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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 716 matches for " Kanako Shimada "
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Piericidins, Novel Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors against Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, from Streptomyces sp. TOHO-Y209 and TOHO-O348  [PDF]
Kazuhiro Ooka, Atsushi Fukumoto, Tomoe Yamanaka, Kanako Shimada, Ryo Ishihara, Yojiro Anzai, Fumio Kato
Open Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (OJMC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmc.2013.34012
Abstract: Piericidin A1, 3’-rhamnopiericidin A1, and a novel compound piericidin E, a new quorum-sensing (QS) inhibitor
against Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, were isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. QS is well
known as a microbial signaling system and controls certain types of gene expression resulting in bioluminescence,
biofilm formation, swarming motility, antibiotic biosynthesis, and virulence factor production. C. violaceum CV026 is
commonly used to determine qualitative and quantitative QS activity. The structures of piericidin derivatives were characterized,
and their QS activities were determined.
Factors Associated with Social Support Needs of Spouses of Patients with Cancer: Online Survey  [PDF]
Kanako Amano, Kanako Ichikura, Kazuho Hisamura, Yuko Motomatsu, Eisuke Matsushima
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2019.104021
Background: A means of assessing the social support needs of spouses of patients with cancer is not available in Japan, yet such individuals are at increased risk of developing psychological difficulties. Objectives: The present study aimed (1) to describe the social support needs of spouses of patients with cancer, and (2) to explore factors associated with social support needs of spouses of patients with cancer. Design: Spouses (n = 559) of patients with cancer were recruited by registered agents of an online survey company and completed a self-reporting, online questionnaire. Measurements: The questionnaires included demographic information and a tool to assess social support needs. Results: Factor analysis of social support needs of the spouses of patients with cancer indicated that (1) “social support needs regarding disease and treatment of patient” (54 items) comprised 3 factors (“medical condition and cure”, “daily life and social support”, “intimacy and employment”), and (2) “social support needs of spouse (19 items)” comprised 2 factors (“family psychological issues and social support” and “intimacy, employment and society”). The ANOVA and T tests showed that “younger age”, “under treatment”, and “cancer not cured: treatment stopped”, “PS1” and “PS 2-4”, the presence of “lung cancer”, and “recurrence/metastasis” were significant factors (all p < 0.05). Conclusions: The age of the spouse, treatment status, performance status, site of cancer, and recurrence/metastasis are important factors related to spousal needs for social support. Clinicians should assess these factors and the social support needs of spouses to provide appropriate support.
Socially Anxious Tendencies Affect Autonomic Responses during Eye Gaze Perception  [PDF]
Yuki Tsuji, Sotaro Shimada
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.613160
Abstract: Social anxiety disorder is a common psychiatric disorder. The gaze of others is known to frequently induce social anxiety. We conducted a gaze detection experiment to examine the effects of social anxiety on autonomic response, namely heart rate (HR) response. We used the maximum HR deceleration between 0 s and 3 s after stimulus onset as an indicator of emotional stress. Participants were assigned to a high social anxiety (HSA) or low social anxiety (LSA) group on the basis of cut-off scores indicative of clinical levels of stress as per the Japanese version of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-J). Our results showed that HR deceleration was greater for the HSA compared with the LSA group. Moreover, the higher the LSAS-J score was, the greater the increase was in HR deceleration (correlation coefficient rs = 0.52, p < 0.01). Our results suggest that the eye gaze of others can be processed as a threat in individuals with a high tendency towards social anxiety.
Detailed Mechanism and Engineering Applicability of Electrolytic Polymerization Aided by a Magnetic Field in Natural Rubber by Mechanical Approach for Sensing (Part 1): The Effect of Experimental Conditions on Electrolytic Polymerization  [PDF]
Kunio Shimada, Norihiko Saga
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2016.610026
Abstract: Ordinary electrolytic polymerization has involved plastic-type polymer solutions. Rubber, especially natural rubber, is one such polymer solution. Rubber has not been focused on until recently due to the fact that electrolytic polymerization has only a very small effect on rubber. However, when we focus on the C=C bonds of natural rubber, the same electrolytic polymerization is applicable to be enlarged on the natural rubber if a magnetic field and a filler are added. With the application of a magnetic field and a magnetic responsive fluid such as magnetic compound fluid (MCF), the effect of electrolytic polymerization on NR-latex such as plastic-type polymer solutions is enhanced, and the thickness of the vulcanized MCF rubber grows in a short time. The present new method of vulcanization of MCF rubber is effective enough that it is widely used in haptic sensors in various engineering applications. In the present report, as mechanical approach for the sensing, by measuring the temperature under electrolytic polymerization, by investigating the electric and dynamic characteristics, and by observing the magnified appearance of the MCF rubber, we clarified the extrinsic effects of many experimental conditions, including magnetic field strength, applied voltage, the electrodes gap, mass concentration, and the ingredients of the MCF. This report is Part 1, to be followed by another sequential report, Part 2, in which other intrinsic effects on the characteristics are dealt with. The experimental conditions used and the results obtained in the present report provide valuable data that will be useful in the making of MCF rubber.
Detailed Mechanism and Engineering Applicability of Electrolytic Polymerization Aided by a Magnetic Field in Natural Rubber by Mechanical Approach for Sensing (Part 2): Other and Intrinsic Effects on MCF Rubber Property  [PDF]
Kunio Shimada, Norihiko Saga
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2016.610027
Abstract: The same ordinary electrolytic polymerization of plastic-type polymer solution is applicable to natural rubber, with its C=C bonds, if a magnetic field and a filler are added. With the application of a magnetic field and the magnetic responsive fluid known as magnetic compound fluid (MCF), we have clarified the enhancement of the electrolytic polymerization of NR-latex and the growth of the thickness of vulcanized MCF rubber that results from the addition of a magnetic field. The present new method of MCF rubber vulcanization is effective for use in haptic sensors, which are used widely in various engineering applications. In the previous report, part 1 of this study, we investigated many experimental conditions under mechanical approach for sensing: magnetic field strength; applied voltage; electrodes gap; mass concentration, and the ingredients of the MCF. In the present sequential report, part 2, we investigate many other effects on electrolytic polymerization by the same mechanical approach for sensing as in part 1: the Mullins effect; the Piezo effect; vibration; kind of electrode; atmospheric gas. In particular, we clarify that the voltage generates spontaneously in the MCF rubber and that the MCF rubber becomes a Piezo element. These effects on the electrolytic polymerization as well as the effects of the experimental conditions will be useful in engineering applications. By taking the above-mentioned parameters and effects into account, MCF rubber that is electrolytically polymerized with the aid of a magnetic field, the use of MCF as a filler, and doping, can be useful in haptic sensor applications. In particular, the effectiveness of the Piezo element can be shown.
Effect of Signal Filtering on Image Quality of Projection-Based Magnetic Particle Imaging  [PDF]
Kazuki Shimada, Kenya Murase
Open Journal of Medical Imaging (OJMI) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojmi.2017.72005
Abstract: Purpose: Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) allows for imaging of the spatial distribution of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in positive contrast, with high sensitivity, high spatial resolution, and high imaging speed. It is necessary to increase the signal-to-noise ratio to enhance the reliability of MPI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of signal filtering on the image quality and quantitativity in projection-based MPI using phantoms. Materials and Methods: We fabricated two kinds of phantom (cylindrical tube phantom with a diameter of 6 mm and A-shaped phantom) and evaluated the effect of signal filtering in terms of root-mean-square (RMS) granularity and the correlation coefficient between iron concentrations of MNPs and average MPI values for four filter modes (THRU, BPF, BEF, and LPF). In the THRU mode, the signal input was output without passing through the filter. In the BPF mode, only the third-harmonic signal was passed using a band-pass filter (central frequency: 1200 Hz, band width: 1/3 octave). In the BEF mode, the first-harmonic signal was eliminated using a band-elimination filter (central frequency: 400 Hz, band width: 1/3 octave). In the LPF mode, only the signal with a frequency less than the third-harmonic frequency was passed using a low-pass filter (cut-off frequency: 1200 Hz, -24 ± 2 dB/octave). The RMS granularity was obtained by calculating standard deviations of the pixel values in the MPI image without MNPs, whereas average MPI values were obtained by drawing a circular region of interest with a diameter of 6 mm on the MPI image of the cylindrical tube phantom. Results: When using the filtered back-projection (FBP) method with a ramp filter for image reconstruction, the RMS granularity and correlation coefficient decreased in the order of THRU, BPF, BEF, and LPF. In the BPF mode, however, some artifacts were observed. When using the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization (ML-EM) algorithm with an iteration number of 15, the correlation coefficient decreased in the order of THRU, BPF, BEF, and LPF, whereas the RMS granularity did not largely depend on the filter mode and was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than that for the FBP method for all the filter modes. Conclusion: The BEF mode is adequate for the FBP method in projection-based MPI, whereas THRU is a best option in use of the ML-EM algorithm.
Lock-in-Amplifier Model for Analyzing the Behavior of Signal Harmonics in Magnetic Particle Imaging  [PDF]
Kenya Murase, Kazuki Shimada
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2018.85014
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to present a lock-in-amplifier model for analyzing the behavior of signal harmonics in magnetic particle imaging (MPI) and some simulation results based on this model. In the lock-in-amplifier model, the signal induced by magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in a receiving coil was multiplied with a reference signal, and was then fed through a low-pass filter to extract the DC component of the signal (output signal). The MPI signal was defined as the mean of the absolute value of the output signal. The magnetization and particle size distribution of MNPs were assumed to obey the Langevin theory of paramagnetism and a log-normal distribution, respectively, and the strength of the selection magnetic field (SMF) in MPI was assumed to be given by the product of the gradient strength of the SMF and the distance from the field-free region (x). In addition, Gaussian noise was added to the signal induced by MNPs using normally-distributed random numbers. The relationships between the MPI signal and x were calculated for the odd- and even-numbered harmonics and were investigated for various time constants of the low-pass filter used in the lock-in amplifier and particle sizes and their distributions of MNPs. We found that the behavior of the MPI signal largely depended on the time constant of the low-pass filter and the particle size of MNPs. This lock-in-amplifier model will be useful for better understanding, optimizing, and developing MPI, and for designing MNPs appropriate for MPI.
An Integrated Contribution Approach Focusing on Technology for Climate Change Mitigation and Promotion of International Technology Cooperation and Transfer  [PDF]
Kanako Tanaka, Ryuji Matsuhashi, Koichi Yamada
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2016.72008
Abstract: Various technologies exist for climate change mitigation. Technology transfer is important for the efficient use of these technologies globally. Such transfer/cooperation should be implemented, at sector basis, broadly and unlimitedly beyond conventional framework. In this paper, an Integrated Contribution Approach is proposed as a domestic as well as a global strategy. This approach unifies two approaches: seeking ways to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, further improve technical capabilities and encourage technical innovation; and implementing technology transfer effectively, clarifying contributions and promoting efforts to achieve substantial global GHG reduction. As an illustration, this paper estimated the technical potential of solar generation in the developing world by the year 2020, considering current and anticipated technology development. The estimate suggests a huge possibility for CO2 reduction as well as business opportunities through worldwide technology cooperation based on recognition of the importance of continual technology development. To achieve such goals, a scheme promoting incentives for private investment is indispensable as it is essential to use economic forces as well as government policy. This paper describes the following considerations: establishing a simple, easy-to-access scheme that can concentrate private resources on technology transfer; clarifying reduction efforts through measuring, reporting, and verification (MRV); applying it to conditionality together with financial and/or economic internal rate of return (FIRR, EIRR); and establishing a database and analysing data on the technical contributions and dissemination
A post-labeling method for multiplexed and multicolored genotyping analysis of SSR, indel and SNP markers in single tube with bar-coded split tag (BStag)
Tokurou Shimizu, Kanako Yano
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-161
Abstract: A set of 16 bp-long oligonucleotide sequences termed bar-coded split tag (BStag), comprising a common basal region, a three-nucleotide 'bar-code' sequence, and a mismatched nucleotide at the middle position were designed for selective post-PCR labeling. The BStag was attached at the 5' end of the forward primer of interest. The melting temperature of the BStag was low enough to separate the labeling reaction from initial PCR amplification, and each sequence was minimally divergent but maintained maximum selectivity. Post-PCR labeling of the amplified product was achieved by extending for three cycles at a lower annealing temperature after the conventional amplification program with the appropriate fluorescently labeled BStag primer. No amplification was confirmed with BStag primers for 12 plant species. The electropherogram of the labeled product obtained using this method was consistent with that of prelabeled primer, except for their apparent size.BStag enabled multiplexed post-PCR labeling of simple sequence repeat or insertion/deletion markers with different dyes in a single tube. BStag in conjunction with locus specific oligo and allele specific oligo was also useful for single nucleotide polymorphism analysis. The labeling protocol was simple and no additional operation was required. Single-tube multiplexed post-PCR labeling is useful for a wide variety of genotyping studies with maximal flexibility and minimal costs.Various types of DNA markers including simple sequence repeat (SSR), insertion/deletion (indel), or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) have been developed and used in a wide variety of genotyping studies with a fluorescent capillary DNA sequencer [1]. Although rapid developments in whole genome sequencing technology or array-based assay systems have enabled large-scale discovery and genotyping of polymorphisms, genotyping analysis using a fluorescent capillary DNA sequencer remains important for small- to mid-scale evaluation due to its ease of
Instability of quasi-liquid on the edges and vertices of snow crystals
Kanako T. Sato
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: In this paper, we show theoretically that there exists quasi-liquid on the edges and vertices of snow crystals between -4C and -22C, while the basal and prism faces have no quasi-liquid layers. Investigating the macroscopic theory of quasi-liquid and applying to the edges and vertices of the crystal, we find that the quasi-liquid becomes unstable above the critical supersaturation point, which is above the water saturation point. The thickness of this unstable quasi-liquid layer continues growing indefinitely. We interpret this behavior as corresponding to continuous production and overflow onto neighboring faces in a real system. We hypothesize that the unstable growth of snow crystals originates from the edges and vertices, and it is due to the overflow of quasi-liquid from the edges and vertices onto the neighboring faces, which are rough and lack quasi-liquid. Our hypothesis accounts for the qualitative behavior of the relations between the morphological instability and the water saturation in the snow phase diagram.
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