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An investigation into the psychometric properties of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in patients with breast cancer
Jacqui Rodgers, Colin R Martin, Rachel C Morse, Kate Kendell, Mark Verrill
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-3-41
Abstract: A cross-sectional design was used. The study used a pooled data set from three breast cancer clinical groups. The dependent variables were HADS anxiety and depression sub-scale scores. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on the HADS to determine its psychometric properties in 110 patients with breast cancer. Seven models were tested to determine model fit to the data.Both factor analysis methods indicated that three-factor models provided a better fit to the data compared to two-factor (anxiety and depression) models for breast cancer patients. Clark and Watson's three factor tripartite and three factor hierarchical models provided the best fit.The underlying factor structure of the HADS in breast cancer patients comprises three distinct, but correlated factors, negative affectivity, autonomic anxiety and anhedonic depression. The clinical utility of the HADS in screening for anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients may be enhanced by using a modified scoring procedure based on a three-factor model of psychological distress. This proposed alternate scoring method involving regressing autonomic anxiety and anhedonic depression factors onto the third factor (negative affectivity) requires further investigation in order to establish its efficacy.A diagnosis of breast cancer is often accompanied by a significant and profound experience of psychological distress, the most commonly presenting symptoms being those of anxiety and depression [1]. Indeed, prevalence rates of clinically relevant levels of anxiety and depression in cancer patients have been estimated to be up to 45% [2-4]. It has been observed that psychological symptoms often decrease over time, further it has also been observed in the clinical presentation of breast cancer that up to 30% of these patients will continue to experience clinically relevant levels of anxiety and depression at follow-up [5].The role of psychological variables, particularly those of anxiety and depres
Bringing Back the Body into Positive Psychology: The Theory of Corporeal Posttraumatic Growth in Breast Cancer Survivorship  [PDF]
Kate Hefferon
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.312A183

Objective: Posttraumatic growth (PTG) is the phenomenon of surpassing levels of functioning than which existed before a traumatic event occurred. The objective of this study was to assess how the body may have had an influence on the facilitation, and as an outcome, of PTG. Methods: 83 female breast cancer survivors, 5 years post cancer diagnosis, were interviewed on their long-term experience of physical activity engagement. Inductive thematic analysis was used in order to ascertain whether or not there were any serendipitous expressions of posttraumatic growth. Results: 24% (n = 20) of the study mentioned experiencing some form of PTG, including both generic and corporeal specific domains. Of those that reported PTG, 70% were from the original physical activity intervention group indicating potential links between activity participation during cancer treatment and long term PTG. Discussion: The results support the theoretical viewpoint that recovery from physical illness may have a unique PTG journey in comparison to more cognitive/external sources of trauma. Conclusions: This is the first study to qualitatively collect longitudinal data from a large and unique sample on the experience of PTG following breast cancer survivorship. Furthermore, the author has coined this new addition of a more embodied experience of PTG, the theory of ‘Corporeal Posttraumatic Growth’ and presents suggestions for future research.

How do surgeons decide to refer patients for adjuvant cancer treatment? Protocol for a qualitative study
Urquhart Robin,Kendell Cynthia,Sargeant Joan,Buduhan Gordon
Implementation Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1748-5908-7-102
Abstract: Background Non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer are commonly diagnosed cancers in Canada. Patients diagnosed with early-stage non-small cell lung, breast, or colorectal cancer represent potentially curable populations. For these patients, surgery is the primary mode of treatment, with (neo)adjuvant therapies (e.g., chemotherapy, radiotherapy) recommended according to disease stage. Data from our research in Nova Scotia, as well as others’, demonstrate that a substantial proportion of non-small cell lung cancer and colorectal cancer patients, for whom practice guidelines recommend (neo)adjuvant therapy, are not referred for an oncologist consultation. Conversely, surveillance data and clinical experience suggest that breast cancer patients have much higher referral rates. Since surgery is the primary treatment, the surgeon plays a major role in referring patients to oncologists. Thus, an improved understanding of how surgeons make decisions related to oncology services is important to developing strategies to optimize referral rates. Few studies have examined decision making for (neo)adjuvant therapy from the perspective of the cancer surgeon. This study will use qualitative methods to examine decision-making processes related to referral to oncology services for individuals diagnosed with potentially curable non-small cell lung, breast, or colorectal cancer. Methods A qualitative study will be conducted, guided by the principles of grounded theory. The study design is informed by our ongoing research, as well as a model of access to health services. The method of data collection will be in-depth, semi structured interviews. We will attempt to recruit all lung, breast, and/or colorectal cancer surgeons in Nova Scotia (n ≈ 42), with the aim of interviewing a minimum of 34 surgeons. Interviews will be audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Data will be collected and analyzed concurrently, with two investigators independently coding and analyzing the data. Analysis will involve an inductive, grounded approach using constant comparative analysis. Discussion The primary outcomes will be (1) identification of the patient, surgeon, institutional, and health-system factors that influence surgeons’ decisions to refer non-small cell lung, breast, and colorectal cancer patients to oncology services when consideration for (neo)adjuvant therapy is recommended and (2) identification of potential strategies that could optimize referral to oncology for appropriate individuals.
Suprafibrillar structures of collagen, evidence for local organization and auxetic behaviour in architectures  [PDF]
Kate Patten, Tim Wess
Journal of Biophysical Chemistry (JBPC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbpc.2013.43014
Abstract: The suprafibrillar organisation of collagen rich tissues is the keystone to the diversity of resultant structures made from relatively similar materials. The local organisation between fibrils may be essential to suprafibril structures that are critical to functionality such as transparency in cornea, where specific lateral relationships between fibrils dictate optical properties. Here we show that corneal X-ray diffraction combined with mechanical strains to disrupt a specific suprafibrillar relationship between fibrils evidence and a coherent staggered axial relationship between collagen fibrils. The data also shows evidence for auxetic behavior of the collagen fibrils and reveals a 120 nm diffraction feature previously unreported in collagen tissues. The results show that suprafibrillar organisation can be an essential component in tissue architecture that has hitherto been ignored, but now must be considered in mechanical and structural models.
The Impact of Statin Intolerance in Lipid Clinic Patients  [PDF]
Kate Williams, Vinita Mishra
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2015.65040
Context: Cardiovascular disease is a very common and serious problem in the western world. Statin drug therapy is used in primary, secondary prevention and familial hypercholesterolemia. However, these are frequently associated with adverse effects, causing poor adherence and thus putting patients at risk for future cardiovascular events. Aim: The objective of this study was to review the statin intolerance in lipid patients and to assess the impact of alternative lipid lowering therapy on lipid parameters and cardiovascular outcome in statin intolerant patients. Methodology: 50 patients attending the out-patient lipid clinic of our hospital with statin intolerance were identified. Clinical data on the study patients were gathered retrospectively relating to statin intolerance and the clinical effectiveness of alternative lipid lowering therapy on lipid parameters and cardiovascular outcome. Results: Rosuvastatin was the most intolerable whereas pravastatin or fluvastatin was the most tolerable statin in our study patients. Myalgia was the commonly reported adverse effect of statin. The low dose statin monotherapy or combination of low dose statin and ezetemibe was the most tolerable alternative lipid lowering therapy in statin intolerant patients. After an average period of 10 months of initiation of alternative lipid lowering therapy; combination of low dose statin plus ezetimibe showed the largest reduction in serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. Conclusions: Pravastatin should be preferred in statin intolerant patients. A combination of low dose statin plus ezetimibe appeared to be the most tolerable and clinically effective therapy in statin intolerant patients.
The Psychosocial Impact and Value of Participating in a Storytelling Intervention for Patients Diagnosed with Cancer: An Integrative Review  [PDF]
Andrew Soundy, Kate Reid
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation (OJTR) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojtr.2019.72004
Abstract: Background: Interventions have recently been developed to test the therapeutic value of storytelling for people with cancer. This evidence includes different designs, as a result an integrative review is needed that can determine the impact and value of storytelling interventions for people with cancer. Aims: To undertake an integrative review of evidence identifying the impact and outcomes from storytelling interventions for people with cancer. Methods: An integrative review of group based storytelling interventions using a qualitative led-synthesis. Results: Eleven studies were identified with a total of 493 (49 female, 16 male, 428 not disclosed) people included. Two major themes were identified: 1) content of interaction and
History and Super Diversity
Kate Hawkey
Education Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/educsci2040165
Abstract: The article looks at the perspectives on history amongst adolescent children of different backgrounds living in inner-cities in England and builds on previous research in this area. The current article presents exploratory research which focuses on the views of particular groups of adolescents, namely those from long established settled immigrant communities; those from more recently arrived migrant and immigrant communities; and those from white indigenous communities. An inclusive, perspectival and dynamic approach towards history education is outlined and the underlying view of knowledge and implications for pedagogy of this approach discussed alongside comparisons with other approaches towards the subject. The exploratory work and analysis is used to generate a research agenda through which history for a super diverse society can be developed. Although the research was conducted in the English context, the issues it raises are pertinent elsewhere.
The Global Consequences of Mistranslation: The Adoption of the “Black but …” Formulation in Europe, 1440–1650
Kate Lowe
Religions , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/rel3030544
Abstract: This article investigates the genesis of a linguistic model occasioned by a mistranslation that was taken up in the Renaissance, and had an enduring global impact. I call this model the “black but…” formulation, and it is to be found in the fifteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries throughout written texts and reported speech, in historical as well as literary works. It was modeled grammatically and ideologically on the statement “I am black but beautiful” often attributed to the Queen of Sheba in 1:5 of the “Song of Songs ”, and had a detrimental effect on how members of the early African forced diaspora were viewed by Renaissance Europeans. I argue that the newly adversarial nature of the phrase was adopted as a linguistic and cultural formulation, and introduced into Western European cultures a whole way of approaching and perceiving blackness or looking at black African people.
The death of Max Perutz
Kate Hooper
Genome Biology , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20020207-01
Abstract: Austrian-born Perutz was one of the founder members of the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB) in Cambridge, UK, which he chaired until 1979. But he didn't leave the lab then. Radda said "He was still working on research projects and publishing work in his 80s. Once asked why he didn't retire at 65, he said he was tied up in some very interesting research at the time. This sums Max up well. He continued as a 'retired' worker after 1979, publishing over 100 papers and articles during his retirement. Until the Friday before Christmas, he was active in the lab almost every day, submitting his last paper just a few days before then." In his later years he became a highly accomplished essay writer, particularly for the New York Review of Books.Perutz will be warmly remembered by many fellow scientists for his enthusiastic approach to life. "Max had many interests and a great love of music and will be remembered as much for his science as for his endless drive and passion for knowledge and better communication of research," said Radda.
Return Rates for Needle Exchange Programs: A Common Criticism Answered
Kate Ksobiech
Harm Reduction Journal , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7517-1-2
Abstract: One underlying assumption made by opponents of NEPs is that IDUs will not return needles to the distribution site, thereby potentially increasing the risk of health problems to the surrounding community from exposure to contaminated needles. This study's results suggest that NEPs are relatively successful in taking in used needles, although it is generally unclear where the needles were originally acquired, and if IDUs return their own needles, or are returning needles for a social network. Ways for AIDS Service Organizations to capitalize on these brief encounters with IDUs, as well as public policy implications of the findings, are discussed.Sharing needles, for reasons of economy or social relations, has become the single most common mode of HIV transmission among injection drug users (IDUs). In turn, IDUs often spread HIV to other, non-injecting populations through sexual relations [1]. The public health ramifications of such sharing behaviors have long been recognized. Discarded, used syringes and needles are a potential biohazard throughout the geographic area within which IDUs primarily reside, and beyond it as well. As needle exchange programs (NEPs) increased in number throughout the United States and around the world, public health concerns also grew.NEP opponents argue that providing IDUs with needles at little or no cost serves to increase the number of contaminated needles in a community, potentially increasing the risk of HIV and other blood-borne diseases for sanitation workers and the community at large, particularly children innocently playing at parks or beaches. Macalino et al. [2] point to conflicting syringe disposal laws and regulations at various levels of government as compounding the problem of creating safe, uniform avenues for used needle disposal.The impetus for the creation and maintenance of NEPs emerged from the philosophy of harm reduction, an approach that assumes the probability of contracting or spreading HIV/AIDS is minimized by p
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