Since the discovery of
penicillin by Fleming in 1928, the knowledge
of the antibiotics’ spectrum and mechanism of action has been steadily
increasing. Antibiotics became an effective tool in the fight against many
pathogens, changing the prognosis of outcome for many serious diseases. It is
already known that antibiotics not only have the antibacterial activity, but
many of them—e.g.
macrolides, sulphonamides and tetracyclines—have immunomodulating effect, affecting functions of lymphocytes, macrophages and costimulatory molecules, macrophage migration and phagocytosis,
as well as proinflammatory cytokine secretion. The expanding knowledge of the
effects of antibiotics on the immune system has brought with it new
applications of antibiotics in organ transplantation, invasive cardiology and
treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid
arthritis or asthma.

Abstract:
The purpose of the study was to evaluate usefulness of MR imaging in the detection of hepatic iron overload in patients with cirrhosis of different origins.MR imaging at 1.5T was prospectively performed in 44 patients with liver cirrhosis who had undergone liver biopsy with histopathological assessment of hepatic iron deposits. In all patients the following sequences were used: SE, Express, GRE in T2 and T1-weighted images. Signal intensity (SI) was measured on images obtained with each T2 weighted sequence by means of regions of interest, placed in the liver and paraspinal muscles. The correlation between iron overload, histopathological score, serum ferritin and SI ratio was analyzed.In 20 patients with iron overload confirmed by the biopsy, the liver parenchyma demonstrated lower signal intensity than that of paraspinal muscles. This effect was visible only in 8 patients with hepatic iron overload in Express T2-weighted images. Higher signal intensity of liver than that of skeletal muscles on GRE - T2 weighted images was noted in 24 patients with cirrhosis and without elevated hepatic iron concentration. We observed a correlation between low and high iron concentration and liver to muscle SI ratio.MR imaging is a useful and fast noninvasive diagnostic tool for the detection of liver iron overload in patients with cirrhosis of different origins.Liver to muscle SI ratio in GRE-T2-weighted sequence facilitates to differentiate patients with low and high degree of hepatic iron overload, which correlates with the origin of liver cirrhosis.There are many entities in human pathology with hepatic iron overload. There is controversy regarding nomenclature of these states, however, the classic example of primary iron overload is defined as hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). HH is one of the most common genetic disorders and the second most frequent metabolic liver disease - with the frequency of 3-8 cases/1000 people [1-3]. HFE gene is involved in most cases of hereditary he

Abstract:
To shed more light on the processes leading to crystallization of a Slavic identity, we investigated variability of complete mitochondrial genomes belonging to haplogroups H5 and H6 (63 mtDNA genomes) from the populations of Eastern and Western Slavs, including new samples of Poles, Ukrainians and Czechs presented here. Molecular dating implies formation of H5 approximately 11.5–16 thousand years ago (kya) in the areas of southern Europe. Within ancient haplogroup H6, dated at around 15–28 kya, there is a subhaplogroup H6c, which probably survived the last glaciation in Europe and has undergone expansion only 3–4 kya, together with the ancestors of some European groups, including the Slavs, because H6c has been detected in Czechs, Poles and Slovaks. Detailed analysis of complete mtDNAs allowed us to identify a number of lineages that seem specific for Central and Eastern Europe (H5a1f, H5a2, H5a1r, H5a1s, H5b4, H5e1a, H5u1, some subbranches of H5a1a and H6a1a9). Some of them could possibly be traced back to at least ~4 kya, which indicates that some of the ancestors of today's Slavs (Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Ukrainians and Russians) inhabited areas of Central and Eastern Europe much earlier than it was estimated on the basis of archaeological and historical data. We also sequenced entire mitochondrial genomes of several non-European lineages (A, C, D, G, L) found in contemporary populations of Poland and Ukraine. The analysis of these haplogroups confirms the presence of Siberian (C5c1, A8a1) and Ashkenazi-specific (L2a1l2a) mtDNA lineages in Slavic populations. Moreover, we were able to pinpoint some lineages which could possibly reflect the relatively recent contacts of Slavs with nomadic Altaic peoples (C4a1a, G2a, D5a2a1a1).

Abstract:
Burning of fossil fuels is the major source of energy in today's global economy with over one-third of the world's powergeneration derived from coal combustion. Although coal has been a reliable, abundant, and relatively inexpensive fuel source for mostof the 20th century, its future in electric power generation is under increasing pressure as environmental regulations become morestringent worldwide. Current pollution control technologies for combustion exhaust gas generally treat the release of regulatedpollutants: sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter as three separate problems instead of as parts of one problem. Newand improved technologies have greatly reduced the emissions produced per ton of burning coal. The term “Clean Coal CombustionTechnology” applies generically to a range of technologies designed to greatly reduce the emissions from coal-fired power plants.The wet methods of desulfurization at present are the widest applied technology in professional energetics. This method is economicand gives good final results but a future for clean technologies is the biomass. Power from biomass is a proven commercial optionof the electricity generation in the World. An increasing number of power marketers are starting to offer environmentally friendlyelectricity, including biomass power, in response to the consumer demand and regulatory requirements.

Abstract:
We deal with a conditional functional inequality , where is a given orthogonality relation, is a given nonnegative number, and is a given real number. Under suitable assumptions, we prove that any solution of the above inequality has to be uniformly close to an orthogonally additive mapping , that is, satisfying the condition . In the sequel, we deal with some other functional inequalities and we also present some applications and generalizations of the first result.

Abstract:
In this paper we prove the existence theorems for the integrodifferential equation where in first part are functions with values in a Banach space and the integral is taken in the sense of Bochner. In second part are weakly–weakly sequentially continuous functions and the integral is the Pettis integral. Additionaly, the functions and satisfy some boundary conditions and conditions expressed in terms of measure of noncompactness or measure of weak noncompactness.

Abstract:
In this paper we prove Leray-Schauder and Furi-Pera types fixed point theorems for a class of multi-valued mappings with weakly sequentially closed graph. Our results improve and extend previous results for weakly sequentially closed maps and are very important in applications, mainly for the investigating of boundary value problems on noncompact intervals.

Abstract:
We prove existence theorems for integro-differential equations , , , , where denotes a time scale (nonempty closed subset of real numbers ), and is a time scale interval. The functions are weakly-weakly sequentially continuous with values in a Banach space , and the integral is taken in the sense of Henstock-Kurzweil-Pettis delta integral. This integral generalizes the Henstock-Kurzweil delta integral and the Pettis integral. Additionally, the functions and satisfy some boundary conditions and conditions expressed in terms of measures of weak noncompactness. Moreover, we prove Ambrosetti's lemma. 1. Introduction A time scale is a nonempty closed subset of real numbers , with the subspace topology inherited from the standard topology of . The three most popular examples of calculus on time scales are differential calculus, difference calculus, and quantum calculus (see Kac and Cheung [1]), that is, when , , , where . Time scale (or a measure chain) was introduced by Hilger in his Ph.D. thesis in 1988, [2]. Since the time Hilger formed the definitions of a derivative and integral on a time scale, several authors have extended on various aspects of the theory [3–11]. Time scales have been shown to be applicable to any field that can be described by means of discrete or continuous models. In this paper we consider an integrodifferential equation. As is known, ordinary integrodifferential equations, an extreme case of integrodifferential equations on time scales [12–21], find many applications in various mathematical problems; see Corduneanu's book [22] and references therein for details. In [23] the authors extend such results to the integrodifferential equations on time scales and therefore obtained corresponding criteria which can be employed to study the difference equation of Volterra type [21, 24], -difference equations of Volterra type, and so forth. In [25] the authors proved a new comparison result and develop the monotone iterative technique to show the existence of extremal solutions of the periodic boundary value problems of nonlinear integrodifferential equation on time scales. We extend this result by proving the existence of a pseudosolution of the problem where , denotes a time scale, denotes a time scale interval, is a Banach space, and denotes the pseudo -derivative of . We use a new (Henstock-Kurzweil-Pettis- -integral), more general concept of integral on time scales. This new integral generalizes the Henstock-Kurzweil delta integral, which has been studied by Peterson and Thompson in [26], Avsec et al. in [27] and the Pettis integral

Abstract:
We prove existence theorems for the integrodifferential equation x'(t)=f(t,x(t),∫0tk(t,s, x(s))ds), x(0)=x0, t∈Ia=[0,a], a>0, where f,k,x are functions with values in a Banach space E and the integral is taken in the sense of HL. Additionally, the functions f and k satisfy certain boundary conditions expressed in terms of the measure of noncompactness.