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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5747 matches for " Karl-Heinz Ladwig "
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Suicide Mortality in Comparison to Traffic Accidents and Homicides as Causes of Unnatural Death. An Analysis of 14,441 Cases in Germany in the Year 2010
Karoline Lukaschek,Natalia Erazo,Jens Baumert,Karl-Heinz Ladwig
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9030924
Abstract: Aim: To assess suicide mortality in comparison to traffic accidents and homicide deaths in Germany in the year 2010 and to compare years of life lost (YLL) due to these unnatural deaths. Methods: Mortality data were provided by the Federal Statistical Office giving death rates (related to 100,000 inhabitants) and proportions (related to 100 deaths of individuals) for suicide, traffic accidents and homicide as well as YLL data. Results: A total of 14,441 unnatural deaths (suicide, traffic accidents, homicide) were reported in 2010 in Germany. Of those, 10,021 subjects (69.4%) committed suicide, 3,942 (27.3%) died in traffic accidents, 478 (3.3%) were murdered. Suicide death rates were by far the highest, with rates for men (18.6) three times higher than for women (6.1). For both sexes, suicide rates increased with age, whereas suicide as a proportion of all causes of death was higher in younger age groups. In both sexes, suicide was the leading cause of YLL (men: 314 YLL, women: 90 YLL). Conclusions: Suicide is the leading cause of unnatural death and YLL. The sex- and age- specific patterns in suicide mortality call for different action plans to target high risk groups.
Behaviour patterns preceding a railway suicide: Explorative study of German Federal Police officers' experiences
Karoline Lukaschek, Jens Baumert, Karl-Heinz Ladwig
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-620
Abstract: To collect information on pre-crash railway suicide behaviour, a questionnaire was used and made available on the German Federal Police intranet. A total of 202 subjects (mean age: 41 years, sex: 84.9% male) were included in the analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to predict the prevention of suicide (first model) or demand for counselling (second model) as outcomes. Sex, age, years of service, number of experienced suicides, suicides personally observed, information on suicides obtained from witnesses and finally either counselling/debriefing (first model) or whether officers had prevented a suicide (second model) were used as predictors.A considerable proportion of police officers reported behavioural patterns preceding a suicide. Half of them observed the dropping or leaving behind of personal belongings or the avoidance of eye contact, more than a third erratic gesture, mimic or movement. Erratic communication patterns and general confusion were each reported by about one quarter. One fifth indicated the influence of alcohol. Less frequently observed behaviour was aimlessly wandering (14.3%) and out of the ordinary clothing (4%). About one third of all railway suicide victims committed suicide in stations. Of those, 70% had chosen an eminent spot. The multivariate logistic regression model using prevented suicides as the outcome identified the number of suicides experienced, counselling/debriefing and having personally observed a suicide as variables with significant impact. The model using counselling/debriefing as the outcome identified age and having prevented a suicide as variables with a significant association.Our results provide evidence that railway suicides are preceded by identifiable behavioural patterns. This emphasizes the importance of educational efforts, taking into account the knowledge and skills of experienced police officers.Suicidal acts carried out in public places, such as railway environments, can be highly
Sex- and age-specific trends in mortality from suicide and undetermined death in Germany 1991–2002
Jens J Baumert, Natalia Erazo, Karl-Heinz Ladwig
BMC Public Health , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-5-61
Abstract: Data on suicide mortality and undetermined death from 1991 to 2002 in Germany were obtained from the German Federal Statistical Office. For each year, the age-standardised suicide rate (SR), undetermined death rate (UDR) and total rate (SR+UDR) was calculated by direct standardisation separately for men and women. Time trends were analyzed by Poisson regression estimating the average annual percentage change (AAPC) of the rates for sex and four age groups (15–24, 25–44, 45–74, ≥ 75 years).A significant decline of the SR was observed in all age groups but was less pronounced among the younger ages, particularly among men aged 15–24 years (AAPC -0.7%, p = 0.041). The SR in the oldest male age group (≥ 75 years) declined much stronger (AAPC -3.5%, p < 0.001). In women, the AAPC of the SR ranged from -1.7% to -4.6%. The average annual percentage changes in the age groups 25 – 74 years did not differ substantially for SR and SR+UDR. In contrast, due to an increase of undetermined deaths for subjects ≥ 75 years, time trends in this age group were affected by the number of undetermined deaths, especially in women.Observing downward trends in suicide mortality with lower declines for younger subjects, prevention strategies should focus in particular on younger subjects.Over the last two decades, significant downward trends in overall suicide rates have been observed in North America and in most countries of Europe [1-4]. Chishti et al. on behalf of the EUROSAVE working group [1] analysed data from 15 countries in the European Union (EU) and revealed downward trends in most EU countries except Ireland and Spain.However, reasons for those favourable trends have not been ascertained so far. Moreover, it is not established whether those favourable time trends developed homogeneously for sex and age groups. It is not unlikely that the general decrease of suicide mortality may hide rises in certain age and sex groups. Guaiana et al. analysed age- and sex-specific suicide rates in
Socio-economic differences in life expectancy among persons with diabetes mellitus or myocardial infarction: results from the German MONICA/KORA study
Laura Perna, Uta Thien-Seitz, Karl-Heinz Ladwig, Christa Meisinger, Andreas Mielck
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-135
Abstract: The dataset consists of 13,427 participants (6,725 men, 6,702 women) aged 25-74 years, recruited in the region of Augsburg in Germany through three independent cross-sectional representative surveys conducted in 1984/85, 1989/90, 1994/95, with a mortality follow up in 1998 and 2002. We use a parametric model for the survival function based on the Weibull distribution, in which the hazard function is described in terms of two parameters. We estimate these parameters with a maximum likelihood method that takes into account censoring and data truncation.The difference in LE between the lowest and the highest socio-economic group is estimated to be 3.79 years for men and 4.10 years for women. Diabetes mellitus reduces LE of men from the upper three income quartiles by 4.88 years, and LE of men belonging to the lowest income quartile by 7.97 years. For women, the corresponding figures are 5.79 and 5.72 years. Myocardial infarction reduces LE of men and women from the upper three income quartiles by 3.65 and 3.75 years, respectively, and LE of men and women belonging to the lowest income quartile by 5.11 and 10.95 years, respectively.This study shows that in Germany the differences in LE by socio-economic status are comparable to those found in other European countries, and that these differences seem to increase when diabetes mellitus or myocardial infarction is present. The statistical method used allows estimates of LE with relatively small datasets.Life expectancy (LE) is an estimate of the average number of years that a person can expect to live. It can be defined both at birth and at any later age. It reflects the mortality rates of a population as a function of age for the year for which it is calculated. As such, it is only dependent on the observed average age-specific death rates and it should not be viewed as a reflection of future mortality rates [1].From a public health perspective, LE at birth represents a fundamental measure of a population's state of gener
Do diabetes and depressed mood affect associations between obesity and quality of life in postmenopause? Results of the KORA-F3 Augsburg population study
Daniela A Heidelberg, Rolf Holle, Maria E Lacruz, Karl-Heinz Ladwig, Thomas von Lengerke
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-9-97
Abstract: Survey of 983 postmenopausal women aged 35-74, general population, Augsburg region/Germany, 2004/2005. Body weight/height and waist/hip circumference were assessed anthropometrically and classified via BMI ≥ 30 as obese, and WHR ≥ 0.85 as abdominally obese (vs. not). Depressed mood was assessed by the Depression and Exhaustion-(DEEX-)scale, diabetes and postmenopausal status by self-report/medication, and HRQL by the SF-12.General linear models revealed negative associations of obesity and abdominal obesity with physical but not mental HRQL. Both forms of excess weight were associated with diabetes but not depressed mood. Moderation depended on the HRQL-domain in question. In non-diabetic women, depressed mood was found to amplify obesity-associated impairment in physical HRQL (mean "obese"-"non-obese" difference given depressed mood: -6.4, p < .001; among those without depressed mood: -2.5, p = .003). Reduced mental HRQL tended to be associated with obesity in diabetic women (mean "obese"-"non-obese" difference: -4.5, p = .073), independent of depressed mood. No interactions pertained to abdominal obesity.In postmenopausal women, depressed mood may amplify the negative impact of obesity on physical HRQL, while diabetes may be a precondition for some degree of obesity-related impairments in mental HRQL.While the evidence on the effects of the menopausal transition on health-related quality of life (HRQL) is inconclusive [1], it is rather clear regarding effects of menopausal symptoms [2]. Avis et al. [3] found that the menopausal transition showed little impact on physical HRQL when adjusted for symptoms, medical conditions, and stress. Williams et al. [4] revealed that postmenopausal women with severe vasomotor symptoms felt more impaired in their daily activities than those with moderate or mild symptoms. Timur and Sahin [5] showed that menopause-specific quality of life was impaired in menopausal women with sleep disturbances. Finally, van Dole et al. [6] found t
Living with a partner and health care use – results from the MONICA survey Augsburg in Southern Germany
Huber, Carola A.,Baumeister, Sebastian E.,Ladwig, Karl-Heinz,Mielck, Andreas
GMS Psycho-Social-Medicine , 2007,
Abstract: Objective: Several studies have shown that social relationships are associated with health care use. This study aims to test if and to which extent a proximal element of social relationships, particularly living together with a partner, influences the health care utilisation in the same way as a distal element such as group membership.Methods: On the basis of a representative random sample of a southern German population (4856 participants), the associations were assessed between the following groups of variables: number of consultations with the general practitioner or internists, type of social relationships (living with a partner, friends, relatives, group memberships), need (evaluated and perceived health status), socio-demographic variables.Results: All analyses showed associations between living with a partner and health care utilisation. Individuals living with a partner had lower levels of utilisation than individuals not living with a partner (mean: 4.3 vs. 5.2). These associations persisted after controlling for socio-demographic and need variables. For the other indicators of social relationships, though, there were no significant associations with outpatient visits.Conclusions: Distinguishing between different types of social relationships is important for disentangling the overall effects of social relationships on health care utilisation. Also, the empirical findings confirm that health care research should not be restricted to medical variables, but should also include psycho-social factors.
Health care needs need to be focused on health  [PDF]
Johannes Bircher, Karl-Heinz Wehkamp
Health (Health) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/health.2011.36064
Abstract: In the past decades health care and medicine in most countries got more or less in a state of crisis. This is not surprising because, so far, there is no consensus about the nature of health. This shortcoming inhibits constructive, interdisciplinary dialogues about health values. It renders priority setting controversial and subject to power struggles. A new definition of health, known as the Meikirch Model, could correct this deficiency. It states: “Health is a dynamic state of wellbeing characterized by a physical, mental and social potential, which satisfies the demands of a life commensurate with age, culture, and personal responsibility. If the potential is insufficient to satisfy these de-mands the state is disease.” The potential is composed of a biologically given and a person-ally acquired component. Thus this definition characterizes health with six essential features, which are suitable for an analysis of and priority setting in medical consultations and in health care policy decisions. A wide discussion about this definition of health followed by its imple-mentation is expected to render health care in-dividually and socially more beneficial.
On the Quantum Zeno Effect and Time Series Related to Quantum Measurements  [PDF]
Karl-Heinz Fichtner, Kei Inoue
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.410A3008
Abstract:

Our main aim is to prove a more general version of the quantum Zeno effect. Then we discuss some examples of the quantum Zeno effect. Furthermore, we discuss a possibility that based on the quantum Zeno effect and certain experiments one could check whether, from the statistical point of view, a concrete system behaves like a quantum system. The more general version of quantum Zeno effect can be helpful to prove that the brain acts like in a quantum system. The proof of our main result is based on certain formulas describing probability distributions of time series related to quantum measurements.

Association of daily tar and nicotine intake with incident myocardial infarction: Results from the population-based MONICA/KORA Augsburg Cohort Study 1984 - 2002
Qiu-Li Zhang, Jens Baumert, Karl-Heinz Ladwig, H-Erich Wichmann, Christa Meisinger, Angela D?ring
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-273
Abstract: The study was based on 4,099 men and 4,197 women participating in two population-based MONICA Augsburg surveys between 1984 and 1990 and followed up within the KORA framework until 2002. During a mean follow-up of 13.3 years, a number of 307 men and 80 women developed an incident MI event. Relative risks were calculated as hazard ratios (HRs) estimated by Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors.In the present study, male regular smokers consumed on average more cigarettes per day than female regular smokers (20 versus 15) and had a higher tar and nicotine intake per day. In men, the MI risk compared to never-smokers increased with higher tar intake: HRs were 2.24 (95% CI 1.40-3.56) for 1-129 mg/day, 2.12 (95% CI 1.37-3.29) for 130-259 mg/day and 3.01 (95% CI 2.08-4.36) for ≥ 260 mg/day. In women, the corresponding associations were comparable but more pronounced for high tar intake (HR 4.67, 95% CI 1.76-12.40). Similar associations were observed for nicotine intake.The present study based on a large population-based sample adds important evidence of cumulative effects of tar and nicotine intake on the risk of incident MI. Even low or medium tar and nicotine intake revealed substantial risk increases as compared to never-smokers. Therefore, reduction of tar and nicotine contents in cigarettes cannot be seen as a suitable public health policy in preventing myocardial infarction.Cigarette smoking is a central issue in public health policy as it has been shown to be associated with an elevated risk of various cardiovascular diseases and types of cancer [1,2]. Smoking has been determined as one of the most important risk factors for myocardial infarction (MI) [3-5], but it was shown that smoking cessation can reduce this risk [6]. Many countries and international agencies have made great efforts to change smoking behaviour and to encourage smokers to quit smoking, e.g. by preventing initiation of tobacco use, promoting cessation among ado
Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray and Neutrino Observations
Karl-Heinz Kampert
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: Recent measurements of ultra-high energy cosmic rays and neutrinos are briefly reviewed. With several new large scale observatories nearing completion or becoming fully operational only very recently, a large body of high quality and high statistics data is growing up now. Already these first data have started to open up a new window to the high energy Universe giving us first direct clues about the origin of the most energetic particles with energies of about 10^{20} eV as well as about their interactions from extragalactic sources to Earth. Also, for the first time full sky views of high energy neutrinos have become available with neutrino telescopes operating on either Hemisphere. While a "smoking gun" is still missing on galactic sources of cosmic rays, constraining upper limits to neutrino fluxes from various source candidates are reported. Thus, future neutrino telescopes, such as KM3NeT in the Mediterranean should aim at volumes significantly larger than one cubic kilometer. Besides seeking the sources of galactic and extragalactic cosmic rays, the new generation of cosmic ray and neutrino observatories touches a wide range of scientific issues and they have already provided important results on tests of fundamental physics.
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