and initiates the process of cleaving the DNA sequences that are to be rearranged. Because the same recombinase is present in both T and B cells, but only B cells fully rearrange their immunoglobulin loci and only T cells their TCR loci, it has been proposed that a specific modulation of chromatin structure might open up recombination signal sequences to provide access for the recombinase. This 'chromatin accessibility' model could explain lineage and allele specificity of recombination as well as the temporal order of V(D)J rearrangement during development. A recent study from the Struhl and Oettinger laboratories [6] has provided new evidence in support of this model.The accessibility model gained support from the observation of close association between the processes of transcription and recombination of unrearranged V, D and J fragments. Deletion of cis-acting enhancer or promoter sequences frequently inhibited both processes [5,7], and it was propos
Zur brasilianischen Textart "Memorial Acadêmico": wie man sich in Brasilien auf eine akademische Stelle bewirbt
Schweiger, Kathrin;
Pandaemonium Germanicum , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1982-88372009000100006
Abstract: this paper analyses the brazilian genre "memorial acadêmico" and its function, outlining similarities and differences in comparison with the german genre "akademischer lebenslauf. based on a corpus of seven "memoriais", differences in terms of proposition and illocution between these two genres were identified.
Communication and Language in Niklas Luhmann's Systems-Theory
Maurer, Kathrin;
Pandaemonium Germanicum , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1982-88372010000200002
Abstract: this article investigates the function and reality of language in niklas luhmann's systems theory. how can one interpret the systems-theoretical assumption that language is based on communication? luhmann describes language as a dynamic media/form relationship, which is able to couple the social and psychological system. this structural coupling, which constructs consciousness and language as two autonomous systems, raises problems if one defines language from a cognitive point of view. this article discusses these problems and aims to develop assumptions and questions within the systems-theoretical approach.
Kathrin Franke
Behemoth : a Journal on Civilisation , 2009,
Review: Jane Ritchie & Jane Lewis (Hrsg.) (2003). Qualitative Research Practice. A Guide for Social Science Students and Researchers Review: Jane Ritchie & Jane Lewis (Eds.) (2003). Qualitative Research Practice. A Guide for Social Science Students and Researchers Rese a: Jane Ritchie & Jane Lewis (Eds.) (2003). Qualitative Research Practice. A Guide for Social Science Students and Researchers
Kathrin Ruhl
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2004,
Abstract: Das von Jane RITCHIE und Jane LEWIS herausgegebene Lehrbuch richtet sich an Studierende und ForscherInnen zugleich. Es ist jedoch anzumerken, dass es für die Gruppe der Studierenden besser geeignet ist, da Grundwissen vermittelt wird. Das Lehrbuch soll die Untersuchenden durch den Prozess der qualitativen Datenerhebung begleiten, d.h. von der Entwicklung einer Konzeption, über die Durchführung von Tiefeninterviews und der Analyse der Daten hin zur Pr sentation der Ergebnisse. Dabei werden kompetent sowohl theoretisches überblicks- als auch konkretes Anwendungswissen vermittelt. Die AutorInnen geben jedoch keine umfassende übersicht über qualitative Methoden, sondern legen den Fokus auf Tiefeninterviews und Gruppendiskussionen. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0403213 This textbook, edited by Jane RITCHIE and Jane LEWIS, is meant for both students and researchers, but because it primarily presents basic knowledge it is more suitable for students. It is intended to lead practitioners through the process of qualitative research, i.e. from the design of a study, conducting of in-depth interviews and analysis of data to the presentation of results. The authors impart in a professional way both broad theoretical knowledge and practice-oriented information. They do not provide the reader with an overview of qualitative methods, but focus on in-depth interviews and so-called focus groups. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0403213 Este texto editado por Jane RITCHIE y Jane LEWIS, es de utilidad tanto para estudiantes como para investigadores, aunque presenta conocimiento básico más adecuado para estudiantes. Intenta orientar a los interesados a través del proceso de la investigación cualitativa, es decir, el dise o de un estudio, la realización de entrevistas en profundidad, el análisis de datos y la presentación de los resultados. Los autores imparten de una manera profesional conocimiento teórico e información de orientación hacia la práctica. No proveen una revisión general de métodos cualitativos, sino que se centran en las entrevistas en profundidad y los llamados grupos focales. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0403213
Power-Sharing in the Local Arena: Man – a Rebel-Held Town in Western C te d’Ivoire Machtteilung auf lokaler Ebene: Man – eine von Rebellen kontrollierte Stadt im Westen der C te d’Ivoire
Kathrin Heitz
Africa Spectrum , 2009,
Abstract: In general, peace agreements with power-sharing provisions are analysed at a national level. This article offers insights into the practices of power-sharing in the local arena of western C te d’Ivoire, in the town of Man. It investigates what brought about a change towards peace in the region of Man and then presents local forms of power-sharing between the community leaders and the rebels who have established a rather complex system of domination and taxation in the territory they occupy. Moreover, the implementation of a territorial power-sharing device, which is part of the peace agreement negotiated among the warring parties at the national level, is analysed: the redeployment of state administration to the rebel-held zones of the country. The ethnographic data on which the article is based reveals that the actors at the local level have their own strategies to address urgent needs and that they play a more active role in peacemaking than is usually acknowledged. Im Allgemeinen werden Friedensabkommen, die Machtteilungsklauseln vorsehen, im nationalen Rahmen analysiert. Der vorliegende Beitrag vermittelt Einsicht in die praktische Wirkung solcher Klauseln in lokalem Rahmen, und zwar in der Stadt Man im Westen der C te d’Ivoire. Untersucht wird, wodurch in der umliegenden Region ein Wandel hin zum Frieden erreicht werden konnte. Es werden lokale Formen der Machtteilung zwischen den führenden Pers nlichkeiten lokaler Gemeinschaften und den Rebellen ermittelt, die ein komplexes Herrschafts- und Steuersystem in den von ihnen besetzten Gebieten eingerichtet haben. Zudem wird die Durchführung einer territorialen Machtteilungsregelung untersucht, die auf nationaler Ebene als Bestandteil des Friedensabkommens zwischen den Kriegsgegnern ausgehandelt worden war: die Wiedereinsetzung der staatlichen Verwaltung in den von den Rebellen gehaltenen Gebieten des Landes. Das ethnographische Material, auf dem der Artikel basiert, belegt, dass Akteure auf lokaler Ebene ihre eigenen Strategien haben, dr ngende Bedürfnisse anzugehen, und dass sie eine deutlich aktivere Rolle bei der Schaffung von Frieden spielen, als gew hnlich anerkannt wird.
Bosphorus Double standards in European human rights protection?
Kathrin Kuhnert
Utrecht Law Review , 2006,
Abstract: This paper describes the main facts and findings of the Bosphorus judgment and analyses its legal assessment of the controversial question of the European Court of Human Rights’ (ECtHR) jurisdiction to review EC law. A historic review of ECtHR case-law shows that – despite a rather inconsistent approach – Community acts have become subject to expanding judicial scrutiny by the Strasbourg Court. EU Member States can now be held responsible for (nearly) all Community acts by the mere fact that they have implemented them. This creates a dilemma, as EU Member States have to comply with different obligations flowing from the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR) and from Community law. Moreover, the question is highlighted whether, with this judgment, the ECtHR has acknowledged a double standard in human rights protection between EU Member States and non-EU Member States of the Council of Europe. It is argued in this contribution that after the geographic enlargement of Europe, the boundaries of human rights jurisdiction must also expand legally, providing the EU with consistency in its external human rights policy. Therefore, the accession of the EC and the EU to the ECHR seems inevitable.
Die Bedeutung limitierter Reichskammergerichtsprivilegien der Reichsstadt K ln für die Entwicklung der st dtischen Gerichtsverfassung
Dirr, Kathrin
Zeitenblicke , 2004,
Pietro Garibaldi, Joaquim Oliveira Martins and Jan van Ours (eds.) (2010). Ageing, Health, and Productivity: The Economics of Increased Life Expectancy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 288 pp. ISBN 978 0 19 958713 1 (hardback)
Kathrin Komp
International Journal of Ageing and Later Life , 2012,
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