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Analysis of Adaptive Response of Maize (Zea mays) Varieties from DR-Congo to Water Stress  [PDF]
Jean Pierre Kabongo Tshiabukole, Amand Mbuya Kankolongo, Gertrude Pongi Khonde, Antoine Mumba Djamba, Roger Kizungu Vumilia, Kabwe Nkongolo
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.89153
Abstract: Maize production in tropical Africa is often negatively affected by drought. The main objectives of the present study were to 1) analyze the impact of water stress on the agro-morphological performance of two varieties of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) compared to two normal maize varieties and 2) assess their adaptive response in contrasting water environments. Agro-morphological responses to water deficiency of maize (Zea mays L.) were assessed in controlled experiments using four maize varieties, two normal maize (Zm725 and Mus1) and two quality protein maize (Mudishi1 and Mudishi3) varieties. They were subjected to three water regimes (100%, 60%, 30% water retention capacity) at the beginning of the bloom stage, using a Fischer block design with four replications. Significant differences (p < 0.05) among varieties, water regimes and their interactions for plant growth and production parameters were observed. Reduction of water supply to plants caused changes in aerial and underground plant growth. Plant stem height, foliar expansion, and root system development characterizing vegetative growth showed variation in varietal response to water regimes. Mus1 (normal maize variety) was the best adapted to variations in water regimes because they developed an important root volume to adapt to the effects of water deficit while maintaining their morphological and productive characteristics.
Influence of Climate Variability on Seasonal Rainfall Patterns in South-Western DR Congo  [PDF]
Kabongo Tshiabukole, Pongi Khonde, Muliele Muku, Kizungu Vumilia, Kiasala Lunekua, Mbuya Kankolongo
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102952
Climate variability in DR Congo in general and in the Kongo Central Province in particular is well established. However, rains related to variables such as frequency of rainy days and duration of the rainy seasons was generally very little studied. This study aims to investigate the influence of the climate event on rainfall patterns in the south-western of the DRC. This is firstly to characterize the climate event from the analysis of the air temperature, the frequency of rainy days and duration of the rainy seasons. Furthermore compare the normal monthly rainfall over the period 1962- 2012 to clear the behavior of seasonal rainfall patterns. Climate variability is manifested by temporal dynamic regressive temperatures, annual rainfall and a decrease in the number of rainy days. A temperature increase of around 1 was observed from 1992 and the thermal peak was recorded in 1994 (>28℃). The highest rainfall was recorded in 2006 (>2400 mm). These variabilities cause short periods of intense rainfall leading to early droughts of the end of season.
Suitable Hybrids and Synthetics Provitamin A Maize Selected for Release in the Democratic Republic of Congo  [PDF]
Kabongo Tshiabukole, Pongi Khonde, Mbuya Kankolongo, Tshimbombo Jadika, Kaboko Kasongo, Mulumba Badibanga, Tshibanda Kasongo, Kizungu Vumilia
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103446
Six new provitamin A hybrids (LY1001-14, LY1001-22 and LY1001-23,) and synthetic maize varieties (PVASYN13, PVASYN9 and PVASYN7) were tested for their agronomic performance and compared to a locally adapted improved open pollinated variety (SAMARU) in the central and western conditions of DRC. A randomized complete block experiment with four replications was used. Following data were collected: 50% male and female flowering, plant and ear aspect, diseases incidence, plant height, ear aspect, ear rot and yield. The results showed non-significant differences (p > 0.05) in disease incidence and ears rot. Significant differences were observed (p < 0.05) for number of days to 50% of male and female flowering, anthesis-silking interval, plant height, plant aspect, ear aspect, and yield. For yield, two hybrids (LY100-14 and LY1001-22) respectively out-yielded local check by 71% and 56% while one synthetic (PVASYN 9) out-yielded the local check by 31% and the two others were comparable to the local check. Thus the hybrids (LY100-14 and LY1001-22) and synthetic varieties (PVASYN 9 and PVASYN13) are ready to be recommended for release to contribute to better production and nutrition for vulnerable people.
Evaluation of Yield and Competition Indices for Intercropped Eight Maize Varieties, Soybean and Cowpea in the Zone of Savanna of South-West RD Congo  [PDF]
Pongi Khonde, Kabongo Tshiabukole, Mbuya Kankolongo, Stefan Hauser, Mumba Djamba, Kizungu Vumilia, Kabwe Nkongolo
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103746
In order to enhance the legumes potential advantages on the cereal yield in intercropping system by nitrogen direct transfer from legume to cereal, an intercropping experiment was conducted between eight maize varieties (07SADVE, 08SADVE 1, 09SADVE F2, Mudishi 1, Mudishi 3, VP0523, ZM538 and Samaru), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata var. H4) and soybean (Glycine max var. Vuangi) during November 2011-February 2012 season at INERA/Mvuazi in the south-western country of DR Congo. The experimental design was a Split plot with four replications, twenty six treatments were applied between maize varieties monocrops (40.000 plant·ha﹣1) and legumes in monoculture (360.000 plant·ha﹣1) and both of sole planting were combined. Evaluation of these soles planting was performed on basis of several intercropping indices (MYE, LER, ATER, RCC, A and CR), the monetary advantage index (MAI), Actual Yield Loss index (AYL) and intercropping index (IA). After data analysis, competitivity indices indicated the higher yields advantages of maize varieties in intercropping, especially Mudishi 3-soybean (MYE = 2836.300 kg·ha﹣1). The equivalent land ratio (LER) varied with 08SADVE 1variety between 0.70 and 1.66 in cowpea and soybean intercrops respectively, the Relative crowding coefficient (RCC) showed yield advantage of all intercrops except with 09SADVE F2, Mudishi 1 and 07SADVE. Aggressivity (A) showed dominance of maize in all intercrops, against the Competitive ratio (CR) showed that the competitivity was stronger on cowpea (from 16.42 to 98.63) than soybean (from 16.12 to 25.70). Actual yield loss (AYL) was negative in all intercrops with cowpea and soybean. Thus, the index of association (IA) informed that the negative values of the different intercrops were due to the maize price (1000 CDF·kg﹣1) and legumes price (1500 CDF·kg﹣1). Finally, the monetary advantage index (MAI = 922.92) and PCA had determined that intercrop with Mudishi 3-soybean as an economic efficiency intercrop than others mixtures.
Simulation of Growth and Leaf Area Index of Quality Protein Maize Varieties in the Southwestern Savannah Region of the DR-Congo  [PDF]
Jean Pierre Kabongo Tshiabukole, Roger Kizungu Vumilia, Gertrude Pongi Khonde, Jean Claude Lukombo Lukeba, Amand Mbuya Kankolongo, Antoine Mumba Djamba, Kabwe K. C. Nkongolo
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2019.106070
Abstract: Logistic and exponential approaches have been used to simulate plant growth and leaf area index (LAI) in different growing conditions. The objective of the present study was to develop and evaluate an approach to simulate maize LAI that expresses key physiological and phonological processes using a minimum entry requirement for Quality Protein maize (QPM) varieties grown in the southwestern region of the DR-Congo. Data for the development and testing of the model were collected manually in experimental plots using a non-destructive method. Simulation results revealed measurable variations between crop seasons (long season A and short season B) and between the two varieties (Mudishi-1 and Mudishi-3) for height, number of visible leaves, and LAI. For both seasons, Mudishi-3, a short stature variety was associated with expected stable yield based on simulation data. In general, the model simulated reliably all the parameters including the LAI. The LAI value for mudishi-1 was higher than that of Mudishi-3. There were significant differences among the model parameters (K, Ti, a, b, Tf) and between the two varieties. In all crop conditions studied and for the two varieties, the senescence rate (a) was higher, while the growth rate (b) was lower compared to the estimates based on the STICS model.
Une journée dans la vie d’Augustine Amaya d’Emmanuel Dongala : l’ identité de la femme africaine et du peuple congolais
Olivia Kabongo
Voix Plurielles , 2010,
Abstract: La femme a un r le central dans Jazz et vin de palme d’Emmanuel Dongala, surtout dans la nouvelle intitulée Une journée dans la vie d’Augustine Amaya. Par le biais du personnage d’Augustine Amaya et du processus de création littéraire, l’auteur explore la relation homme-femme, ainsi que le statut et l’identité de la femme dans la société centre-africaine. Dongala nous présente une image de la femme en tant que mère du peuple, et aussi belle qu’elle soit, elle reflète aussi le paradoxe de la femme noire. Cette image idéalisée de la femme sera analysée dans cet article et comparée à celle que Camara Laye présente dans L’Enfant noir, Maryse Condé dans Moi Tituba Sorcière et Alice Walker dans In Search of our Mother’s Gardens.
Effectiveness of home-based directly observed treatment for tuberculosis in Kweneng West subdistrict, Botswana
Bob Mash,Diulu Kabongo
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/phcfm.v2i1.168
Abstract: Background: Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV are major public health problems in Botswana. In the face of growing TB notification rates, a low cure rate, human resource constraints and poor accessibility to health facilities, Botswana Ministry of Health decided to offer home-based directly observed treatment (DOT) using community volunteers. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of home-based directly observed treatment (HB-DOT) versus facility-based, directly observed treatment (FB-DOT) in the Kweneng West subdistrict in Botswana and to explore the acceptability of HB-DOT among TB patients,community volunteers and health workers. Method: A quantitative, observational study using routinely collected TB data from 405 TB patientswas conducted and combined with 20 qualitative in-depth interviews. Results: The overall cure rate for smear-positive pulmonary TB patients was 78.5%. Treatmentoutcomes were not statistically different between FB-DOT and HB-DOT. Contact tracing was significantly better in FB-DOT patients. Interviews revealed advantages and disadvantages for both FB and HB options and that flexibility in the choice or mix of options was important. A number of suggestions were made by the interviewees to improve the HB-DOT programme. Conclusion: HB-DOT is at least as good as FB-DOT in terms of the treatment outcomes, but attention must be given to contact tracing. HB-DOT offers some patients the flexibility they need to adhere to TB treatment and community volunteers may be strengthened by ongoing training and support from health workers, financial incentives and provision of basic equipment. How to cite this article:Kabongo D, Mash B. Effectiveness of homebased directly observed treatment for tuberculosis in Kweneng West subdistrict, Botswana. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2010;2(10), Art. #168,6 pages. DOI: 10.4102/phcfm. V2i1.168
Detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in specimens from cattle in South Africa and possible association with clinical disease
N. Kabongo,M. Van Vuuren
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v75i2.459
Abstract: Studies covering all aspects of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) have been conducted in several countries in Europe, Asia and America. In southern Africa, more information is required about the nature of BVDV infection, the prevalence of different strains and the economic importance of the disease. The presence of BVDV in southern Africa has been known since the early 1970s through serological surveys but few reports confirming its presence by virus isolation and correlation with clinical disease are available. Specimens (n = 312) collected in 1998/99, from live and dead cattle from different farming systems, were obtained from private practitioners, feedlot consultants and abattoirs throughout the country. Specimens (n=37) from African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park were also included. All specimens were processed for virus isolation in cell culture with confirmation by means of immunofluorescent antibody tests and some also by means of an antigen capture ELISA. BVDV was isolated from 15 (4.7 %) cattle and were all noncytopathic biotypes. BVDV was not detected in 37 lymph nodes obtained from buffaloes in the Kruger National Park. Of the clinical signs in cattle from which virus were isolated, respiratory signs was the most frequent (10/15), followed by diarrhoea (5/15). Abortion, congenital malformations, haemorrhagic diarrhoea and poor growth were also included as criteria for selection of animals for specimen collection, but no BVD viruses were isolated from cattle manifesting these clinical signs.
Molecular analysis of bovine viral diarrhoea virus isolates from South Africa
N. Kabongo,C. Baule,M. Van Vuuren
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/ojvr.v70i4.292
Abstract: The presence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in South Africa has been confirmed by several serological surveys. However, little is known about its biological properties. Twenty five isolates obtained by isolation in tissue culture and detected by means of the antigen capture ELISA from clinically sick cattle and from foetal calf serum in South Africa were characterized on the basis of analysis of the 5' non-translated (NTR) region of the genome. A reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to amplify specific sequences from the 5'NTR of the genome. The oligonucleotide primers corresponding to positions 105-125 and 399-378, respectively, in the sequence of BVDV strain NADL were used to generate the PCR products. Both strands were sequenced directly with these primers and fluorescence-labelled dideoxynucleotides in an automated nucleic acid sequencer. Reference strains of pestiviruses [(BVDV type I, BVDV type II, border disease virus (BDV) and hog cholera virus (HCV)] and isolates from a previous investigation on BVDV in southern Africa were included for comparative purposes. All the BVDV strains obtained during this study belong to subgroups of BVDV genotype I. No association could be demonstrated between the geographic origin of the isolates. A number of isolates formed another branch separate from the existing branches Ia, Ib and Ic. These findings suggest that extensive genetic diversity can be found within BVDV type I isolates from southern Africa. Isolates that group with the classical BVDV type I strains, particularly of American origin, coexist with variants that appear to represent a local genetic pool and or variants evolving from the classical strains.
The Impact of the Bisubstituted Aromatics Functional Groups on the Inhibition of Methane Biosynthesis (Biogas)  [PDF]
Kalombo Kayembe, Lolofo Basosila, Pius T. Mpiana, Pole C. Sikulisimwa, Juliette K. Kabongo, Damien S. T. Tshibangu, Dorothée D. Tshilanda, Rigobertine K. Tati
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2012.24080

Inhibitory compounds are often found to be the leading cause of anaerobic reactor upset and failure since they are present in substantial concentration in wastewaters and organic solid wastes. Among these inhibitory compounds, organic compounds are mentioned and more especially aromatic compounds. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of bisubstituted aromatics functional groups on the methanogenic inhibition. The toxicity to acetoclastic methanogenic bacteria has performed in serum flasks, utilizing digested pig manure as inoculums, by measuring cumulative methane production. The results obtained indicate that some general relationships exist between the bisubstituted aromatic structures and their inhibitory effects on methanogenic bacteria. This demonstrates sufficiently that the grafting of hydrophobic or hydrophilic substituent on the benzene or monofunctional aromatic compound, make the obtained compound more or less toxic as the case and that in the same order of toxicity. A significant correlation was obtained indicating that the partitioning of bisubstituted aromatics into lipophilic membranes in bacteria may have a role in the inhibition of methane biosynthesis.

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