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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6176 matches for " Karen Chapman-Novakofski "
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Exploring nutrition literacy: Attention to assessment and the skills clients need  [PDF]
Heather Gibbs, Karen Chapman-Novakofski
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.43019
Abstract: This exploratory study examines nutrition literacy in two parts: 1) the level of attention to health literacy among nutrition professionals, and 2) the nutrition professional’s perspective of skills/ knowledge needed to understand nutrition education. Part 1 included an online survey in which RD participants (n = 206), recruited from three dietetic practice groups, identified use of health literacy assessments during client education. Most participants (79%) did not use a validated health literacy assessment. There was a significant difference in response to having written materials for different health literacy levels depending on time spent providing nutrition education, with those sending less time in education responding they more often had more materials (Chi-square 8.6, p = 0.035) and depending on job description, public health more often than outpatient dietitian (p = 0.006). Part 2 utilized key informant interviews (n = 8), administered by telephone. Content analysis revealed a significant theme among answers that the skills required for understanding diet education is dependent on the type of diet instruction provided, with diabetes frequently noted as a disease requiring greater knowledge and skills. Nutrition educators need an instrument to assess client nutrition literacy. Potential instruments should assess skills related to portion size estimation, macronutrient knowledge, interpretation of food labels, and food grouping.
Bone Health Nutrition Issues in Aging
Karen Plawecki,Karen Chapman-Novakofski
Nutrients , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/nu2111086
Abstract: Bone health is an important issue in aging. Calcium and vitamin D currently have the most focus in published research on nutrition and bone health in aging, although evidence from published research is not conclusive. A systematic review was conducted to determine the impact of dietary and supplemental interventions focused on calcium and vitamin D over the past 10 years. Using key words to search, and search limits (aging?population, English), 62 papers were found related to diet, nutrition, and bone; and 157 were found related to calcium and bone. Our review found a positive effect on bone health for supplements; food-based interventions; and educational strategies. Although there may be a publishing bias related to non-significant findings not being published, our results suggest the effectiveness of food based and educational interventions with less economic impact to the individual, as well as less risk of physiological side effects occurring.
Middle School Students Want More Than Games for Health Education on the Internet  [PDF]
Henna Muzaffar, Darla M. Castelli, David Goss, Jane A. Scherer, Karen Chapman-Novakofski
Creative Education (CE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2011.24056
Abstract: Our aim was to assess the views of participants in the ‘the HOT project: Healthy Outcomes for Teens. Twelve focus group interviews (n = 42) were conducted using a structured questionnaire ranging from 2 to 5 per focus group. Discussions were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by two investigators following content analysis. Emerging themes were consensus of research team. Three main themes emerged from the focus group data analysis with subcategories: kid appeal (social, entertainment, and information, that reflected why they used the internet, why and what they liked from the HOT project website), healthy living (diet, exercise, sleeping, friendship, and studying), and living with and without diabetes (those who had relatives with diabetes or not). Subjects appreciated the design, information, and entertainment. They had specific suggestions for increased fun, options for social interaction, broader health coverage for topics, and more depth and scenarios for diabetes information for those with limited exposure to the condition.
Effect of beverages with different protein profiles on postprandial blood glucose response in overweight and obese men  [PDF]
Dina Fernandez-Raudales, Lillian K. Diaz-Rios, Jennifer Lotton, Karen Chapman-Novakofski, Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2012.21007
Abstract: Positive postprandial blood glucose responses have been related to low glycemic index (GI) and low glycemic load (GL) diets. The objective was to determine the effect of protein profile on glycemic response of low glycinin soymilk (high in β-conglycinin) (LGS) and conventional soymilk (S) in overweight and obese men. Twenty-four subjects, 23 - 45 years old, average BMI of 29 (26 - 38) with triglycerides <200 mg/dL consumed 250 mL of LGS, S with identical macronutrient content, with bovine milk (M) as reference. Fasting blood samples were followed by samples at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the milk consumption. One-day diet record, anthropometrics, and a demographic interview were completed. LGS and S presented a GI of (average ± standard deviation) 41.0 ± 29.9 and 40.4 ± 37.2, respectively. M showed a GI of 29.2 ± 25.3, however, treatment effect was not significant (P = 0.338). Similarly, GL for LGS (4.52 ± 3.29), S (4.44 ± 4.09) and M (2.33 ± 1.01) were not significantly different (P = 0.107). Postprandial glucose concentration curves for LGS, S and M presented the same tendency throughout 120 min (P = 0.331). Fasting blood glucose correlated with GI (r = -0.553; P = 0.032) and GL (r = -0.567; P = 0.028). LGS, S and M are low GI products and postprandial glycemic responses were not different. The high content of the protein β-conglycinin in LGS did not have an effect in postprandial blood glucose response in over-weight and obese men.
Vegetables, Herbs and Spices: The Importance of Family and Tasting  [PDF]
Pamela A. Heinrichs, Cassandra J. Nikolaus, Brenna Ellison, Sharon M. Nickols-Richardson, Karen Chapman-Novakofski
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.814153
Abstract: Objective: To explore why and how consumers utilize vegetables, herbs and spices. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with adult participants (n = 54) to determine attitudes, self-efficacy, and behaviors related to liking and usage of vegetables, herbs and spices as well as strategies to increase vegetable intake. Results: Seasonal availability, and family-centered memories and practices were motivation for vegetable intake. A diverse number of vegetables (n = 39) were listed as favorites based on taste and versatility, but seasonings were not commonly included in responses regarding preparation. Participants felt that vegetable dish names should reflect ingredients explicitly; that seasonings enhanced vegetable flavors; and that salt and pepper were most commonly used seasonings. The preferred strategy to increase vegetable consumption was through tasting or sampling opportunities; seasoning use was not mentioned. However, participants perceived that suggestions or demonstrations on how to prepare vegetables at home would be helpful. Personal gardens were mentioned frequently, but were not connected to strategies for increasing intake. Conclusions and Implications: Vegetable intake has a family focus that should be emphasized to increase intake. Efforts to increase intake could emphasize flavor and versatile preparation methods through tasting opportunities or educational demonstrations.
Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products and Aging
Claudia Luevano-Contreras,Karen Chapman-Novakofski
Nutrients , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/nu2121247
Abstract: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a heterogeneous, complex group of compounds that are formed when reducing sugar reacts in a non-enzymatic way with amino acids in proteins and other macromolecules. This occurs both exogenously (in food) and endogenously (in humans) with greater concentrations found in older adults. While higher AGEs occur in both healthy older adults and those with chronic diseases, research is progressing to both quantify AGEs in food and in people, and to identify mechanisms that would explain why some human tissues are damaged, and others are not. In the last twenty years, there has been increased evidence that AGEs could be implicated in the development of chronic degenerative diseases of aging, such as cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease and with complications of diabetes mellitus. Results of several studies in animal models and humans show that the restriction of dietary AGEs has positive effects on wound healing, insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, the effect of restriction in AGEs intake has been reported to increase the lifespan in animal models. This paper will summarize the work that has been published for both food AGEs and in vivo AGEs and their relation with aging, as well as provide suggestions for future research.
National review of maternity services 2008: women influencing change
Meredith J McIntyre, Karen Francis, Ysanne Chapman
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-11-53
Abstract: A critical discourse analysis of selected submissions in the consultation process to the national review of maternity services 2008 was undertaken to identify the contributions of individual women, consumer groups and organisations representing the interests of women.Findings from this critical discourse analysis revealed extensive similarities between the discourses identified in the submissions with the direction of the 2009 proposed primary maternity care reform agenda. The rise of consumer influence in maternity care policy reflects a changing of the guard as doctors' traditional authority is questioned by strong consumer organisations and informed consumers.Unified consumer influence advocating a move away from obstetric -led maternity care for all pregnant women appears to be synergistic with the ethos of corporate governance and a neoliberal approach to maternity service policy. The silent voice of one consumer group (women happy with their obstetric-led care) in the consultation process has inadvertently contributed to a consensus of opinion in support of the reforms in the absence of the counter viewpoint.In 2009 the Australian government has announced a major program of reform with the move to primary maternity care. Primary maternity services are based on the understanding that 85% of pregnant women are capable of giving birth safely with minimal intervention [1-4]. It is argued the removal of uncomplicated childbirth from routine obstetric influence will reduce the numbers of women receiving expensive obstetric care and interventions in the absence of clinical need [5]. The reforms are expected to provide the right balance between primary level care and access to appropriate levels of medical expertise as clinically required [6]. In announcing the reforms the government has responded to a decade of pressure from numerous reports, commissions and inquiries recommending wide scale change in how maternity care is to be delivered in Australia [7-16].Implemen
Shaping public opinion on the issue of childbirth; a critical analysis of articles published in an Australian newspaper
Meredith J McIntyre, Karen Francis, Ysanne Chapman
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-11-47
Abstract: A critical discourse analysis of articles published in 'The Age', a newspaper with national distribution, subsequent to the release of the discussion paper by the Australian Government in 2008 was undertaken. The purpose was to identify how Australian maternity services are portrayed and what purpose is served by this representation to the general public.Findings from this critical discourse analysis revealed that Australian maternity services are being portrayed to the general public as an inflexible outdated service struggling to meets the needs of pregnant women and in desperate need of reform. The style of reporting employed in this newspaper involved presenting to the reader the range of expert opinion relevant to each topic, frequently involving polarised positions of the experts on the issue.The general public are presented with a conflict, caught between the need for changes that come with the primary maternity model of care and fear that these change will undermine safe standards. The discourse; 'Australia is one of the safest countries in which to give birth or be born, what is must be best', represents the situation where despite major deficiencies in the system the general public may be too fearful of the consequences to consider a move away from reliance on traditional medical-led maternity care.The Australian government has announced a major program of reform with the move to primary maternity care in line with the recommendations of the national review of maternity services released in 2009. The reform represents a program of change that appears to be at odds with current general public perceptions regarding how maternity care is delivered. Primary maternity services offer women continuity of primary carer with a midwife or general practitioner, reserving obstetric services for only those in clinical need [1,2]. Australia is a society that has embraced the introduction of high technology across all aspects of life including childbirth, a situation ref
Where Have All the Young Ones Gone: Implications for the Nursing Workforce
Vicki Drury,Karen Francis,Ysanne Chapman
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , 2009,
Abstract: The global nursing shortage, coupled with an ageing nursing workforce, has placed significant pressure on the Australian Government to implement strategies to meet future nursing demands as well as develop strategies to manage the current crisis. In response, the Australian government funded additional undergraduate places at universities between 2002 and 2008 and offered financial incentives for nurses who were not currently employed to return to practice. Many undergraduate places at the university (in all disciplines) have been taken up by mature-aged students. The high percentage of graduating, mature-aged nursing students is helping to alleviate the current nursing shortage, but runs the risk of exacerbating the shortage projected to occur around the year 2020. This article postulates that graduating this high percentage of mature-aged nursing students is making a significant contribution to nursing today, helping to alleviate the current nursing shortage. However, it runs the risk of exacerbating the shortage projected to occur around the year 2020. In this article the authors explore the current nursing shortage and the changing educational opportunities that affect recruitment of mature-aged students into tertiary-based nursing programs. Recommendations are provided for appropriate succession planning for the future.
Nutrient intake and adequacy of batswana elderly
SD Maruapula, CK Novakofski
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2010,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the adequacy of nutrient intakes of the elderly in Botswana and to further assess intake by age, gender, and locality and others. The study was a cross-sectional survey with a convenience sample in purposively selected urban, semi-urban and rural settings in Botswana. Data collection included self-reported assessments of health status and food intake. Analyses compared demographic strata and health status with the intake and adequacy of self-reported consumption. A total of 99 elderly aged 60 to 99 years completed a 24-hour food recall instrument and in addition, demographic, health status, and cooking responsibilities data were collected from each respondent. Results from the survey show that 14% of the elderly rated their health as good, 76% indicated they were in fair health and 10% in poor health. The mean number of servings of food groups and some individual foods common in the daily diet show that the Grains group was the only food group whose mean intake (7.7 servings /day) was within the US recommended 6-11 servings per day. Fruit consumption was very poor (0.1 servings/day) and differed significantly by locality (p< .01), as the urban elderly had a higher consumption of fruits, but still much lower than the recommended intake. The contributions of protein, carbohydrate and fat to total energy were 15%, 66%, and 22% respectively. Adequate energy intake did differ significantly (p < .049) by selfhealth rating. Mean macronutrient intake differed significant by gender only for saturated fat (p< .038). Micronutrient intake differed by gender for vitamin A (p< .009), calcium (p < .01) and folic acid (p< .027). Consumption of adequate vitamin A was significantly associated with gender and cooking responsibilities. Self-health rating was also significantly associated with adequate consumption of vitamin B12 (p< .027), selenium (p< .001) and zinc (p< .009). In conclusion, Batswana elderly had poor nutrient intake associated with self-health rating, gender, and cooking responsibilities.
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