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Chronic Consequences of Uncomplicated Yersinia Enterocolitica Infection: A Retrospective Study (2004) of Military Recruits Previously (1987) Screened for Antibodies to Yersinia Enterocolitica O:3  [PDF]
Arve S?b?, Karin Nygard, Georg Kapperud, J?rgen Lassen
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2011.22024
Abstract: In 1987, a serological survey among 755 male Norwegian military recruitsshowed that 68 (9.0%) had IgG (7.4%) and / or IgA (4.5%) antibodiesto Y.enterocolitica O:3, consistent with previous infection.In 2004,433 of the former recruits (mean age 37.5 years, range 35 - 42 years) answered a questionnaire, in order to investigatedevelopment of possible chronic disorders and complaints related to uncomplicated Y.enterocolitica infection. The questionnaire covered per-sonal and demographic data, behavioral risk factors, and possible chronic complaints related to yersiniosis.Among the 433 responders, 51 (11.8%) were seropositive for IgG or IgA in the 1987 survey, 380 were seronegative, and 2 had ambiguous results.No difference was observed between the seropositive and seronegativegroups regarding education, annual income, general behavioral risk factors like smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and dietary parameters; or diagnosed chronic illness. However, the seropositives weresignificantly more likely than the seronegatives to report recurrent diarrhea, painful or swollen joints, and muscle pain. Also, presence of all three complaints was more common among seropositives. Conclusion: The present study shows that uncomplicated Y.enterocolitica O:3 infection is a risk factor regarding future development of chronic complaintssuch as diarrhea, and joint and muscle complaint.
Outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome in Norway caused by stx2-positive Escherichia coli O103:H25 traced to cured mutton sausages
Barbara Schimmer, Karin Nygard, Hanne-Merete Eriksen, J?rgen Lassen, Bj?rn-Arne Lindstedt, Lin T Brandal, Georg Kapperud, Preben Aavitsland
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-8-41
Abstract: A case was defined as a child with diarrhoea-associated HUS or any person with an infection with the outbreak strain of E. coli O103 (defined by the multi-locus variable number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) profile) both with illness onset after January 1st 2006 in Norway. After initial hypotheses-generating interviews, we performed a case-control study with the first fifteen cases and three controls for each case matched by age, sex and municipality. Suspected food items were sampled, and any E. coli O103 strains were typed by MLVA.Between 20 February and 6 April 2006, 17 cases were identified, of which 10 children developed HUS, including one fatal case. After pilot interviews, a matched case-control study was performed indicating an association between a traditional cured sausage (odds ratio 19.4 (95% CI: 2.4–156)) and STEC infection. E. coli O103:H25 identical to the outbreak strain defined by MLVA profile was found in the product and traced back to contaminated mutton.We report an outbreak caused by a rare STEC variant (O103:H25, stx2-positive). More than half of the diagnosed patients developed HUS, indicating that the causative organism is particularly virulent. Small ruminants continue to be important reservoirs for human-pathogen STEC. Improved slaughtering hygiene and good manufacturing practices for cured sausage products are needed to minimise the possibility of STEC surviving through the entire sausage production process.Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) can cause bloody diarrhoea which in 2–15% of cases, particularly in children, develop into haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) which can lead to renal failure and death [1]. More than 90% of diarrhoea-associated HUS cases are due to STEC infections. Routine diagnosis and surveillance of STEC-infections was originally developed for serotype O157:H7 of STEC. However, non-O157 E. coli infections are in certain geographic regions considered to be at least equally important, but may in general be underdiag
Feng Luan,Mads Nygard
International Journal of Digital Information and Wireless Communications , 2011,
Abstract: Preservation becomes an important infrastructural service for information systems. Many research works have done in past decades. The most popular preservation approach is migration, which transfers and/or transforms digital objects between two computers or two generations of computer technology. However, it is difficult for custodians to decide which migration solution should be chosen. This is because the migration selection depends on the old situation (e.g., digital objects, technical infrastructure and restriction rules) and the current situation (e.g., system requirements and organization requirements). Therefore, in order to obtain the old situation of an information system, we in this paper design a new solution to retrieve information about the old situation from stored metadata. The viability and efficiency of our approach are evaluated in an experiment, under which there are several sets of image files to be migrated.
Time Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey
Prakash Ranganathan,Kendall Nygard
International Journal of UbiComp , 2010,
Abstract: Time synchronization is a critical piece of infrastructure for any distributed system. Wirelesssensor networks have emerged as an important and promising research area in the recent years. Timesynchronization is important for many sensor network applications that require very precise mapping of gatheredsensor data with the time of the events, for example, in tracking and vehicular surveillance. It also plays animportant role in energy conservation in MAC layer protocols. The paper studies different existing methods,protocols, significant time parameters (clock drift, clock speed, synchronization errors, and topologies) to achieveaccurate synchronization in a sensor network. The studied Synchronization protocols include conventional time syncprotocols (RBS, Timing-sync Protocol for Sensor Networks -TPSN, FTSP), and other application specificapproaches such as all node-based approach, a diffusion-based method and group sync approaches aiming atproviding network-wide time. The goal for writing this paper is to study most common existing time synchronizationapproaches and stress the need of a new class of secure-time synchronization protocol that is scalable, topologyindependent, fast convergent, energy efficient, less latent and less application dependent in a heterogeneous hostileenvironment. Our survey provides a valuable framework by which protocol designers can compare new andexisting synchronization protocols from various metric discussed in the paper. So, we are hopeful that this paperwill serve a complete one-stop investigation to study the characteristics of existing time synchronization protocolsand its implementation mechanism in a Sensor network environment.
Transport phenomena in nanotube quantum dots from strong to weak confinement
Jesper Nygard,David H. Cobden
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: We report low-temperature transport experiments on single-wall nanotubes with metallic leads of varying contact quality, ranging from weak tunneling to almost perfect transmission. In the weak tunneling regime, where Coulomb blockade dominates, the nanotubes act as one-dimensional quantum dots. For stronger coupling to the leads the conductance can be strongly enhanced by inelastic cotunneling and the Kondo effect. For open contacts Coulomb blockade is completely suppressed, and the low-temperature conductance remains generally high, although we often see distinct dips in the conductance versus gate voltage which may result from resonant backscattering.
Quantum dots in suspended single-wall carbon nanotubes
Jesper Nygard,David H. Cobden
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1063/1.1428117#
Abstract: We present a simple technique which uses a self-aligned oxide etch to suspend individual single-wall carbon nanotubes between metallic electrodes. This enables one to compare the properties of a particular nanotube before and after suspension, as well as to study transport in suspended tubes. As an example of the utility of the technique, we study quantum dots in suspended tubes, finding that their capacitances are reduced owing to the removal of the dielectric substrate.
Shell filling in closed single-wall carbon nanotube quantum dots
David H. Cobden,Jesper Nygard
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.89.046803
Abstract: We observe two-fold shell filling in the spectra of closed one-dimensional quantum dots formed in single-wall carbon nanotubes. Its signatures include a bimodal distribution of addition energies, correlations in the excitation spectra for different electron number, and alternation of the spins of the added electrons. This provides a contrast with quantum dots in higher dimensions, where such spin pairing is absent. We also see indications of an additional fourfold periodicity indicative of K-K' subband shells. Our results suggest that the absence of shell filling in most isolated nanotube dots results from disorder or nonuniformity.
Explorative Teaching and Research—From Memory Work to Experience Stories  [PDF]
Karin Widerberg
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.714196
Abstract: Memory work is an approach developed to help us problematize the things we take for granted and as such an invitation to methodological explorations in teaching and research. By our own stories of memories and experiences we are invited to look for variety—in our own stories as well as in relation to the stories of the others—regarding content as well as interpretations. A set of techniques is developed to make this happen, in writing as well as in analyzing. Focusing on the social aspects of a story does not only imply a possibility to connect different analytical levels (micro and macro) and verify concepts and theories. It also allows us to question or specify fixed or simplified categories and concepts by making other memories, experiences and understandings visible. As such it is an approach that stimulates creativity and knowledge production in both teaching and research, to the joy of all participants. In this article it is illustrated how the approach can be used in different settings and on different themes in both teaching and research hereby also illuminating the kinds of knowledge that can be gained. Cases and detailed accounts of how the approach can be used when teaching a one-day workshop, a three-day course but also in a two-hour lecture in a regular class on BA-level are given. Examples of the use of the approach in different research projects are also presented so as to illuminate the bridge between research and teaching and how research approaches can be made into teaching approaches. The illustrations are meant to inspire further use and development of the approach so as to fit different situations and themes in teaching and research.
Salivary Cortisol in Relation to the Use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in School-Aged Children  [PDF]
Marjut Wallenius, Ari Hirvonen, Harri Lindholm, Arja Rimpela, Clas-Hakan Nygard, Lea Saarni, Raija-Leena Punamaki
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2010.12012
Abstract: Long periods of use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) may raise strong emotions and lead to cog-nitive fatigue. The current study focused on the impact of ICT use the preceding day on the next-day salivary cortisol pattern in 72 school-aged children (39 at the age ten and 33 at the age 13). Salivary cortisol levels were measured at five time points from awakening to bedtime. Time spent in different ICT activities the day before salivary sampling was measured by an activity diary. Results showed that the participants who had used ICT on an average three hours the preceding day showed a significantly reduced cortisol increase one hour after awakening (awakening response) com-pared to those who had used ICT not at all or less than one hour after controlling for pubertal status and the level of depression. The results suggest a stress response as a consequence of a long period of ICT use.
Missing the Target?—Targeted Therapy in Small Cell Lung Cancer  [PDF]
Karin R. Purshouse
Advances in Lung Cancer (ALC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/alc.2014.33008

Small cell lung cancer [SCLC] is a devastating form of cancer, with most patients harbouring extensive disease at diagnosis and survival of less than 5% at five years. Progress in novel therapies has been limited. This specialist review explores current targeted therapy options and potential areas of development.

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