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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 402469 matches for " Kathleen M Laughlin "
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A family practice breastfeeding education pilot program: an observational, descriptive study
Christine M Betzold, Kathleen M Laughlin, Carol Shi
International Breastfeeding Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-2-4
Abstract: The program distributed handouts at each prenatal and well-child visit (up to one year). Using questionnaires, a small audit project evaluated the program's impact on breastfeeding goals, duration, in-hospital exclusivity and maternal perception of success. Mothers completed goal surveys at baseline and post-intervention, usually while waiting for prenatal clinic visits. Duration was assessed by surveys completed during well-infant visits, postal mailings or telephone interviews at breastfeeding cessation, 6 months and 1 year. The outcomes measured were increases in goals, maternal perception of success, duration and in-hospital exclusivity.Participants included 33 women: 48% had a bachelor's or master's degree, 61% were non-Hispanic white, and 67% reported incomes of US$75,000 or higher. At baseline 5/31 planned to exclusively breastfeed for 4–6 months and 5/33 planned to breastfeed for 6–12 months. Post-intervention there was a 200% increase (15/31) in the exclusively breastfeeding 4–6 month group and a 160% increase (13/33) in the 6–12 month duration group. Actual in-hospital exclusivity rates were 61%, 6-month duration rates were 73%, and 12-month rates were 33%. Over 75% of mothers reported feeling successful.This small pilot educational program may have significant impacts on breastfeeding goals. Setting and meeting goals may increase duration and in-hospital exclusivity rates as well as enhance maternal self-perception and empowerment due to succeeding at their breastfeeding goals and/or experiencing a fulfilling breastfeeding relationship.The World Health Organization recognizes the importance of promoting and supporting breastfeeding as the optimal feeding method used exclusively for at least 6 months and continued along with complementary feeding for no less than two years of life [1]. Given that current overall United States (U.S.) breastfeeding rates fall short of these recommendations [2-5], implementation of programs that promote breastfeeding are indi
A Concept Analysis of Mentoring in Nursing Leadership  [PDF]
Alexis Kathleen Hodgson, Judith M. Scanlan
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.35052
Abstract:

Attention in the literature has been given to the critical state of nursing leadership development. There is a need to identify effective ways to sustain and develop nursing leaders. Mentoring has been identified as an invaluable tool to attract and retain new nurse leaders. Examining the concept of mentoring in nursing leadership provides a greater understanding of its importance in today’s healthcare system. The concept of mentoring will be analyzed using the framework developed by Walker and Avant. A literature review was conducted to examine the current usage of the concept of mentoring. Consistent with Walker and Avant’s framework, defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences of mentoring have been identified. Further illustration of this concept is provided by describing model, borderline, related, and contrary cases. Demonstrating the occurrence of the concept of mentoring, Empirical referents will also be explored.

Compilation and Analysis of Atherosclerosis Gene Expression Data  [PDF]
Michelle L. Booze, Kathleen M. Eyster
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2015.52011
Abstract: The objective of this project was to search for consensus in differential gene expression data and in regulation of differentially expressed genes among DNA microarray studies of atherosclerotic vessels and plaque. Seventeen DNA microarray studies of atherosclerosis were analyzed. Only 19 genes were found to be differentially expressed in 3 or more of the studies. The nineteen genes belong to classic gene ontologies known to be involved in atherosclerosis: immunity and defense, metabolism, proteases, receptors, and signal transduction. Four bioinformatics programs (TRED, rVISTA, JASPAR, and Ariadne Pathways) were used to further analyze the promoter regions and common upstream regulators of the 19 genes. Twelve of the genes shared nine common upstream regulators, many of them known to affect atherosclerosis, and one possible new pathway was identified that may be involved in this disease.
Fractional vortices on grain boundaries --- the case for broken time reversal symmetry in high temperature superconductors
D. Bailey,M. Sigrist,R. B. Laughlin
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.55.15239
Abstract: We discuss the problem of broken time reversal symmetry near grain boundaries in a d-wave superconductor based on a Ginzburg-Landau theory. It is shown that such a state can lead to fractional vortices on the grain boundary. Both analytical and numerical results show the structure of this type of state.
The Random Walk of High Frequency Trading
Eric M. Aldrich,Indra Heckenbach,Gregory Laughlin
Quantitative Finance , 2014,
Abstract: This paper builds a model of high-frequency equity returns by separately modeling the dynamics of trade-time returns and trade arrivals. Our main contributions are threefold. First, we characterize the distributional behavior of high-frequency asset returns both in ordinary clock time and in trade time. We show that when controlling for pre-scheduled market news events, trade-time returns of the highly liquid near-month E-mini S&P 500 futures contract are well characterized by a Gaussian distribution at very fine time scales. Second, we develop a structured and parsimonious model of clock-time returns by subordinating a trade-time Gaussian distribution with a trade arrival process that is associated with a modified Markov-Switching Multifractal Duration (MSMD) model. This model provides an excellent characterization of high-frequency inter-trade durations. Over-dispersion in this distribution of inter-trade durations leads to leptokurtosis and volatility clustering in clock-time returns, even when trade-time returns are Gaussian. Finally, we use our model to extrapolate the empirical relationship between trade rate and volatility in an effort to understand conditions of market failure. Our model suggests that the 1,200 km physical separation of financial markets in Chicago and New York/New Jersey provides a natural ceiling on systemic volatility and may contribute to market stability during periods of extremely heavy trading.
Getting by with a Little Help from My Friends: Mental Rotation Ability after Tacit Peer Encouragement  [PDF]
Sheila Brownlow, Amanda J. Janas, Kathleen A. Blake, Kathleen T. Rebadow, Lindsay M. Mello
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.24057
Abstract: We examined how Mental Rotation (MR) ability was improved by presenting information that the task was one that could be accomplished. This information purportedly came from either peers or the experimenter. Men and women students completed 10 MR items from the Purdue Visualization of Rotations Test (Bodner & Guay, 1997) and provided self-reports about their confidence in their abilities to perform rotations, background skills and experiences, and effort with the task. The peer-presentation technique improved performance on MR, as both men and women who read that other students had previously managed the tasks performed better than those who merely heard about the tasks, leaving an implied difficulty unaddressed or “in the air.” When self-reported confidence in MR ability was held constant there were no gender differences in MR performance. The results suggest that appropriate peer models may improve performance on cognitive tasks, perhaps by increasing confidence in ability.
Xenobiotic Exposure and Autoimmune Hepatitis
Kathleen M. Gilbert
Hepatitis Research and Treatment , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/248157
Abstract: Although genetics contributes to the development of autoimmune diseases, it is clear that “environmental” factors are also required. These factors are thought to encompass exposure to certain drugs and environmental pollutants. This paper examines the mechanisms that normally maintain immune unresponsiveness in the liver and discusses how exposure to certain xenobiotics such as trichloroethylene may disrupt those mechanisms and promote autoimmune hepatitis. 1. Immunological Characteristics of Autoimmune Hepatitis Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a disease characterized by progressive liver inflammation of unknown etiology that may advance to fibrosis. The inflammation encompasses both cell-mediated cytotoxicity by infiltrating lymphocytes and the production of autoantibodies. Although not restricted to AIH, many patients with AIH make autoantibodies specific for asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) [1] and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) [2]. Type 1 AIH is characterized by circulating antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and smooth-muscle antibodies (SMA) [3]. Some individuals may have antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA), antibodies to soluble liver antigens or liver pancreas (anti-SLA/LP). Type 2 AIH is associated with antibodies against liver-kidney microsome 1 (LKM-1) and/or antibodies against liver cytosol 1 antigen (LC1) [4]. LKM-1 autoantibodies react with linear epitopes within cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6), a phase-I drug- and toxicant-metabolizing enzyme in the liver, and perhaps major antigen target of type 2 AIH. Diagnosis of AIH usually involves more than the measurement of autoantibodies since patients may express them intermittently or produce antibodies that are not part of the standard repertoire. As described in Table 1 a definitive diagnosis of AIH is multifactorial. One classic indicator of AIH is liver pathology associated with lymphocyte infiltration of portal region. The liver infiltrate includes macrophages, antibody-secreting plasma cells, and T lymphocytes of both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets. Several investigators have reported a predominance of CD4+ T cells in the liver infiltrate, while others have reported a predominance of CD8+ T cells [5–7]. Regardless of the exact cell makeup the periportal lymphocyte infiltration characteristic of AIH differs from other autoimmune liver diseases such as primary biliary cirrhosis and autoimmune cholangitis in which lymphocytes instead target the bile ducts. Table 1: Revised scoring system of the international autoimmune hepatitis group. The specificity of the T cells that infiltrate the liver in AIH
Schools of Excellence AND Equity? Using Equity Audits as a Tool to Expose a Flawed System of Recognition
Kathleen M Brown
International Journal of Education Policy and Leadership , 2010,
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how equity audits can be used as a tool to expose disparate achievement in schools that, on the surface and to the public, appear quite similar. To that end, the researcher probed beyond surface-level performance composite scores into deeper, more hidden data associated with state-recognized "Honor Schools of Excellence." How is "excellence" defined and operationalized in these schools? Are these schools "excellent" for all students? Can a school really be classified by the state as "excellent" and yet still have significant "gaps" and disparities? If so, is the state's formula used to identify exemplary schools too simple, dogmatic, and institutionally flawed? Through the use of equity audits, quantitative data was collected to scan for systemic patterns of equity and inequity across multiple domains of student learning and activities within 24 elementary schools. The intent was to document and distinguish between schools that are promoting and supporting both academic excellence (small gap schools; SGS) and systemic equity and schools that are not (large gap schools; LGS). Results reveal that although demographic, teacher quality, and programmatic audits all indicated a fair amount of equity between SGS and LGS, the achievement audit between both types of schools indicated great disparities. By controlling for or eliminating some of the external variables and internal factors often cited for the achievement gaps between white middle-class children and children of color or children from low-income families, the findings from this study raise more questions than answers. Results do indicate that equity audits are a practical, easy-to-apply tool that educators can use to identify inequalities objectively.
Why Shouldn’t Rural Kids Have It All? Place-conscious Leadership in an Era of Extralocal Reform Policy Por qué los ni os rurales no deberían tenerlo todo? Liderazgo con consciencia del lugar en una era de reforma política deslocalizada Por que crian as da zona rural n o deveriam ter tudo? Lideran a com consciência do espa o local em uma era de reforma política deslocalizada
Kathleen M. Budge
Education Policy Analysis Archives , 2010,
Abstract: This article explores school and community leaders' beliefs about standards-based reform and the purposes of local schooling in a single rural community in the western United States. The study used interviews of 11 community and school leaders in the community. Participants engage in a balancing act between serving local interests and satisfying extralocal mandates. They care about both the students they serve and the place they inhabit, and their own assessment of the educational enterprise indicated that state and federal policy had had little constructive influence on either. The conclusion explores critical place-consciousness as a possible tool to refocus rural educators' attention on the intent of the standards-based movement and to ensure that schooling supports individual student success and the needs of rural communities. Este artículo explora las creencias de directivos escolares y comunitarios acerca de las reformas basadas en estándares y los objetivos de las comunidades locales sobre la escolarización en una zona rural en el oeste de los Estados Unidos. Este estudio realizó 11 entrevistas con líderes comunitarios y escolares en una comunidad rural. Los entrevistados intentaban equilibrar el servicio de los intereses locales y el cumplimiento de mandatos extralocales de estandarización. Estos lideres se preocupan tanto con los estudiantes que atienden, el lugar que habitan y sus evaluaciones sobre la tarea educativa, indicando que las políticas estatales y federales fueron de poco influencia constructiva. Las conclusiones de esta investigación analizan el concepto de "conciencia-de lugar crítica" como una herramienta útil para enfocar la atención de los educadores rurales acerca de la intencionalidad de las reformas basadas en estándares y para garantizar que las escuelas ayuden a cada estudiante y atiendan las necesidades de las comunidades rurales. Este artigo explora as cren as das lideran as escolares e comunitárias sobre as reformas baseadas em normas estandardizadas bem como os objetivos das comunidades locais sobre a escolariza o em uma zona rural no oeste dos Estados Unidos. Este estudo realizou 11 entrevistas com líderes comunitários e escolares em uma comunidade rural. Os entrevistados buscavam um equilíbrio entre servir os interesses locais e as normas extra-locais de estandariza o. Esses líderes est o preocupados com os alunos a quem atendem, com o lugar onde vivem e com a própria avalia o do processo de ensino, indicando que as políticas estaduais e federais têm tido pouca influência construtiva. Os resultados desta pesquisa
Social meanings and understandings in patient-nurse interaction in the community practice setting: a grounded theory study
Stoddart Kathleen M
BMC Nursing , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6955-11-14
Abstract: Background The patient-nurse relationship is a traditional concern of healthcare research. However, patient-nurse interaction is under examined from a social perspective. Current research focuses mostly on specific contexts of care delivery and experience related to medical condition or illness, or to nurses’ speciality. Consequentially, this paper is about the social meanings and understandings at play within situated patient-nurse interaction in the community practice setting in a transforming healthcare service. Methods Grounded theory methodology was used and the research process was characterised by principles of theoretical sensitivity and constant comparative analysis. The field of study was four health centres in the community. The participants were patients and nurses representative of those attending or working in the health centres and meeting there by scheduled appointment. Data collection methods were observations, informal interviews and semi-structured interviews. Results Key properties of ‘Being a good patient, being a good nurse’, ‘Institutional experiences’ and ‘Expectations about healthcare’ were associated with the construction of a category entitled ‘Experience’. Those key properties captured that in an evolving healthcare environment individuals continually re-constructed their reality of being a patient or nurse as they endeavoured to perform appropriately; articulation of past and present healthcare experiences was important in that process. Modus operandi in role as patient was influenced by past experiences in healthcare and by those in non-healthcare institutions in terms of engagement and involvement (or not) in interaction. Patients’ expectations about interaction in healthcare included some uncertainly as they strived to make sense of the changing roles and expertise of nurses and, differentiating between the roles and expertise of nurses and doctors. Conclusions The importance of social meanings and understandings in patient-nurse interaction is not fully apparent to nurses, but important in the patient experience. Seeking understanding from a social perspective makes a contribution to enhancing knowledge about patient-nurse interaction with subsequent impact on practice, in particular the development of the patient-nurse relationship. The implications are that the meanings and understandings patients and nurses generate from experiences beyond and within their situated interaction are pivotal to the development of their relationship in the transforming community healthcare environment.
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