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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 468341 matches for " Kaitlin A. Victor "
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NSD1 Mitigates Caspase-1 Activation by Listeriolysin O in Macrophages
Olivia S. Sakhon, Kaitlin A. Victor, Anthony Choy, Tokuji Tsuchiya, Thomas Eulgem, Joao H. F. Pedra
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075911
Abstract: Mammals and plants share pathogen-sensing systems named nod-like receptors (NLRs). Some NLRs form the inflammasome, a protein scaffold that regulates the secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 by cleaving catalytically inactive substrates into mature cytokines. Here, we show an immune conservation between plant and mammalian NLRs and demonstrate that the murine nuclear receptor binding SET domain protein 1 (NSD1), a protein that bears similarity to the NLR regulator enhanced downy mildew 2 (EDM2) in Arabidopsis, diminishes caspase-1 activity during extracellular stimulation with Listeria monocytogenes listeriolysin O (LLO). EDM2 is known to regulate plant developmental processes, whereas NSD1 is associated with developmental disorders. We observed that NSD1 neither affects nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling nor regulates NLRP3 inflammasome gene expression at the chromatin, transcriptional or translational level during LLO stimulation of macrophages. Silencing of Nsd1 followed by LLO stimulation led to increased caspase-1 activation, enhanced post-translational maturation of IL-1β and IL-18 and elevated pyroptosis, a form of cell death associated with inflammation. Furthermore, treatment of macrophages with LLOW492A, which lacks hemolytic activity due to a tryptophan to alanine substitution in the undecapeptide motif, indicates the importance of functional LLO for NSD1 regulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Taken together, our results indicate that NLR signaling in plants may be used for gene discovery in mammals.
Mites (Acari) Associated with the Desert Seed Harvester Ant, Messor pergandei (Mayr)
Kaitlin A. Uppstrom,Hans Klompen
Psyche , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/974646
Abstract: Mites (Acari) associated with the seed harvester ant Messor pergandei were investigated in the Sonoran desert of Arizona. At least seven representatives of the mite genera Armacarus, Lemanniella, Petalomium, Forcellinia, Histiostoma, Unguidispus, and Cosmoglyphus are phoretically associated with M. pergandei. Most of these morphospecies show preference for specific phoretic attachment sites and primarily use female alates rather than male alates for dispersal. Five mite morphospecies were found in low numbers inhabiting the chaff piles: Tydeidae sp., Procaeculus sp., Anystidae sp., Bakerdania sp., and Tetranychidae sp. The phoretic Petalomium sp. was observed consuming fungus growing on a dead queen, but the roles of the other mite species remain mostly unresolved. 1. Introduction The Sonoran Desert occupies the southwestern portion of Arizona and extends into California and Mexico. It is a harsh environment characterized by little rainfall, widely spaced shrubby vegetation, saguaro cacti, sandy soil, and high summer temperatures [1]. Seed harvesting by some desert ants is an adaptation to the lack of typical ant resources such as prey or honeydew from homopterans [2]. Harvester ants increase seed dispersal, protection, and provide nutrients that increase seedling survivorship of the desert plants [2–5]. In addition, ants provide soil aeration through the creation of galleries and chambers, mix deep and upper layers of soil, and incorporate organic refuse into the soil [6]. Messor pergandei (Mayr) (length: 2.5–7?mm) is one of the most conspicuous and thoroughly studied species of seed harvesters found in the southwestern United States. This species forms populous, long-lived colonies with an estimated 30,000 to 50,000 workers [7, 8]. Its nests have been estimated to span 15.5?m in underground diameter, and extending to a depth of 4?m [2]. Nests have conspicuous crater entrances (usually 2-3 per nest), which are surrounded by chaff (refuse) piles [9]. Mating flights in this species occur primarily in February when temperatures reach approximately 22°C [10]. Mites (Acari) often attach to larger arthropods for dispersal (phoresy). Through this primarily commensal relationship, mites are able to exploit scattered habitats more successfully than they would be able to do without external assistance [11]. Often phoretic mites are so synchronized with their hosts that they are able to detect subtle changes in life cycle or other aspects of their host species. For example it has been documented that if the host’s sex determines the mites’ continued survival or
The Presenting Symptom of Metastatic Prostate Carcinoma: Case of a Large Supraclavicular Mass and Review of Literature  [PDF]
Cory A. Vaughn, Kaitlin R. Jaqua, Ryan K. Meacham, Fransisco Vieira
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (IJOHNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijohns.2013.25043
Abstract: Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous malignancy of American males and typically presents with genitourinary symptoms, however, head and neck extension is a rare finding. We present a case of a 53-year-old male initially presenting with a large supraclavicular mass as the only complaint. After an initial non-diagnostic FNA biopsy, PSA levels, histology and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma. The patient was started on anti-hormonal treatment after diagnosis. Due to the increasing reports of such cases, we suggest PSA levels and appropriate immunohistochemical staining should be obtained on all unknown neck masses.
The Effect of Olfactory Exposure to Non-Insecticidal Agrochemicals on Bumblebee Foraging Behavior
Jordanna D. H. Sprayberry, Kaitlin A. Ritter, Jeffrey A. Riffell
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076273
Abstract: Declines in bumblebee populations have led to investigations into potential causes – including agrochemical effects on bumblebee physiology. The indirect effects of agrochemicals (i.e. behavior modulation) have been postulated, but rarely directly tested. Olfactory information is critical in mediating bumblebee-floral interactions. As agrochemicals emit volatiles, they may indirectly modify foraging behavior. We tested the effects of olfactory contamination of floral odor by agrochemical scent on foraging activity of Bombus impatiens using two behavioral paradigms: localization of food within a maze and forced-choice preference. The presence of a fungicide decreased bumblebees’ ability to locate food within a maze. Additionally, bumblebees preferred to forage in non-contaminated feeding chambers when offered a choice between control and either fertilizer- or fungicide-scented chambers.
Evaluation of the seroprevalence of influenza A(H1N1) 2009 on a university campus: a cross-sectional study
Shira C Shafir, Kaitlin A O'Keefe, Kimberley I Shoaf
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-922
Abstract: Using a cross-sectional study design, sera was collected from volunteers and then tested for the presence of antibodies to the virus using a ≥ 1:40 dilution cut-off by hemagglutination inhibition assay. In conjunction, participants were asked to complete a questionnaire allowing us to estimate risk factors for infection in this population, as well as distinguish artificially derived antibodies from naturally derived antibodies.300 total participants were recruited and tested. 158 (52.6%) tested positive for influenza A(H1N1) 2009 via hemagglutination inhibition assay using a ≥ 1:40 dilution cut-off. 86 people (54.4%) tested positive for H1N1 but did not report experiencing symptoms during the pandemic meeting the May 2010 CDC definition of influenza-like illness. Furthermore, of those individuals who reported that they had received the H1N1 vaccine, 16% did not test positive.Overall, 52.7% of the total study population tested positive for influenza A(H1N1) 2009. 54.4% of those who tested positive for influenza A(H1N1) 2009 using the ≥ 1:40 dilution cut-off on the hemagglutination inhibition assay in this study population did not report experiencing symptoms during the pandemic meeting the May 2010 CDC definition of influenza-like illness. 16% of those who reported receiving the H1N1 vaccine did not test positive by HAI. We also found that vaccination coverage for H1N1 vaccine was poor among Blacks and Latinos, despite the fact that vaccine was readily available at no cost.Human infection with influenza A(H1N1) 2009 was first identified in the United States on 15 April 2009 and on 11 June 2009, WHO declared that the rapidly spreading swine-origin influenza virus constituted a global pandemic [1]. Influenza A(H1N1) 2009 is characterized by a combination of gene segments not previously identified [2]. Within weeks of the beginning of the epidemic, public health laboratories quickly became overwhelmed with unprecedented numbers of clinical influenza specimens for testin
Fragment Production and Survival in Irradiated Disks: A Comprehensive Cooling Criterion
Kaitlin M. Kratter,Ruth A. Murray-Clay
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/740/1/1
Abstract: Accretion disks that become gravitationally unstable can fragment into stellar or sub-stellar companions. The formation and survival of these fragments depends on the precarious balance between self-gravity, internal pressure, tidal shearing, and rotation. Disk fragmentation depends on two key factors (1) whether the disk can get to the fragmentation boundary of Q=1, and (2) whether fragments can survive for many orbital periods. Previous work suggests that to reach Q=1, and have fragments survive, a disk must cool on an orbital timescale. Here we show that disks heated primarily by external irradiation always satisfy the standard cooling time criterion. Thus even though irradiation heats disks, and makes them more stable in general, once they reach the fragmentation boundary, they fragment more easily. We derive a new cooling criterion that determines fragment survival, and calculate a pressure modified Hill radius, which sets the maximum size of pressure-supported objects in a Keplerian disk. We conclude that fragmentation in protostellar disks might occur at slightly smaller radii than previously thought, and recommend tests for future simulations that will better predict the outcome of fragmentation in real disks.
Nonlinear Interaction of N Conservative Waves in Two Dimensions  [PDF]
Victor A. Miroshnikov
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2014.43012
Abstract:

Kinematic Fourier (KF) structures, exponential kinematic Fourier (KEF) structures, dynamic exponential (DEF) Fourier structures, and KEF-DEF structures with constant and space-dependent structural coefficients are developed in the current paper to treat kinematic and dynamic problems for nonlinear interaction of N conservative waves in the two-dimensional theory of the Newtonian flows with harmonic velocity. The computational method of solving partial differential equations (PDEs) by decomposition in invariant structures, which continues the analytical methods of undetermined coefficients and separation of variables, is extended by using an experimental and theoretical computation in Maple?. For internal waves vanishing at infinity, the Dirichlet problem is formulated for kinematic and dynamics systems of the vorticity, continuity, Helmholtz, Lamb-Helmholtz, and Bernoulli equations in the upper and lower domains. Exact solutions for upper and lower cumulative flows are discovered by the experimental computing, proved by the theoretical computing, and verified by the system of Navier-Stokes PDEs. The KEF and KEF-DEF structures of the cumulative flows are visualized by instantaneous surface plots with isocurves. Modeling of a deterministic wave chaos by aperiodic flows in the KEF, DEF, and KEF-DEF structures with 5N parameters is considered.

Conservative Interaction of N Internal Waves in Three Dimensions  [PDF]
Victor A. Miroshnikov
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2014.44029
Abstract: The Navier-Stokes system of equations is reduced to a system of the vorticity, continuity, Helmholtz, and Lamb-Helmholtz equations. The periodic Dirichlet problems are formulated for internal waves vanishing at infinity in the upper and lower domains. Stationary kinematic Fourier (SKF) structures, stationary exponential kinematic Fourier (SKEF) structures, stationary dynamic exponential (SDEF) Fourier structures, and SKEF-SDEF structures of three spatial variables and time are constructed in the current paper to treat kinematic and dynamic problems of the three-dimensional theory of the Newtonian flows with harmonic velocity. Two exact solutions for conservative interaction of N internal waves in three dimensions are developed by the method of decomposition in invariant structures and implemented through experimental and theoretical programming in Maple?. Main results are summarized in a global existence theorem for the strong solutions. The SKEF, SDEF, and SKEF-SDEF structures of the cumulative flows are visualized by two-parametric surface plots for six fluid-dynamic variables.
Interaction of Two Pulsatory Waves of the Korteweg-de Vries Equation in a Zigzag Hyperbolic Structure  [PDF]
Victor A. Miroshnikov
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2014.43022
Abstract:

A new exact solution for nonlinear interaction of two pulsatory waves of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is computed by decomposition in an invariant zigzag hyperbolic tangent (ZHT) structure. A computational algorithm is developed by experimental programming with lists of equations and expressions. The structural solution is proved by theoretical programming with symbolic general terms. Convergence, tolerance, and summation of the ZHT structural approximation are discussed. When a reference level vanishes, the two-wave solution is reduced to the two-soliton solution of the KdV equation.

Deterministic Chaos of N Stochastic Waves in Two Dimensions  [PDF]
Victor A. Miroshnikov
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2014.44025
Abstract:

Kinematic exponential Fourier (KEF) structures, dynamic exponential (DEF) Fourier structures, and KEF-DEF structures with time-dependent structural coefficients are developed to examine kinematic and dynamic problems for a deterministic chaos of N stochastic waves in the two-dimensional theory of the Newtonian flows with harmonic velocity. The Dirichlet problems are formulated for kinematic and dynamics systems of the vorticity, continuity, Helmholtz, Lamb-Helmholtz, and Bernoulli equations in the upper and lower domains for stochastic waves vanishing at infinity. Development of the novel method of solving partial differential equations through decomposition in invariant structures is resumed by using experimental and theoretical computation in Maple?. This computational method generalizes the analytical methods of separation of variables and undetermined coefficients. Exact solutions for the deterministic chaos of upper and lower cumulative flows are revealed by experimental computing, proved by theoretical computing, and justified by the system of Navier-Stokes PDEs. Various scenarios of a developed wave chaos are modeled by 3N parameters and 2N boundary functions, which exhibit stochastic behavior.

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