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Pulmonary vascular permeability changes in an ovine model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sepsis
Collette C Jonkam, Kamna Bansal, Daniel L Traber, Atsumori Hamahata, Marc O Maybauer, Dirk M Maybauer, Robert A Cox, Matthias Lange, Rhykka L Connelly, Lillian D Traber, Clarisse D Djukom, John R Salsbury, David N Herndon, Perenlei Enkhbaatar
Critical Care , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/cc7720
Abstract: Ewes were chronically instrumented, and randomised into either a control or MRSA sepsis (MRSA and smoke inhalation) group.Pulmonary function remained stable in the control group, whereas the MRSA sepsis group developed impaired gas exchange and significantly increased lung lymph flow, permeability index and bloodless wet-to-dry weight-ratio (W/D ratio). The plasma nitrate/nitrite (NOx) levels, lung inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthases (eNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein expressions and poly-(ADP)-ribose (PAR) were significantly increased by MRSA challenge.These results provide evidence that excessive NO production may mediate pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability in MRSA sepsis via up regulation of reactive radicals and VEGF.Despite advancements in the treatment of sepsis, its sequelae remain associated with increased risk of death among patients in intensive care units (ICU) [1]. From 1979 to 2000, the incidence of sepsis in the USA increased by 13.7%, and the number of sepsis-related in-hospital deaths rose from 43,579 in 1979 to 120,491 in 2000, with Gram-positive bacteria being increasingly recognised as the most common pathogens (52.1% versus 37.6% Gram negative) [2]. Pneumonia is one of the dominant causes of sepsis. Smoke inhalation injury is frequently complicated by pneumonia [3,4]. The mortality in fire victims increases by a maximum of 20% when associated with smoke inhalation injury alone, by 40% with pneumonia alone, but concomitantly they increase the mortality by up to 60% [4].Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections in burn patients [5]. Wang and colleagues [6] reported an increased number of patients with community-acquired MRSA bacteraemia and showed a close association with necrotizing pneumonia. Staphylococcus aureus has been reported to be a predominant cause (38%) of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in surgical ICU
Depression and Hopelessness in Institutionalized Elderly: A Societal Concern  [PDF]
Kamna Sarin, Punyaapriya P, Sanjoni Sethi, Itisha Nagar
Open Journal of Depression (OJD) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojd.2016.53003
Abstract: Even though occurrence of depression in older adults is considered a major public health problem, very few Indian studies have made an attempt to study the mental health of elderly residing in institutionalized settings such as nursing homes and old age homes. The purpose of this study is to examine the presence and severity of depression and extent of negative attitudes about the future in institutionalized elderly in India. Data were collected by administering the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) on residents of different old age homes across Delhi NCR (N = 21). Results revealed presence of mild depression and mild hopelessness in the institutionalized elderly. Further, a positive strong correlation was found between depression and hopelessness (Г = 0.83). Social and emotional losses associated with institutionalization are likely to lead to depressive responses in the elderly. The findings of the study draw attention to the neglected and apathetic conditions of institutionalized elderly, an imperative concern for the Indian society.
Discriminating antigen and non-antigen using proteome dissimilarity III: tumour and parasite antigens
Kamna Ramakrishnan,Darren R. Flower
Bioinformation , 2010,
Abstract: Computational genome analysis enables systematic identification of potential immunogenic proteins within a pathogen. Immunogenicity is a system property that arises through the interaction of host and pathogen as mediated through the medium of a immunogenic protein. The overt dissimilarity of pathogenic proteins when compared to the host proteome is conjectured by some to be the determining principal of immunogenicity. Previously, we explored this idea in the context of Bacterial, Viral, and Fungal antigen. In this paper, we broaden and extend our analysis to include complex antigens of eukaryotic origin, arising from tumours and from parasite pathogens. For both types of antigen, known antigenic and non-antigenic protein sequences were compared to human and mouse proteomes. In contrast to our previous results, both visual inspection and statistical evaluation indicate a much wider range of homologues and a significant level of discrimination; but, as before, we could not determine a viable threshold capable of properly separating non-antigen from antigen. In concert with our previous work, we conclude that global proteome dissimilarity is not a useful metric for immunogenicity for presently available antigens arising from Bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and tumours. While we see some signal for certain antigen types, using dissimilarity is not a useful approach to identifying antigenic molecules within pathogen genomes.
Discriminating antigen and non-antigen using proteome dissimilarity II: viral and fungal antigens
Kamna Ramakrishnan,Darren R. Flower
Bioinformation , 2010,
Abstract: Immunogenicity arises via many synergistic mechanisms, yet the overall dissimilarity of pathogenic proteins versus the host proteome has been proposed as a key arbiter. We have previously explored this concept in relation to Bacterial antigens; here we extend our analysis to antigens of viral and fungal origin. Sets of known viral and fungal antigenic and non-antigenic protein sequences were compared to human and mouse proteomes. Both antigenic and non-antigenic sequences lacked human or mouse homologues. Observed distributions were compared using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. The statistical null hypothesis was accepted, indicating that antigen and non-antigens did not differ significantly. Likewise, we could not determine a threshold able meaningfully to separate non-antigen from antigen. We conclude that viral and fungal antigens cannot be predicted from pathogen genomes based solely on their dissimilarity to mammalian genomes.
Discriminating antigen and non-antigen using proteome dissimilarity: bacterial antigens.
Kamna Ramakrishnan,Darren R Flower
Bioinformation , 2010,
Abstract: It has been postulated that immunogenicity results from the overall dissimilarity of pathogenic proteins versus the host proteome. We have sought to use this concept to discriminate between antigens and non-antigens of bacterial origin. Sets of 100 known antigenic and nonantigenic peptide sequences from bacteria were compared to human and mouse proteomes. Both antigenic and non-antigenic sequences lacked human or mouse homologues. Observed distributions were compared using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. The statistical null hypothesis was accepted, indicating that antigen and non-antigens did not differ significantly. Likewise, we were unable to determine a threshold able to separate meaningfully antigen from non-antigen. Thus, antigens cannot be predicted from pathogen genomes based solely on their dissimilarity to the human genome.
Insights on the structural characteristics of NDM-1: The journey so far  [PDF]
Avneet Saini, Rohit Bansal
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2012.24040
Abstract: New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) has created a medical storm ever since it was first reported; as it is active on virtually all clinically used β-lactam antibiotics. NDM-1 rampancy worldwide is now considered a nightmare scenario, particularly due to its rapid dissemination. An underlying theme in the majority of recent studies is structural characterization as knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of NDM-1 shall help find connections between its structure and function. Moreover, structural details are even critical in order to reveal the resistance mecha- nism to β-lactam antibiotics. In this perspective, we review structural characteristics of NDM-1 that have been delineated since its first report. We anticipate that these structure-function connections made by its characterization shall further serve as future guidelines for elucidating pathways towards de novo design of functional inhibitors.
Determinants of IPOs Initial Return: Extreme Analysis of Indian Market  [PDF]
Rohit Bansal, Ashu Khanna
Journal of Financial Risk Management (JFRM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jfrm.2012.14012
Abstract: This paper attempts to design and test empirical models, which integrate theoretical, institutional, and other factors, which interact to explain ownership structure. Ex-ante information at the level of under-pricing succeeds the Indian stock market crunch. The study is based on IPO that listed at Bombay stock exchange given that April 2000 to December 2011. Multiple linear regressions are used to distinguish the relationship between various independent variables with the dependent variable, i.e. level of underpricing. The outcomes of multiple regressions reveal that, firm’s age, IPO years, book building pricing mechanism, ownership structure, issue size, & market capitalization explained 44% of the variation in issuer under-pricing, Durbin Watson’s value subsisted 1.58, which indicates that, there is a positive sequential rela-tionship between variables. Number of share offered, issue size, market capitalization, subscription offer timing, book building mechanism and IPO years 2006, 2009 & 2011 are constructed to have important effect on the level of underpricing after the Indian market crisis. Nevertheless, firm’s age, IPOs year 2008, private issuing firms, non institutional promoters, Indian promoters and non institutional non promoters contain no significant difference in the level of underpricing after-market crisis.
Green remediation of tetracyclines in soil-water systems  [PDF]
Om Prakash Bansal
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.512276

The presence of tetracyclines in soil and surface water is an emerging concern. The present study was undertaken to investigate remediation of tetracylines (tetracycline (TC), oxytetracycline (OTC) and chlortetracycline (CTC)) from aqueous solution using vetiver grass, water lettuce, and sunflower and root exudates of water lettuce, sunflower and from soil by tomato, Indian mustard and carrot plant. The data of this study denote that vetiver grass, water lettuce, sunflower remedy tetracyclines from water. The remediation % after 63 days of treatment was 87-61 for TC; 88-68 for OTC and 87-68 for CTC. The remediation of tetracyclines at lower concentration of antibiotics in presence of root exudates of water lettuce and sunflower was more than 99% and remediation was faster than water lettuce or sunflower. The remediation of tetracyclines from aqueous solution may be due to oxidation of-OH group(s) of tetracycline through a process that is thought to involve reactive oxygen intermediates and/or role of peroxidase enzyme. The plant crops viz., tomato, Indian mustard and carrot can remedy 41%-72% of amended tetracyclines. The maximum bioaccumulation of TC and CTC was in Indian mustard and OTC was maximally bioaccumulated in tomato.


Diversity of thermophilic fungi in the soil of Indian Thar Desert
Indian Phytopathology , 2011,
Better Management of Defects for Improving Software Processes
Shruti Mittal,Kamna Solanki,Anuja Saroha
International Journal of Computer Science and Management Studies , 2011,
Abstract: Every software after development needs to get tested. No softwarecan be built “Defect Free”. After testing defects are reported by theuse of a tool called “Defect Tracking System”. Also Defectsreported can be managed for enhancing the quality of software. Thispaper present the view of how defects are managed and the approachused for managing defect i.e. defect management process. Also it canbe used for process improvement which means to prevent futureoccurrence of similar defects in processes.
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