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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6941 matches for " Karen Murphy "
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Examining Semantic Priming in a Delayed Naming Task
Karen Murphy
International Journal of Psychological Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijps.v4n2p198
Abstract: Semantic priming refers to the finding that a word response is facilitated if it is preceded by a related word compared to when it is preceded by an unrelated word. Research has shown that semantic priming effects still occur under task conditions which would permit ample time for the completion of word recognition processes prior to response production. This study sought to examine the impact of a related prime-target context on word production. Participants completed an immediate word naming task and a delayed word naming task. There was a semantic priming effect for the immediate naming task. For the delayed naming task semantic priming was only evident at the 500 ms cue delay. This suggests a limited time frame in which a semantic context is able to facilitate word production.
Unconscious Priming: Masked Primes Facilitate Change Detection and Change Identification Performance
Karen Murphy,Jason Andalis
International Journal of Psychological Studies , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/ijps.v5n1p45
Abstract: Change blindness refers to the finding that people have difficulty detecting changes between visual scenes, when these scenes are separated by a brief interruption to visual input. The masked priming paradigm was integrated into a change detection task using real world photos to examine if unconsciously perceived words could assist in the detection and identification of changes. Results demonstrated superior detection accuracy for deletion and location changes compared to addition changes and that change detection response times were shorter for deletion than either addition or location changes. Identification of deletion and addition changes was better than for location changes. Both change detection and identification performances were enhanced by a masked identity prime presented prior to the first scene in the change detection task. These results provide evidence that unattended information can assist change detection and change identification performance.
Proceedings of the 2013 Meeting of the Australasian Section of the American Oil Chemists Society (AAOCS)
Karen Murphy,Peter Howe
Nutrients , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/nu5125065
Abstract: The Australasian section of the American Oil Chemists Society (AAOCS) held their biennial meeting in Newcastle, Australia from 6 to 8 November, 2013. Over 150 scientists, researchers and industry representatives gathered for three days of talks and discussions on a variety of lipid related topics. The AAOCS awarded its inaugural AAOCS Award for Scientific Excellence in Lipid Research to Dr Allan Green from the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). Dr Green is deputy chief of the CSIRO Division of Plant Industry and has been active in lipid research for several decades. His main research focus is on plant breeding and genetic engineering techniques to develop improved oilseeds with enhanced human nutritional value and novel industrial uses. Refer to “ AAOCS Award for Scientific Excellence in Lipid Research” for more detail of his contributions [1].
Registered Dietitian Wellness Insurance Benefit Makes a Difference in Adult Weight Management: A Pre-Post Study  [PDF]
Linda Snetselaar, Karen L. Smith, Donna Hollinger, Esther Myers, Gwen Murphy, Laura Goettinger Qualls
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.210139
Abstract: Registered Dietitian (RD) services as part of insurance wellness programs offer a promising potential venue for improving public health. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of RD nutrition counseling services provided as part of an insurance benefit on body weight and associated health parameters. Eligible members could enroll to receive 6 RDs visits a year for assistance with weight management. The study RDs were randomized into either Usual Care (UC) or Lifestyle Case Management (LCM) groups. Body weight, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements of program enrollees were evaluated for between group as well as start and end program comparisons. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of RD follow-up visits between the two groups as LCM patients had more RD contact than UC patients. Weight and waist circumference changes from baseline to end of study show statistically significant changes with a trend for improvement in systolic blood pressure. Additionally, a clinically significant reduction in weight was achieved in a quarter of program enrollees. In conclusion this study shows that through a coordinated health promotion program RDs’ services are of value to an insured population.
A Portable Sensing System for Electronic Tongue Operations
Karen Twomey,Andreas Truemper,Kilian Murphy
Sensors , 2006, DOI: 10.3390/s6111679
Abstract: A portable, low cost sensing system is described which interfaces to an electronictongue sensor. The sensor used is a voltammetric sensor which monitors electrochemicalreactions that occur in solutions. The sensor is able to test a range of liquids with differentelectrochemical properties without any hardware adjustments to the system. The system canautomatically adjust for the change in solution properties by performing a routine whichuses an auto-ranging feature to determine a current-to-voltage conversion of the sensor databy using a binary search strategy. This eliminates the intervention of the user to modify thesystem each time a new solution is tested. The effectiveness of the calibration routine wastested by carrying out cyclic voltammetry in two different solutions, 0.1M sulfuric acidsolution and the phosphate buffered solution of pH3. The sensor system was able toaccurately acquire the sensor data for each solution.
Mechanical Influences on Morphogenesis of the Knee Joint Revealed through Morphological, Molecular and Computational Analysis of Immobilised Embryos
Karen A. Roddy,Patrick J. Prendergast,Paula Murphy
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017526
Abstract: Very little is known about the regulation of morphogenesis in synovial joints. Mechanical forces generated from muscle contractions are required for normal development of several aspects of normal skeletogenesis. Here we show that biophysical stimuli generated by muscle contractions impact multiple events during chick knee joint morphogenesis influencing differential growth of the skeletal rudiment epiphyses and patterning of the emerging tissues in the joint interzone. Immobilisation of chick embryos was achieved through treatment with the neuromuscular blocking agent Decamethonium Bromide. The effects on development of the knee joint were examined using a combination of computational modelling to predict alterations in biophysical stimuli, detailed morphometric analysis of 3D digital representations, cell proliferation assays and in situ hybridisation to examine the expression of a selected panel of genes known to regulate joint development. This work revealed the precise changes to shape, particularly in the distal femur, that occur in an altered mechanical environment, corresponding to predicted changes in the spatial and dynamic patterns of mechanical stimuli and region specific changes in cell proliferation rates. In addition, we show altered patterning of the emerging tissues of the joint interzone with the loss of clearly defined and organised cell territories revealed by loss of characteristic interzone gene expression and abnormal expression of cartilage markers. This work shows that local dynamic patterns of biophysical stimuli generated from muscle contractions in the embryo act as a source of positional information guiding patterning and morphogenesis of the developing knee joint.
Knowledge and use of folic acid among college women: a pilot health promotion program led by pharmacy students and faculty
Murphy,Bethany L.; DiPietro,Natalie A.; Kier,Karen L.;
Pharmacy Practice (Internet) , 2010, DOI: 10.4321/S1886-36552010000400003
Abstract: as pharmacists and pharmacy students are increasingly called upon to assume roles in public health activities, it is important to recognize unique opportunities to educate community members on health, wellness, and disease prevention. objective: to evaluate the impact of a pilot health promotion program on college women′s knowledge regarding folic acid and prevention of neural tube defects (ntd) and frequency of multivitamin use. methods: a health promotion program was developed by a pharmacy student and two pharmacy faculty members that included an oral presentation and reminder messages. a multiple-choice test assessing knowledge of folic acid and ntd and frequency of multivitamin use was given to participants before and immediately after the presentation. participants then received a reminder message regarding folic acid once a week for three weeks. knowledge and multivitamin use were re-assessed four weeks post-intervention. results: thirty-two college women voluntarily attended the oral presentation. twenty-five women (78.2%) completed the four-week post-test. compared to the pre-test, there were statistically significant increases in average test score (p<0.0001) and correct responses to questions regarding folic acid and ntd (p<0.05 for each question). participants reported a statistically significant increase in regular (> 4 times/week) multivitamin use (p=0.023). conclusion: participants in the pilot health promotion program demonstrated a statistically significant increase in knowledge about folic acid and frequency of multivitamin use. a similarly-modeled health promotion program may be an effective way of increasing folic acid and ntd knowledge and changing behaviors of multivitamin use in college women.
Enhancing communication in oncology outpatient consultations: critical reflections from doctors
Lynn Furber,Roger Murphy,Karen Cox,William Steward
International Journal of Medical Education , 2011, DOI: 10.5116/ijme.4ee2.0dc3
Abstract: The experiences of patients diagnosed with advanced incurable cancer and the doctors who conducted their medical consultations were studied in order to improve the understanding of what happens in consultations, when bad news is disclosed. The major objective of the study was to critically reflect upon doctor-patient communication, in such situations, with a view to considering future strategies for doctors' continuing professional development. Methods: Sixteen patients and sixteen Oncologists, from a cancer centre in the UK were recruited into this ethno-graphic study. One hundred and fifteen episodes of data were collected from audio recorded consultations; inter-views with doctors and patients and their relatives and observations of consultations. These data were analysed using a constant comparison method. Results: Interactions between doctors and patients are complex and consultations can be challenging for both of them. Some doctors spoke openly about their need for additional support to enhance their communication related competencies within Oncology consultations. These doctors wanted to observe their peers conducting consultations. They also wanted to receive feedback about their own clinical practices. These doctors stated that they wanted an open culture whereby they could talk freely about difficult and emotionally challenging consultations without fear of being considered incompetent by their Consultants, who act in a clinical supervisory role. Conclusions: To help practitioners consolidate their practice in such settings it is necessary to develop better collaborations among practitioners within clinical practice. Providing individual supervisory sessions or group workshops can facilitate reflective learning and provide an open and supportive learning culture.
Learners' perceived information overload in online learning via computer-mediated communication
Chun-Ying Chen,Susan Pedersen,Karen L. Murphy
Research in Learning Technology , 2011, DOI: 10.3402/rlt.v19i2.10345
Abstract: Many studies report information overload as one of the main problems that students encounter in online learning via computer-mediated communication. This study aimed to explore the sources of online students' information overload and offer suggestions for increasing students' cognitive resources for learning. Participants were 12 graduate students from two online courses in the United States. Their learning experiences in both online discussions and on the course website were explored through semi-structured interviews. They also completed a background questionnaire that assessed three constructs that limit learner readiness and are likely to lead to online students' perceived information overload: inadequate prior knowledge, inadequate English proficiency, and lack of technical skills for participating in computer-mediated communications. The findings suggest that varied learner characteristics led some students to be more susceptible than others to information overload. Emerging data-driven risk factors were: lack of efficiency in reading from computer screens, visual and auditory learning preferences, and time constraints. Difficulties associated with students' perceptions of information overload are addressed and implications for course design are offered.
Teacher as Unit Leader: Defining and Examining the Effects of Care and Support on Children: A Review of the Research  [PDF]
Joseph Murphy
Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies (JHRSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jhrss.2016.43027
Abstract: In this article, we integrate two distinct bodies of research to explore how teacher care and support impact student outcomes: research on relational culture in classrooms from educational scholars and, for the first time, research on positive organizational scholarship. We begin by delineating the essential elements of care and support. We then examine findings on the impact of care and support on initial (e.g., affiliation) and intermediate (e.g., engagement) mediating variables on the pathway to achievement. Since our linkage of POS to teachers and classrooms is new, we also develop a series of cautions that require attention moving forward.
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