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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7268 matches for " Karen Davies "
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Profiling urban IDPs
Anne Davies,Karen Jacobsen
Forced Migration Review , 2010,
Abstract: New methodology used for profiling urban IDPs is enablingresearchers to assess and contextualise the particular needs of thisgroup and to address the implications for humanitarian action.
Formulating the Evidence Based Practice Question: A Review of the Frameworks
Karen Sue Davies
Evidence Based Library and Information Practice , 2011,
Abstract: IntroductionQuestions are the driving force behind evidence based practice (EBP) (Eldredge, 2000). If there were no questions, EBP would be unnecessary. Evidence based practice questions focus on practical real-world problems and issues. The more urgent the question, the greater the need to place it in an EBP context.One of the most challenging aspects of EBP is to actually identify the answerable question. This ability to identify the question is fundamental to then locating relevant information to answer the question. An unstructured collection of keywords can retrieve irrelevant literature, which wastes time and effort eliminating inappropriate information. Successfully retrieving relevant information begins with a clearly defined, well-structured question. A standardized format or framework for asking questionshelps focus on the key elements. Question generation also enables a period of reflection. Is this the information I am really looking for? Why I am looking for this information? Is there another option to pursue first?This paper introduces the first published framework, PICO (Richardson, Wilson, Nishikawa and Hayward, 1995) and some of its later variations including ECLIPSE (Wildridge and Bell, 2002) and SPICE (Booth, 2004). Sample library and information science (LIS) questions are provided to illustrate the use of these frameworks to answer questions in disciplines other than medicine.Booth (2006) published a broad overview of developing answerable research questions which also considered whether variations to the original PICO framework were justifiable and worthwhile. This paper will expand on that work.
Potential sources of bias in the use of individual's recall of the frequency of exposure to air pollution for use in exposure assessment in epidemiological studies: a cross-sectional survey
Paul R Hunter, Karen Bickerstaff, Maria A Davies
Environmental Health , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-3-3
Abstract: This was a postal cross-sectional study of 3402 households in England in a mixed rural and urban area adjacent to a large industrial complex. Respondents were asked about their social and demographic characteristics, the presence of respiratory symptoms and frequency of exposure to a range of pollution types.There were strong associations (p < 0.01) with the presence of a person in the home with respiratory symptoms, the belief that industrial pollution was harming their health, social class, living in rented accommodation and reporting noise from neighbours and other people's smoke. Smoking behaviour did not affect reporting.We did not find any evidence of bias that would substantially invalidate mean population reporting of air pollution severity as a measure of exposure in epidemiological studies, though care may be needed in interpreting results where those factors found to be significant in this study vary substantially between areas.In recent years, there have been many publications addressing the relationship between various types of air pollution and adverse health outcomes in human populations [1-6]. One of the problems faced by many of the studies covered by the reviews referred to in the previous sentence was accurately determining the degree of environmental exposure [7]. Getting accurate measures of exposure to airborne pollutants is especially problematic in large populations over prolonged time periods [7,8]. Individual reporting of the severity of exposure has been used in a very few studies [9], though analysis of individual perception of pollution is open to recall bias [8,10]. A recent paper has provided convincing evidence that population mean perception is a good indicator of air pollution [8].Recent work has shown that population means of personal perception of exposure to various pollutants is highly correlated with actual exposure as measured by chemical monitoring and may even give a better estimate of exposure levels when there are relative
Internet Treatment for Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Clinician vs. Technician Assistance
Nickolai Titov,Gavin Andrews,Matthew Davies,Karen McIntyre,Emma Robinson,Karen Solley
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010939
Abstract: Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) for depression is effective when guided by a clinician, less so if unguided. Question: Would guidance from a technician be as effective as guidance from a clinician?
Losing the Ability in Activities of Daily Living in the Oldest Old: A Hierarchic Disability Scale from the Newcastle 85+ Study
Andrew Kingston, Joanna Collerton, Karen Davies, John Bond, Louise Robinson, Carol Jagger
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031665
Abstract: Objectives To investigate the order in which 85 year olds develop difficulty in performing a wide range of daily activities covering basic personal care, household care and mobility. Design Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a cohort study. Setting Newcastle upon Tyne and North Tyneside, UK. Participants Individuals born in 1921, registered with participating general practices. Measurements Detailed health assessment including 17 activities of daily living related to basic personal care, household care and mobility. Questions were of the form ‘Can you …’ rather than ‘Do you…’ Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to confirm a single underlying dimension for the items and Mokken Scaling was used to determine a subsequent hierarchy. Validity of the hierarchical scale was assessed by its associations with known predictors of disability. Results 839 people within the Newcastle 85+ study for whom complete information was available on self-reported Activities of Daily Living (ADL). PCA confirmed a single underlying dimension; Mokken scaling confirmed a hierarchic scale where ‘Cutting toenails’ was the first item with which participants had difficulty and ‘feeding’ the last. The ordering of loss differed between men and women. Difficulty with ‘shopping’ and ‘heavy housework’ were reported earlier by women whilst men reported ‘walking 400 yards’ earlier. Items formed clusters corresponding to strength, balance, lower and upper body involvement and domains specifically required for balance and upper/lower limb functional integrity. Conclusion This comprehensive investigation of ordering of ability in activities in 85 year olds will inform researchers and practitioners assessing older people for onset of disability and subsequent care needs.
Assessing the Efficacy of Nano- and Micro-Sized Magnetic Particles as Contrast Agents for MRI Cell Tracking
Arthur Taylor, Anne Herrmann, Diana Moss, Violaine Sée, Karen Davies, Steve R. Williams, Patricia Murray
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100259
Abstract: Iron-oxide based contrast agents play an important role in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of labelled cells in vivo. Currently, a wide range of such contrast agents is available with sizes varying from several nanometers up to a few micrometers and consisting of single or multiple magnetic cores. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of these different particles for labelling and imaging stem cells, using a mouse mesenchymal stem cell line to investigate intracellular uptake, retention and processing of nano- and microsized contrast agents. The effect of intracellular confinement on transverse relaxivity was measured by MRI at 7 T and in compliance with the principles of the ‘3Rs’, the suitability of the contrast agents for MR-based cell tracking in vivo was tested using a chick embryo model. We show that for all particles tested, relaxivity was markedly reduced following cellular internalisation, indicating that contrast agent relaxivity in colloidal suspension does not accurately predict performance in MR-based cell tracking studies. Using a bimodal imaging approach comprising fluorescence and MRI, we demonstrate that labelled MSC remain viable following in vivo transplantation and can be tracked effectively using MRI. Importantly, our data suggest that larger particles might confer advantages for longer-term imaging.
The Personal and Health Service Impact of Falls in 85 Year Olds: Cross-Sectional Findings from the Newcastle 85+ Cohort Study
Joanna Collerton, Andrew Kingston, John Bond, Karen Davies, Martin P. Eccles, Carol Jagger, Thomas B. L. Kirkwood, Julia L. Newton
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033078
Abstract: Introduction Falls are common in older people and increase in prevalence with advancing old age. There is limited knowledge about their impact in those aged 85 years and older, the fastest growing age group of the population. We investigated the prevalence and impact of falls, and the overlap between falls, dizziness and blackouts, in a population-based sample of 85 year olds. Methods Design: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from Newcastle 85+ Cohort Study. Setting: Primary care, North-East England. Participants: 816 men and women aged 85 years. Measurements: Structured interview with research nurse. Cost-consequence analysis of fall-related healthcare costs. Results Over 38% (313/816) of participants had fallen at least once in the previous 12 months and of these: 10.6% (33/312) sustained a fracture, 30.1% (94/312) attended an emergency department, and 12.8% (40/312) were admitted to hospital. Only 37.2% (115/309) of fallers had specifically discussed their falls problem with their general practitioner and only 12.7% (39/308) had seen a falls specialist. The average annual healthcare cost per faller was estimated at £202 (inter-quartile range £174–£231) or US$329 ($284–$377). ‘Worry about falling’ was experienced by 42.0% (128/305) of fallers, ‘loss of confidence’ by 40.0% (122/305), and ‘going out less often’ by 25.9% (79/305); each was significantly more common in women, odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for women: men of 2.63 (1.45–4.55), 4.00 (2.27–7.14), and 2.86 (1.54–5.56) respectively. Dizziness and blackouts were reported by 40.0% (318/796) and 6.4% (52/808) of participants respectively. There was marked overlap in the report of falls, dizziness and blackouts. Conclusions Falls in 85 year olds are very common, associated with considerable psychological and physical morbidity, and have high impact on healthcare services. Wider use of fall prevention services is needed. Significant expansion in acute and preventative services is required in view of the rapid growth in this age group.
Inequalities in the incidence of cervical cancer in South East England 2001–2005: an investigation of population risk factors
Laura G Currin, Ruth H Jack, Karen M Linklater, Vivian Mak, Henrik M?ller, Elizabeth A Davies
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-62
Abstract: Data on 2,231 cases diagnosed between 2001 and 2005 were extracted from the Thames Cancer Registry, and data on risk factors and screening coverage were collated from publicly available sources. Age-standardised incidence rates were calculated for each PCT using cases of squamous cell carcinoma in the screening age group (25–64 years).The age-standardised incidence rate for cervical cancer in South East England was 6.7 per 100,000 population (European standard) but varied 3.1 fold between individual PCTs. Correlations between the age-standardised incidence rate and smoking prevalence, teenage conception rates, and deprivation were highly significant at the PCT level (p < 0.001). However, screening coverage was not associated with the incidence of cervical cancer at the PCT level. Poisson regression indicated that these variables were all highly correlated and could not determine the level of independent contribution at a population level.There is excess disease burden within South East England. Significant public health gains can be made by reducing exposure to known risk factors at a population level.Cervical cancer represents a significant public health concern. Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy among females [1]. Although the 5-year survival rates for this cancer are relatively high, on average women are diagnosed and die at a younger age than in most other types of cancer. The total years of life lost due to this illness are therefore substantial. Currently, cervical cancer rates eighth in terms of cancer incidence in the United Kingdom [2].Within the United Kingdom, rates of cervical cancer are highest in the Yorkshire and North West regions of England, and Scotland; and lowest in the Eastern, South East and London regions of England [2]. Within London, a recent report highlighted the link between socio-economic deprivation and inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality [3]. Age-standardised incidence rates per 100,000
The Contribution of Diseases to the Male-Female Disability-Survival Paradox in the Very Old: Results from the Newcastle 85+ Study
Andrew Kingston, Karen Davies, Joanna Collerton, Louise Robinson, Rachel Duncan, John Bond, Thomas B. L. Kirkwood, Carol Jagger
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088016
Abstract: Background Explanations for the male-female disability-survival paradox - that woman live longer than men but with more disability - include sex differences in diseases and their impact on disability and death. Less is known about the paradox in the very old. We examine sex differences in the presence and impact of disabling and fatal diseases accounting for the male-female disability-survival paradox in very late life. Methods We use data from the Newcastle 85+ Study, a cohort of people born in 1921 and all recruited at age 85 in 2006. Participants underwent a health assessment (HA) at baseline, 18 months, 36 months, 60 months, and a review of their GP records (GPRR) at baseline and 36 months. We used multi-state modelling to assess the impact of specific diseases on disability and death. Disability (measured via ADLs/IADLs) was categorised as no disability (difficulty with 0 activities), or disabled (difficulty with one or more activities). Diseases were ascertained from review of general practice records and cognitive impairment which was defined as an sMMSE of 21 or less (from health assessment). Results In participants who had complete HA and GPRR, women had more arthritis (RR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1–1.3) and hypertension (RR = 1.2, 95%CI 1.0–1.3), more disability, and were more likely disabled at all follow-ups. From multistate models, women with cerebrovascular disease (HR: 2.6, 95% CI: 2.1–3.4) or respiratory disease (HR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.4–3.0) were more likely to become disabled than those without but this did not hold for men (sex difference p<0.01). Men were more likely to die from respiratory disease (HR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.8–2.8) but this did not hold for women (p = 0.002). Conclusion The disability-survival paradox was still evident at age 85 and appears due to sex differences in the types of diseases and their impact on the disability pathway.
Exchange Rate Determination in Developing Economies  [PDF]
Oluremi Davies Ogun
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.35067
Abstract: This paper identifies the determinants of nominal exchange rate movements in less developed countries operating the flexible exchange rate system. Factors peculiar to such countries which are believed to potently drive their nominal ex-change rates are incorporated into the resulting model. In particular, the weather, parallel market exchange rate and its associated premium as well as corrupt practices enter the model. While all four factors should play crucial roles in ex-plaining short-run variations in the exchange rate, corrupt practices may still be at work in the long-run. However, those more advanced developing countries that have succeeded in instituting a relatively more effective legal system stem-ming the tide of corruption, and, also characterized by a near absence of parallel exchange rate market, may follow the standard model of exchange rate in the literature.
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